“ War is permeated by technology to the point that every single element is either governed by or at least linked to it….”
-- Martin Van Crevald
A Guided missile is a self propelled, pilotless controlled flight vehicle that is guided to its target by guidance and control equipments which can be inbuilt or externally assisted
1200 AD- China invents rockets.
1448- Korea builds the world’s first multi missile launcher.
1798- Tipu sultan of India uses the iron rockets against the British.
1803- British army develops Congreve Rockets.
1926- Robert Goddard launches the first liquid fueled rockets.
1939- First multiple rocket launcher systems were developed by soviet.
1942- germany tests the first cruise missile the V-2 MISSILE.
1957- The USSR launches its first Inter Continental Ballistic Missile R-7.
Guided missiles have various system components:
Targeting guidance system
Missiles may be targeted in various ways. The most common method is to use some form of radiation to guide the missile onto its target.
The guidance systems are of the fillowing types:
LASER guided missile systems.
IR (Infra Red) guided missile systems.
RADAR guided missile systems.
SatelliteGPS guided missile systems.
LASER GUIDED MISSILES
LASER guided munitions use a laser designator to mark the target. The reflected laser light from the target is then detected by the seeker head of the weapon which sends signals to the weapon’s control surfaces to guide it towards the designated point.
LASER seeker of a laser guided missile
BOLT-117 GBU-10 laser-guided bomb
DAGR LASER guided missile (UAV’s)
INFRA RED GUIDED MISSILES
Infra Red guided missiles or heat seeking missiles home on the heat produced by an aircraft or the target. This heat can be produced from the exhausts, intake or the body of the aircraft which is in constant friction with the air.
Modern infrared missiles use an “imaging” infrared seeker which sees the target much like a video camera
Maks heat seeking missile
RADAR GUIDED MISSILES
A RADAR guided missile is a type of anti aircraft missile that uses reflected radar energy to guide itself towards the target. They may be launched from air or surface to engage targets at very long range
There are basically of two types:
Passive guidance: only a reciever.
Active guidance: both emitter and reciever.
SATELLITEGPS GUIDED MISSILES
These are the most advanced precision guided systems available. GPS guided systems are used where the location of the target is expected to remain fixed for the duration of planning and execution of the attack.
GPS guided weapons are provided with an integral multi channel GPS reciever and Inertial Measurement unit (IMU) which monitors the weapon’s location and altitude to adjust is flight path to accurately impact on the target.
GPS GUIDED MISSILES
The most effective and most efficient kind of precision weapons.
The missile’s computer uses GPS signals to steer itself towards a target’s coordinates, and inertial navigation (velocity-measuring gyroscopes) if for some reason GPS fails (i.e. GPS jamming)
The most common type of satellite-guided weapon: JDAM
Precision-guided weapons, especially those equipped with GPS technology, have greatly improved the military’s strike capabilities and reduced many of the difficulties of war.
Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)
(http://www.fas.org) TARGETTING SYSTEMS Targeting systems are the systems which are integrated with the guidance system and help to locate the target. Targeting systems also help in finding the difference between an enemy aircraft and a friendly force.
ATRU ( Automatic Target Recognition Unit) Advanced Targeting Pod
Missile Computer And Servo Controller FLIGHT SYSTEM The flight system uses the Data from the targeting or guidance system to maneuver the flight , allowing it to counter inaccuracies in the missile or to follow a moving Target. Torque Vectoring Systems
Missiles are powered by an engine, generally a rocket or jet engine. Rocket engines are of the solid fuel type for ease of maintenance and faster deployment. Although larger missiles use liquid fueled rockets.
Jet engines are generally used in cruise missiles most commonly of the turbojet types due to its simplicity
AXIAL FLOW TURBOJET ENGINE
SOLID PROPELLED ROCKET ENGINE
The Warhead of a missile provides the primary destructive power of the weapon warheads are most commonly of the high explosive types often employing metallic fragmented pellets which cause extensive damage to the ground units.
Other Warheads includes sub munitions, incendiaries, nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
EFFECT OF SUB MUNITIONS AND FRAGMENTED WARHEADS
Better communication and cohesion among troops.
Surgical operations: no need of full scale operation
Less casualties due to reduced human involvement
Speed: rapid transport of warheads.
Better intelligence information.
They require smarter complex softwares.
Design must be bug free.
Smoke and clouds influence the efficiency.
Advanced automatic detect and track systems.
Future smart weapons must be able to
identify threats targets.
Determine the course of action
Aim fire and reload on its own
UNMANNED AREAL VEHICLE
ANTI TANK GUIDED MISSILES
Video or infrared camera relays information to plane, where remote operator steers bomb towards target
Camera keeps target in center of display – automatically directs bomb through air
Developed by U.S. and Germans in WWII, used primarily in Korea and Vietnam