Monopulseradar

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  • 1. H.P
    MONOPULSERADAR
    PHANI RAHUL G K CHAITANYA DONEPUDI
  • 2. INTRODUCTION
    Basic operating principle
    Tracking radars
    Techniques of target detection
    Examples of monopulse radar systems
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    2
  • 3. RADIO DETECTION AND RANGING
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    3
    • OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM
    • 4. USES ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES TO IDENTIFY TARGET CHARACTERISTICS
    • 5. RADAR CAN FUNCTION UNDER CONDITIONS IMPERVIOUS TO OPTICAL AND INFRARED SENSORS
  • RADAR FUNCTIONS
    NORMAL RADAR FUNCTIONS
    Range (from pulse delay)
    Velocity (from Doppler frequency shift)
    Azimuth and Elevation (from antenna pointing)
    SIGNATURE ANALYSIS and INVERSE SCATTERING
    Target size (from magnitude of return)
    Target shape and components (return as a function of direction)
    Moving parts (modulation of the return)
    Material composition
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    4
  • 6. SLANT RANGE
    5
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    P
    DISTANCE TO TARGET = DT
    (SLANT RANGE)
    DT
    E
    N
    ANTENNA ROTATION
    O
    S
    W
  • 7. AZIMUTH ANGLE
    6
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    P
    AZIMUTH ANGLE = AT
    DT
    AT = NOPI
    PI
    E
    TRUE
    NORTH
    N
    AT
    ANTENNA ROTATION
    O
    S
    W
  • 8. ELEVATION ANGLE
    7
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    H.P
    P
    DT
    ANGLE OF ELEVATION = ET
    PI
    E
    N
    ET = 0PPI
    ANTENNA ROTATION
    O
    S
    W
  • 9. TRACKING RADAR
    Measures the coordinates and provides data to determine target path
    Tracking can be performed in range, angle and doppler
    Classified into two types
    Continuous tracking radar
    Track-While-Scan radar
    Acquisition radar designates targets to the tracking radar
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    8
  • 10. TRACKINGRADAR
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    9
  • 11. TRACKING RADAR
    Error signal generating methods
    Sequential lobing
    Conical scan
    Simultaneous lobing (monopulse)
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    10
  • 12. SEQUENTIAL LOBING
    Two lobes are required to track in each axis, each lobe must be sequentially switched four pulses are required
    The radar measures the returned signal levels
    The voltages in the two switched position should be equal
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    11
  • 13. SEQUENTIAL LOBING
    12
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
  • 14. CONICAL SCAN
    13
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    • The antenna is continuously rotated at an offset angle.
    • 15. Redirection of beam
    • 16. Rotating feed
    • 17. Nutating feed
  • CONICAL SCAN
    14
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    All target returns have the same amplitude
    (zero error signal)
    Thus, no action is required
  • 18. CONICAL SCAN
    15
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    B
    A
  • 19. DISADVANTAGES
    16
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    Sequential lobing
    Angle accuracy can be no better than the size of the antenna beamwidth.
    Variation in echo strength on a pulse-by-pulse basis changes the signal level thereby reducing tracking accuracy
    The antenna gain is less than the peak gain in beam axis direction, reducing maximum range that can be measured
    Conical scan
    The antenna scan rate is limited by the scanning mechanism (mechanical or electronic)
    Sensitive to target modulation
    Mechanical vibration and wear and tear due to rotating feed
  • 20. SIMULTANEOUS LOBING
    With a single pulse angular coordinates can be obtained
    Maximum unambiguous range is limited only by PRF
    Monopulse is free of mechanical vibrations
    Errors due to amplitude fluctuation of target echoes are greatly reduced
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    17
  • 21. MONOPULSE BLOCK DIAGRAM
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    18
  • 22. SUM AND DIFFERENCE PATTERNS
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    19
  • 23. HYBRID JUNCTIONS
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    20
    Hybrid T junction
    Hybrid ring (‘RAT’ race junction)
  • 24. AMPLITUDE AND PHASE COMPARISON MONOPULSE
    A total of four hybrid junctions generate sum, azimuth and elevation difference channel
    Range information is extracted form the output of the sum channel after amplitude detection
    The angular error signal is obtained by comparing echo amplitudes which actuates a servo mechanism to position the antenna
    The angle of arrival is determined by comparing the phase difference between signals from two separate antennas
    Antennas of phase comparison are not offset from the axis
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    21
  • 25. COMPARISON OF TRACKERS
    In phase comparison four antennas are placed in awkward direction and its side lobe levels are high
    Sequential lobing suffers more losses with complex antenna and feed system
    Amplitude comparison has high SNR
    It has higher precision in target tracking due to the absence of target amplitude fluctuations
    Angle error in two coordinates can be obtained by a single pulse
    Conscan integrates no of pulses and then extracts angle measurement but vice versa in monopulse
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    22
  • 26. NIKE AJAX GUIDANCE SYSTEM
    First missile guidance system to employ monopulse technique
    Developed in 1953
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    23
  • 27. PATRIOT AIR DEFENCE SYSTEM
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    24
  • 28. CONCLUSION
    It is used if extreme accuracy is needed
    Its improved interference immunity, resolution, radar signal processing and angular accuracy made it imperative in all modern missile tracking/guidance systems
    "MONOPULSE RADAR " by
    Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi
    25
    THANKYOU
    QUERIES?