Wireless power transmission
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Wireless power transmission Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Wireless Power Transmission
    Presented by
    Rakesh K.K.
    4NM07EC080
    Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
    NMAM Institute of Technology, Nitte
  • 2. Overview
    What is wireless power transmission(WPT)?
    Why is WPT?
    History of WPT
    Types of WPT
    Techniques to transfer energy wirelessly
    Advantages and disadvantages
    Applications
    Conclusion
    References
    26-Aug-10
    Wireless Power Transmission
    2
  • 3. What is WPT?
    The transmission of energy from one place to another without using wires
    Conventional energy transfer is using wires
    But, the wireless transmission is made possible by using various technologies
    26-Aug-10
    Wireless Power Transmission
    3
  • 4. Why not wires?
    As per studies, most electrical energy transfer is through wires.
    Most of the energy loss is during transmission
    • On an average, more than 30%
    • 5. In India, it exceeds 40%
    26-Aug-10
    Wireless Power Transmission
    4
  • 6. Why WPT?
    Reliable
    Efficient
    Fast
    Low maintenance cost
    Can be used for short-range or long-range.
    26-Aug-10
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  • 7. History
    Nikola Tesla in late 1890s
    Pioneer of induction techniques
    His vision for “World Wireless System”
    The 187 feet tall tower to broadcast energy
    All people can have access to free energy
    Due to shortage of funds, tower did not operate
    26-Aug-10
    Wireless Power Transmission
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  • 8. History (contd…)
    Tesla was able to transfer energy from one coil to another coil
    He managed to light 200 lamps from a distance of 40km
    The idea of Tesla is taken in to research after 100 years by a team led by Marin Soljačić from MIT. The project is named as ‘WiTricity’.
    26-Aug-10
    Wireless Power Transmission
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  • 9. Energy Coupling
    The transfer of energy
    Magnetic coupling
    Inductive coupling
    Simplest Wireless Energy coupling is a transformer
    26-Aug-10
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  • 10. Types and Technologies of WPT
    Near-field techniques
    • Inductive Coupling
    • 11. Resonant Inductive Coupling
    • 12. Air Ionization
    Far-field techniques
    • Microwave Power Transmission (MPT)
    • 13. LASER power transmission
    26-Aug-10
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  • 14. Inductive coupling
    Primary and secondary coils are not connected with wires.
    Energy transfer is due to Mutual Induction
    26-Aug-10
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  • 15. Inductive coupling (contd…)
    Transformer is also an example
    Energy transfer devices are usually air-cored
    Wireless Charging Pad(WCP),electric brushes are some examples
    On a WCP, the devices are to be kept, battery will be automatically charged.
    26-Aug-10
    Wireless Power Transmission
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  • 16. Inductive coupling(contd…)
    Electric brush also charges using inductive coupling
    The charging pad (primary coil) and the device(secondary coil) have to be kept very near to each other
    It is preferred because it is comfortable.
    Less use of wires
    Shock proof
    26-Aug-10
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    12
  • 17. Resonance Inductive Coupling(RIC)
    Combination of inductive coupling and resonance
    Resonance makes two objects interact very strongly
    Inductance induces current
    26-Aug-10
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  • 18. How resonance in RIC?
    Coil provides the inductance
    Capacitor is connected parallel to the coil
    Energy will be shifting back and forth between magnetic field surrounding the coil and electric field around the capacitor
    Radiation loss will be negligible
    26-Aug-10
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  • 19. Block diagram of RIC
    26-Aug-10
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  • 20. An example
    26-Aug-10
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  • 21. WiTricity
    Based on RIC
    Led by MIT’s Marin Soljačić
    Energy transfer wirelessly for a distance just more than 2m.
    Coils were in helical shape
    No capacitor was used
    Efficiency achieved was around 40%
    26-Aug-10
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  • 22. WiTricity (contd…)
    26-Aug-10
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  • 23. WiTricity… Some statistics
    Used frequencies are 1MHz and 10MHz
    At 1Mhz, field strengths were safe for human
    At 10MHz, Field strengths were more than ICNIRP standards
    26-Aug-10
    Wireless Power Transmission
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  • 24. WiTricity now…
    No more helical coils
    Companies like Intel are also working on devices that make use of RIC
    Researches for decreasing the field strength
    Researches to increase the range
    26-Aug-10
    Wireless Power Transmission
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  • 25. RIC vs. inductive coupling
    RIC is highly efficient
    RIC has much greater range than inductive coupling
    RIC is directional when compared to inductive coupling
    RIC can be one-to-many. But usually inductive coupling is one-to-one
    Devices using RIC technique are highly portable
    26-Aug-10
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  • 26. Air Ionization
    Toughest technique under near-field energy transfer techniques
    Air ionizes only when there is a high field
    Needed field is 2.11MV/m
    Natural example: Lightening
    Not feasible for practical implementation
    26-Aug-10
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  • 27. Advantages of near-field techniques
    No wires
    No e-waste
    Need for battery is eliminated
    Efficient energy transfer using RIC
    Harmless, if field strengths under safety levels
    Maintenance cost is less
    26-Aug-10
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  • 28. Disadvantages
    Distance constraint
    Field strengths have to be under safety levels
    Initial cost is high
    In RIC, tuning is difficult
    High frequency signals must be the supply
    Air ionization technique is not feasible
    26-Aug-10
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  • 29. Far-field energy transfer
    Radiative
    Needs line-of-sight
    LASER or microwave
    Aims at high power transfer
    Tesla’s tower was built for this
    26-Aug-10
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  • 30. Microwave Power Transfer(MPT)
    Transfers high power from one place to another. Two places being in line of sight usually
    Steps:
    Electrical energy to microwave energy
    Capturing microwaves using rectenna
    Microwave energy to electrical energy
    26-Aug-10
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  • 31. MP T (contd…)
    AC can not be directly converted to microwave energy
    AC is converted to DC first
    DC is converted to microwaves using magnetron
    Transmitted waves are received at rectenna which rectifies, gives DC as the output
    DC is converted back to AC
    26-Aug-10
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  • 32. LASER transmission
    LASER is highly directional, coherent
    Not dispersed for very long
    But, gets attenuated when it propagates through atmosphere
    Simple receiver
    Photovoltaic cell
    Cost-efficient
    26-Aug-10
    Wireless Power Transmission
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  • 33. Solar Power Satellites (SPS)
    To provide energy to earth’s increasing energy need
    To efficiently make use of renewable energy i.e., solar energy
    SPS are placed in geostationary orbits
    26-Aug-10
    Wireless Power Transmission
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  • 34. SPS (contd…)
    Solar energy is captured using photocells
    Each SPS may have 400 million photocells
    Transmitted to earth in the form of microwaves/LASER
    Using rectenna/photovoltaic cell, the energy is converted to electrical energy
    Efficiency exceeds 95% if microwave is used.
    26-Aug-10
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  • 35. Rectenna
    Stands for rectifying antenna
    Consists of mesh of dipoles and diodes
    Converts microwave to its DC equivalent
    Usually multi-element phased array
    26-Aug-10
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  • 36. Rectenna in US
    Rectenna in US receives 5000MW of power from SPS
    It is about one and a half mile long
    26-Aug-10
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  • 37. Other projects
    Alaska’21
    Grand Bassin
    Hawaii
    26-Aug-10
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    33
  • 38. LASER vs. MPT
    When LASER is used, the antenna sizes can be much smaller
    Microwaves can face interference (two frequencies can be used for WPT are 2.45GHz and 5.4GHz)
    LASER has high attenuation loss and also it gets diffracted by atmospheric particles easily
    26-Aug-10
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  • 39. Advantages of far-field energy transfer
    Efficient
    Easy
    Need for grids, substations etc are eliminated
    Low maintenance cost
    More effective when the transmitting and receiving points are along a line-of-sight
    Can reach the places which are remote
    26-Aug-10
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  • 40. Disadvantages of far-field energy trasnfer
    Radiative
    Needs line-of-sight
    Initial cost is high
    When LASERs are used,
    conversion is inefficient
    Absorption loss is high
    When microwaves are used,
    interference may arise
    FRIED BIRD effect
    26-Aug-10
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  • 41. Applications
    Near-field energy transfer
    Electric automobile charging
    Static and moving
    Consumer electronics
    Industrial purposes
    Harsh environment
    Far-field energy transfer
    Solar Power Satellites
    Energy to remote areas
    Can broadcast energy globally (in future)
    26-Aug-10
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  • 42. Conclusion
    Transmission without wires- a reality
    Efficient
    Low maintenance cost. But, high initial cost
    Better than conventional wired transfer
    Energy crisis can be decreased
    Low loss
    In near future, world will be completely wireless
    26-Aug-10
    Wireless Power Transmission
    38
  • 43. References
    S. Sheik Mohammed, K. Ramasamy, T. Shanmuganantham,” Wireless power transmission – a next generation power transmission system”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) (Volume 1 – No. 13)
    Peter Vaessen,” Wireless Power Transmission”, Leonardo Energy, September 2009
    C.C. Leung, T.P. Chan, K.C. Lit, K.W. Tam and Lee Yi Chow, “Wireless Power Transmission and Charging Pad”
    David Schneider, “Electrons unplugged”, IEEE Spectrum, May 2010
    ShahrzadJalaliMazlouman, AlirezaMahanfar, BozenaKaminska, “Mid-range Wireless Energy Transfer Using Inductive Resonance for Wireless Sensors”
    Chunbo Zhu, Kai Liu, Chunlai Yu, Rui Ma, Hexiao Cheng, “Simulation and Experimental Analysis on Wireless Energy Transfer Based on Magnetic Resonances”, IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), September 3-5, 2008
    26-Aug-10
    Wireless Power Transmission
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  • 44. References(contd…)
    André Kurs, AristeidisKaralis, Robert Moffatt, J. D. Joannopoulos, Peter Fisher and Marin Soljačić, “Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances”, Science, June 2007
    T. R. Robinson, T. K. Yeoman and R. S. Dhillon, “Environmental impact of high power density microwave beams on different atmospheric layers”,
    White Paper on Solar Power Satellite (SPS) Systems, URSI, September 2006
    Richard M. Dickinson, and Jerry Grey, “Lasers for Wireless Power Transmission”
    S.S. Ahmed, T.W. Yeong and H.B. Ahmad, “Wireless power transmission and its annexure to the grid system”
    26-Aug-10
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  • 45. THANK YOU!
    26-Aug-10
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