Wireless Power Transmission<br />Presented by<br />Rakesh K.K.<br />4NM07EC080<br />Department of Electronics and Communic...
Overview<br />What is wireless power transmission(WPT)?<br />Why is WPT?<br />History of WPT<br />Types of WPT<br />Techni...
What is WPT?<br />The transmission of energy from one place to another without using wires<br />Conventional energy transf...
Why not wires? <br />As per studies, most electrical energy transfer is through wires. <br />Most of the energy loss is du...
In India, it exceeds 40%</li></ul>26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />4<br />
Why WPT?<br />Reliable<br />Efficient<br />Fast<br />Low maintenance cost<br />Can be used for short-range or long-range.<...
History<br />Nikola Tesla in late 1890s<br />Pioneer of induction techniques<br />His vision for “World Wireless System”<b...
History (contd…)<br />Tesla was able to transfer energy from one coil to another coil<br />He managed to light 200 lamps f...
Energy Coupling<br />The transfer of energy<br />Magnetic coupling<br />Inductive coupling<br />Simplest Wireless Energy c...
Types and Technologies of WPT<br />Near-field techniques<br /><ul><li>Inductive Coupling
Resonant Inductive Coupling
Air Ionization</li></ul>Far-field techniques<br /><ul><li>Microwave Power Transmission (MPT)
LASER power transmission</li></ul>26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />9<br />
Inductive coupling <br />Primary and secondary coils are not connected with wires.<br />Energy transfer is due to Mutual I...
Inductive coupling (contd…)<br />Transformer is also an example<br />Energy transfer devices are usually air-cored<br />Wi...
Inductive coupling(contd…)<br />Electric brush also charges using inductive coupling<br />The charging pad (primary coil) ...
Resonance Inductive Coupling(RIC)<br />Combination of inductive coupling and resonance<br />Resonance makes two objects in...
How resonance in RIC?<br />Coil provides the inductance<br />Capacitor is connected parallel to the coil<br />Energy will ...
Block diagram of RIC<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />15<br />
An example<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />16<br />
WiTricity<br />Based on RIC<br />Led by MIT’s Marin Soljačić<br />Energy transfer wirelessly for a distance just more than...
WiTricity (contd…)<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />18<br />
WiTricity… Some statistics<br />Used frequencies are 1MHz and 10MHz<br />At 1Mhz, field strengths were safe for human<br /...
WiTricity now…<br />No more helical coils<br />Companies like Intel are also working on devices that make use of RIC<br />...
RIC vs. inductive coupling<br />RIC is highly efficient<br />RIC has much greater range than inductive coupling<br />RIC i...
Air Ionization<br />Toughest technique under near-field energy transfer techniques<br />Air ionizes only when there is a h...
Advantages of near-field techniques<br />No wires<br />No e-waste<br />Need for battery is eliminated<br />Efficient energ...
Disadvantages<br />Distance constraint<br />Field strengths have to be under safety levels<br />Initial cost is high<br />...
Far-field energy transfer<br />Radiative<br />Needs line-of-sight<br />LASER or microwave<br />Aims at high power transfer...
Microwave Power Transfer(MPT)<br />Transfers high power from one place to another.  Two places being in line of sight usua...
MP T (contd…)<br />AC can not be directly converted to microwave energy<br />AC is converted to DC first<br />DC is conver...
LASER transmission<br />LASER is highly directional, coherent<br />Not dispersed for very long<br />But, gets attenuated w...
Solar Power Satellites (SPS)	<br />To provide energy to earth’s increasing energy need<br />To efficiently make use of ren...
SPS (contd…)<br />Solar energy is captured using photocells<br />Each SPS may have 400 million photocells<br />Transmitted...
Rectenna<br />Stands for rectifying antenna<br />Consists of mesh of dipoles and diodes<br />Converts microwave to its DC ...
Rectenna in US<br />Rectenna in US receives 5000MW of power from SPS<br />It is about one and a half mile long<br />26-Aug...
Other projects<br />Alaska’21<br />Grand Bassin<br />Hawaii<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />33<br />
LASER vs. MPT<br />When LASER is used, the antenna sizes can be much smaller<br />Microwaves can face interference (two fr...
Advantages of far-field energy transfer<br />Efficient<br />Easy<br />Need for grids,  substations etc are eliminated<br /...
Disadvantages of far-field energy trasnfer<br />Radiative<br />Needs line-of-sight<br />Initial cost is high<br />When LAS...
Applications<br />Near-field energy transfer<br />Electric automobile charging<br />Static and moving<br />Consumer electr...
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Wireless power transmission

  1. 1. Wireless Power Transmission<br />Presented by<br />Rakesh K.K.<br />4NM07EC080<br />Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering<br />NMAM Institute of Technology, Nitte<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />What is wireless power transmission(WPT)?<br />Why is WPT?<br />History of WPT<br />Types of WPT<br />Techniques to transfer energy wirelessly<br />Advantages and disadvantages<br />Applications<br />Conclusion<br />References <br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />2<br />
  3. 3. What is WPT?<br />The transmission of energy from one place to another without using wires<br />Conventional energy transfer is using wires<br />But, the wireless transmission is made possible by using various technologies<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Why not wires? <br />As per studies, most electrical energy transfer is through wires. <br />Most of the energy loss is during transmission<br /><ul><li>On an average, more than 30%
  5. 5. In India, it exceeds 40%</li></ul>26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />4<br />
  6. 6. Why WPT?<br />Reliable<br />Efficient<br />Fast<br />Low maintenance cost<br />Can be used for short-range or long-range.<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />5<br />
  7. 7. History<br />Nikola Tesla in late 1890s<br />Pioneer of induction techniques<br />His vision for “World Wireless System”<br />The 187 feet tall tower to broadcast energy<br />All people can have access to free energy<br />Due to shortage of funds, tower did not operate<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />6<br />
  8. 8. History (contd…)<br />Tesla was able to transfer energy from one coil to another coil<br />He managed to light 200 lamps from a distance of 40km<br />The idea of Tesla is taken in to research after 100 years by a team led by Marin Soljačić from MIT. The project is named as ‘WiTricity’. <br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />7<br />
  9. 9. Energy Coupling<br />The transfer of energy<br />Magnetic coupling<br />Inductive coupling<br />Simplest Wireless Energy coupling is a transformer<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />8<br />
  10. 10. Types and Technologies of WPT<br />Near-field techniques<br /><ul><li>Inductive Coupling
  11. 11. Resonant Inductive Coupling
  12. 12. Air Ionization</li></ul>Far-field techniques<br /><ul><li>Microwave Power Transmission (MPT)
  13. 13. LASER power transmission</li></ul>26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />9<br />
  14. 14. Inductive coupling <br />Primary and secondary coils are not connected with wires.<br />Energy transfer is due to Mutual Induction<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />10<br />
  15. 15. Inductive coupling (contd…)<br />Transformer is also an example<br />Energy transfer devices are usually air-cored<br />Wireless Charging Pad(WCP),electric brushes are some examples<br />On a WCP, the devices are to be kept, battery will be automatically charged.<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />11<br />
  16. 16. Inductive coupling(contd…)<br />Electric brush also charges using inductive coupling<br />The charging pad (primary coil) and the device(secondary coil) have to be kept very near to each other<br />It is preferred because it is comfortable.<br />Less use of wires<br />Shock proof<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />12<br />
  17. 17. Resonance Inductive Coupling(RIC)<br />Combination of inductive coupling and resonance<br />Resonance makes two objects interact very strongly<br />Inductance induces current<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />13<br />
  18. 18. How resonance in RIC?<br />Coil provides the inductance<br />Capacitor is connected parallel to the coil<br />Energy will be shifting back and forth between magnetic field surrounding the coil and electric field around the capacitor<br />Radiation loss will be negligible<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />14<br />
  19. 19. Block diagram of RIC<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />15<br />
  20. 20. An example<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />16<br />
  21. 21. WiTricity<br />Based on RIC<br />Led by MIT’s Marin Soljačić<br />Energy transfer wirelessly for a distance just more than 2m. <br />Coils were in helical shape<br />No capacitor was used<br />Efficiency achieved was around 40%<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />17<br />
  22. 22. WiTricity (contd…)<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />18<br />
  23. 23. WiTricity… Some statistics<br />Used frequencies are 1MHz and 10MHz<br />At 1Mhz, field strengths were safe for human<br />At 10MHz, Field strengths were more than ICNIRP standards<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />19<br />
  24. 24. WiTricity now…<br />No more helical coils<br />Companies like Intel are also working on devices that make use of RIC<br />Researches for decreasing the field strength<br />Researches to increase the range<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />20<br />
  25. 25. RIC vs. inductive coupling<br />RIC is highly efficient<br />RIC has much greater range than inductive coupling<br />RIC is directional when compared to inductive coupling<br />RIC can be one-to-many. But usually inductive coupling is one-to-one<br />Devices using RIC technique are highly portable<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />21<br />
  26. 26. Air Ionization<br />Toughest technique under near-field energy transfer techniques<br />Air ionizes only when there is a high field<br />Needed field is 2.11MV/m<br />Natural example: Lightening<br />Not feasible for practical implementation<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />22<br />
  27. 27. Advantages of near-field techniques<br />No wires<br />No e-waste<br />Need for battery is eliminated<br />Efficient energy transfer using RIC<br />Harmless, if field strengths under safety levels<br />Maintenance cost is less<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />23<br />
  28. 28. Disadvantages<br />Distance constraint<br />Field strengths have to be under safety levels<br />Initial cost is high<br />In RIC, tuning is difficult<br />High frequency signals must be the supply<br />Air ionization technique is not feasible<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />24<br />
  29. 29. Far-field energy transfer<br />Radiative<br />Needs line-of-sight<br />LASER or microwave<br />Aims at high power transfer<br />Tesla’s tower was built for this<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />25<br />
  30. 30. Microwave Power Transfer(MPT)<br />Transfers high power from one place to another. Two places being in line of sight usually<br />Steps:<br />Electrical energy to microwave energy<br />Capturing microwaves using rectenna<br />Microwave energy to electrical energy<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />26<br />
  31. 31. MP T (contd…)<br />AC can not be directly converted to microwave energy<br />AC is converted to DC first<br />DC is converted to microwaves using magnetron<br />Transmitted waves are received at rectenna which rectifies, gives DC as the output<br />DC is converted back to AC<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />27<br />
  32. 32. LASER transmission<br />LASER is highly directional, coherent<br />Not dispersed for very long<br />But, gets attenuated when it propagates through atmosphere<br />Simple receiver<br />Photovoltaic cell<br />Cost-efficient<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />28<br />
  33. 33. Solar Power Satellites (SPS) <br />To provide energy to earth’s increasing energy need<br />To efficiently make use of renewable energy i.e., solar energy<br />SPS are placed in geostationary orbits<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />29<br />
  34. 34. SPS (contd…)<br />Solar energy is captured using photocells<br />Each SPS may have 400 million photocells<br />Transmitted to earth in the form of microwaves/LASER<br />Using rectenna/photovoltaic cell, the energy is converted to electrical energy<br />Efficiency exceeds 95% if microwave is used.<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />30<br />
  35. 35. Rectenna<br />Stands for rectifying antenna<br />Consists of mesh of dipoles and diodes<br />Converts microwave to its DC equivalent<br />Usually multi-element phased array<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />31<br />
  36. 36. Rectenna in US<br />Rectenna in US receives 5000MW of power from SPS<br />It is about one and a half mile long<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />32<br />
  37. 37. Other projects<br />Alaska’21<br />Grand Bassin<br />Hawaii<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />33<br />
  38. 38. LASER vs. MPT<br />When LASER is used, the antenna sizes can be much smaller<br />Microwaves can face interference (two frequencies can be used for WPT are 2.45GHz and 5.4GHz)<br />LASER has high attenuation loss and also it gets diffracted by atmospheric particles easily<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />34<br />
  39. 39. Advantages of far-field energy transfer<br />Efficient<br />Easy<br />Need for grids, substations etc are eliminated<br />Low maintenance cost<br />More effective when the transmitting and receiving points are along a line-of-sight<br />Can reach the places which are remote<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />35<br />
  40. 40. Disadvantages of far-field energy trasnfer<br />Radiative<br />Needs line-of-sight<br />Initial cost is high<br />When LASERs are used, <br />conversion is inefficient<br />Absorption loss is high<br />When microwaves are used, <br />interference may arise<br />FRIED BIRD effect<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />36<br />
  41. 41. Applications<br />Near-field energy transfer<br />Electric automobile charging<br />Static and moving<br />Consumer electronics<br />Industrial purposes<br />Harsh environment<br />Far-field energy transfer<br />Solar Power Satellites<br />Energy to remote areas<br />Can broadcast energy globally (in future)<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />37<br />
  42. 42. Conclusion<br />Transmission without wires- a reality<br />Efficient<br />Low maintenance cost. But, high initial cost<br />Better than conventional wired transfer<br />Energy crisis can be decreased<br />Low loss <br />In near future, world will be completely wireless<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />38<br />
  43. 43. References<br />S. Sheik Mohammed, K. Ramasamy, T. Shanmuganantham,” Wireless power transmission – a next generation power transmission system”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) (Volume 1 – No. 13) <br />Peter Vaessen,” Wireless Power Transmission”, Leonardo Energy, September 2009 <br />C.C. Leung, T.P. Chan, K.C. Lit, K.W. Tam and Lee Yi Chow, “Wireless Power Transmission and Charging Pad” <br />David Schneider, “Electrons unplugged”, IEEE Spectrum, May 2010 <br />ShahrzadJalaliMazlouman, AlirezaMahanfar, BozenaKaminska, “Mid-range Wireless Energy Transfer Using Inductive Resonance for Wireless Sensors” <br />Chunbo Zhu, Kai Liu, Chunlai Yu, Rui Ma, Hexiao Cheng, “Simulation and Experimental Analysis on Wireless Energy Transfer Based on Magnetic Resonances”, IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5, 2008 <br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />39<br />
  44. 44. References(contd…)<br />André Kurs, AristeidisKaralis, Robert Moffatt, J. D. Joannopoulos, Peter Fisher and Marin Soljačić, “Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances”, Science, June 2007 <br />T. R. Robinson, T. K. Yeoman and R. S. Dhillon, “Environmental impact of high power density microwave beams on different atmospheric layers”, <br />White Paper on Solar Power Satellite (SPS) Systems, URSI, September 2006 <br />Richard M. Dickinson, and Jerry Grey, “Lasers for Wireless Power Transmission” <br />S.S. Ahmed, T.W. Yeong and H.B. Ahmad, “Wireless power transmission and its annexure to the grid system” <br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />40<br />
  45. 45. THANK YOU!<br />26-Aug-10<br />Wireless Power Transmission<br />41<br />
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