Explanation for the Semantic WebRakebul Hasan
Explanation in the Semantic Web What’s been done (existing work) What’s ahead (perspective)Wimmics Seminar                ...
What is explanation and why do we need it?Wimmics Seminar                               6/8/2012 - 2
Tim Berners-Lee was born in London                  http://www.academiawiki.com/Wimmics Seminar                           ...
Tim Berners-Lee was born in London                  http://www.academiawiki.com/                                          ...
Tim Berners-Lee was born in London                  http://www.academiawiki.com/                                          ...
Tim Berners-Lee was born in London                  http://www.academiawiki.com/                                          ...
Tim Berners-Lee was born in London                  http://www.academiawiki.com/                                          ...
TimBernersLee             Tim Berners-Lee was born in London                  http://www.academiawiki.com/                ...
TimBernersLee                                        birthPlace                             rdf:type                      ...
TimBernersLee                                   Scientist                                   rdf:type          rdfs:subClas...
TimBernersLee                                     Scientist                                   rdf:type            rdfs:sub...
TimBernersLee                                     Scientist                                        rdf:type               ...
TimBernersLee                                        Scientist                                        rdf:type            ...
TimBernersLee                                        Scientist                                             rdf:type       ...
Tim Berners-Lee is a ScientistTim Berners-Lee was born in United Kingdom            Wimmics Seminar                  6/8/2...
Tim Berners-Lee is a Computer Scientist                                               http://www.academiawiki.com/        ...
Tim Berners-Lee is a Computer Scientist                                               http://www.academiawiki.com/        ...
“Oh, yeah?” button to support users in assessing the     reliability of information encountered on the Web                ...
What’s been doneWimmics Seminar                      6/8/2012 - 19
What is explained? Who are the targets? How explanations are presented?Wimmics Seminar                    6/8/2012 - 20
What is explained? • Information manipulation steps     • Information manipulation operations • Proof tree of derivations ...
Target • Human users     • Natural language explanation     • Graphical explanation • Software agents     • Machine readab...
How explanations are presented? How explanations are represented for machines? How human users interact with explanations?...
Presentation                  WIQA [Bizer, 2007]Wimmics Seminar                        6/8/2012 - 24
Presentation                  KiWi [Kotowski and Bry, 2010]Wimmics Seminar                                   6/8/2012 - 25
Presentation                  KiWi [Kotowski and Bry, 2010]Wimmics Seminar                                   6/8/2012 - 26
Presentation     Explaining entailments in OWL ontologies [Horridgeet al., 2008]Wimmics Seminar                           ...
PresentationInference Web [McGuinnesset al. (a), 2003] [McGuinnesset al. (b), 2006] [McGuinnesset al. (c), 2008]   Wimmics...
Presentation                  EASD/KOIOS [Forcheret al., 2010]Wimmics Seminar                                      6/8/201...
Presentation                  EASD/KOIOS [Forcheret al., 2010]Wimmics Seminar                                      6/8/201...
Metadata representation • Proof trees for answers • Operations used to compute answers • Different types of provenance inf...
Metadata representation • Proof Markup Language (PML) Ontology     • Proof interlingua     • Justifications: information m...
Metadata representationWimmics Seminar           6/8/2012 - 33
Metadata representation              Accountability In RDF (AIR) [Kagalet al., 2011]Wimmics Seminar                       ...
Metadata representation • KOIOS     • KOIOS Process Language (KPL) for describing the     behavior of KOIOS problem solver...
Metadata representation EXPL: WIQA describes its explanation trees (parts and     subparts of an explanation) using the Ex...
Interaction • Navigation • Follow-upWimmics Seminar   6/8/2012 - 37
InteractionWimmics Seminar   6/8/2012 - 38
InteractionWimmics Seminar   6/8/2012 - 39
Trust • Inference Web     • PML Trust vocabulary     • Trust explanationWimmics Seminar               6/8/2012 - 40
TrustWimmics Seminar   6/8/2012 - 41
What’s aheadWimmics Seminar                  6/8/2012 - 42
Infrastructure • Accommodating common data publishing principle     • Publishing explanation metadata along with data     ...
Target • Level of user expertise should be taken into account     while providing explanation     • User profilingWimmics ...
What is explained? • Semantic Web applications use distributed     interconnected data in their reasoning process     • Ex...
Metadata representation • Blank nodes are not good • Granularity • Provenance • InteroperabilityWimmics Seminar           ...
Metadata representationWimmics Seminar           6/8/2012 - 47
r4ta:Assertion                             prov:specializationOfprov:Entity    r4ta:DirectAssertion      r4ta:antecedent  ...
Presentation • User expertise     • What’s useful and what’s overwhelming?     • Context-aware data consumptionWimmics Sem...
Presentation SummarizationWimmics Seminar   6/8/2012 - 50
Presentation SummarizationWimmics Seminar   6/8/2012 - 51
Interaction • What kind of interactions are useful need to be     understood • How to interact established trust?Wimmics S...
Trust • How explanation influence trust in the Semantic Web? • How to capture established trust and reason over it? • Expl...
Trust “If someone trusts a large company such as IBM, and IBM     brands other companies as ethical, then the person will ...
geo:about_london<geo:london><voc:isPartOf><geo:England>.<geo:london><rdfs:label> “London”@en.<geo:london><voc:population> ...
geo:about_london<geo:london><voc:isPartOf><geo:England>.<geo:london><rdfs:label> “London”@en.<geo:london><voc:population> ...
geo:about_london<geo:london><voc:isPartOf><geo:England>.                                                       •Explicit e...
geo:about_london<geo:london><voc:isPartOf><geo:England>.                                                       •Explicit e...
Please see the research report RR-7974 for the list of references:                      http://hal.inria.fr/hal-00702277  ...
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Explanation for the Semantic Web

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  • Unlike expert systems, the Web is an open and distributed system with users with different level of expertise
  • Explanation for the Semantic Web

    1. 1. Explanation for the Semantic WebRakebul Hasan
    2. 2. Explanation in the Semantic Web What’s been done (existing work) What’s ahead (perspective)Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 1
    3. 3. What is explanation and why do we need it?Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 2
    4. 4. Tim Berners-Lee was born in London http://www.academiawiki.com/Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 3
    5. 5. Tim Berners-Lee was born in London http://www.academiawiki.com/ London is in England http://www.geolocationwiki.com/Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 4
    6. 6. Tim Berners-Lee was born in London http://www.academiawiki.com/ London is in England http://www.geolocationwiki.com/ Computer Scientists are Scientists http://www.vocabularywiki.com/Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 5
    7. 7. Tim Berners-Lee was born in London http://www.academiawiki.com/ London is in England http://www.geolocationwiki.com/ Computer Scientists are Scientists http://www.vocabularywiki.com/ Tim Berners-Lee is a Computer Scientist http://www.academiawiki.com/Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 6
    8. 8. Tim Berners-Lee was born in London http://www.academiawiki.com/ London is in England http://www.geolocationwiki.com/ Computer Scientists are Scientists http://www.vocabularywiki.com/ Tim Berners-Lee is a Computer Scientist http://www.academiawiki.com/ England is part of United Kingdom http://www.geolocationwiki.com/Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 7
    9. 9. TimBernersLee Tim Berners-Lee was born in London http://www.academiawiki.com/ birthPlace rdf:type London is in England London http://www.geolocationwiki.com/ Scientist Computer Scientists are Scientists http://www.vocabularywiki.com/ rdfs:subClassOf ComputerScientist Tim Berners-Lee is a Computer Scientist isPartOf http://www.academiawiki.com/ UnitedKingdom England is part of United Kingdom http://www.geolocationwiki.com/ isPartOfWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 8
    10. 10. TimBernersLee birthPlace rdf:type London Scientist rdfs:subClassOf ComputerScientist isPartOf England UnitedKingdom isPartOfWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 9
    11. 11. TimBernersLee Scientist rdf:type rdfs:subClassOf birthPlace ComputerScientist London UnitedKingdom isPartOf isPartOf EnglandWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 10
    12. 12. TimBernersLee Scientist rdf:type rdfs:subClassOf birthPlace ComputerScientist London UnitedKingdom isPartOf isPartOf England App • Reasoning • RDFS/OWL • RulesWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 11
    13. 13. TimBernersLee Scientist rdf:type rdf:type rdfs:subClassOf birthPlace ComputerScientist isPartOf London UnitedKingdom isPartOf isPartOf England App • Reasoning • RDFS/OWL • RulesWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 12
    14. 14. TimBernersLee Scientist rdf:type rdf:type rdfs:subClassOf birthPlace ComputerScientist birthPlace birthPlace isPartOf London UnitedKingdom isPartOf isPartOf England App • Reasoning • RDFS/OWL • RulesWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 13
    15. 15. TimBernersLee Scientist rdf:type rdf:type rdfs:subClassOf birthPlace ComputerScientist birthPlace birthPlace isPartOf London UnitedKingdom isPartOf isPartOf EnglandScientists born in United Kingdom? App • ReasoningAnswer: Tim Berners-Lee • RDFS/OWL • Rules Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 14
    16. 16. Tim Berners-Lee is a ScientistTim Berners-Lee was born in United Kingdom Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 15
    17. 17. Tim Berners-Lee is a Computer Scientist http://www.academiawiki.com/ Computer Scientists are Scientists http://www.vocabularywiki.com/ Tim Berners-Lee is a ScientistTim Berners-Lee was born in United Kingdom Tim Berners-Lee was born in England England is part of United Kingdom http://www.geolocationwiki.com/ Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 16
    18. 18. Tim Berners-Lee is a Computer Scientist http://www.academiawiki.com/ Computer Scientists are Scientists http://www.vocabularywiki.com/ Tim Berners-Lee is a Scientist Tim Berners-Lee was born in LondonTim Berners-Lee was born in United Kingdom http://www.academiawiki.com/ London is in England Tim Berners-Lee was born in England http://www.geolocationwiki.com/ England is part of United Kingdom http://www.geolocationwiki.com/ Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 17
    19. 19. “Oh, yeah?” button to support users in assessing the reliability of information encountered on the Web - Tim Berners-LeeWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 18
    20. 20. What’s been doneWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 19
    21. 21. What is explained? Who are the targets? How explanations are presented?Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 20
    22. 22. What is explained? • Information manipulation steps • Information manipulation operations • Proof tree of derivations • Provenance information such as How, When, Who, WhereWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 21
    23. 23. Target • Human users • Natural language explanation • Graphical explanation • Software agents • Machine readable descriptionsWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 22
    24. 24. How explanations are presented? How explanations are represented for machines? How human users interact with explanations? TrustWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 23
    25. 25. Presentation WIQA [Bizer, 2007]Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 24
    26. 26. Presentation KiWi [Kotowski and Bry, 2010]Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 25
    27. 27. Presentation KiWi [Kotowski and Bry, 2010]Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 26
    28. 28. Presentation Explaining entailments in OWL ontologies [Horridgeet al., 2008]Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 27
    29. 29. PresentationInference Web [McGuinnesset al. (a), 2003] [McGuinnesset al. (b), 2006] [McGuinnesset al. (c), 2008] Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 28
    30. 30. Presentation EASD/KOIOS [Forcheret al., 2010]Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 29
    31. 31. Presentation EASD/KOIOS [Forcheret al., 2010]Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 30
    32. 32. Metadata representation • Proof trees for answers • Operations used to compute answers • Different types of provenance information • Models for how explanations should be presented to human users • Trust related informationWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 31
    33. 33. Metadata representation • Proof Markup Language (PML) Ontology • Proof interlingua • Justifications: information manipulation steps and operations • Provenance information • Trust informationWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 32
    34. 34. Metadata representationWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 33
    35. 35. Metadata representation Accountability In RDF (AIR) [Kagalet al., 2011]Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 34
    36. 36. Metadata representation • KOIOS • KOIOS Process Language (KPL) for describing the behavior of KOIOS problem solver • The Mathematical Graph Language (MGL) for transforming the process model to a graph based view. • VGL for describing the visualization modelWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 35
    37. 37. Metadata representation EXPL: WIQA describes its explanation trees (parts and subparts of an explanation) using the Explanation (EXPL) VocabularyWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 36
    38. 38. Interaction • Navigation • Follow-upWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 37
    39. 39. InteractionWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 38
    40. 40. InteractionWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 39
    41. 41. Trust • Inference Web • PML Trust vocabulary • Trust explanationWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 40
    42. 42. TrustWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 41
    43. 43. What’s aheadWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 42
    44. 44. Infrastructure • Accommodating common data publishing principle • Publishing explanation metadata along with data using linked data principles • Addressing heterogeneous and distributed nature of the Web promoting interoperability • W3C PROV-DM data model as an interchange data modelWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 43
    45. 45. Target • Level of user expertise should be taken into account while providing explanation • User profilingWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 44
    46. 46. What is explained? • Semantic Web applications use distributed interconnected data in their reasoning process • Explaining network of data used in the reasoning process, flow of information • How explanations exposing problem solving methods influence security and confidentiality?Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 45
    47. 47. Metadata representation • Blank nodes are not good • Granularity • Provenance • InteroperabilityWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 46
    48. 48. Metadata representationWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 47
    49. 49. r4ta:Assertion prov:specializationOfprov:Entity r4ta:DirectAssertion r4ta:antecedent r4ta:InferredAssertion prov:Trace r4ta:Justification prov:ProvenanceContainer prov:Plan prov:Account r4ta:InferenceRule prov:hadPlan prov:traceTo r4ta:inferredByRule r4ta:justifies prov:qualifiedTrace prov:Activity Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 48
    50. 50. Presentation • User expertise • What’s useful and what’s overwhelming? • Context-aware data consumptionWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 49
    51. 51. Presentation SummarizationWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 50
    52. 52. Presentation SummarizationWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 51
    53. 53. Interaction • What kind of interactions are useful need to be understood • How to interact established trust?Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 52
    54. 54. Trust • How explanation influence trust in the Semantic Web? • How to capture established trust and reason over it? • Explaining trust itselfWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 53
    55. 55. Trust “If someone trusts a large company such as IBM, and IBM brands other companies as ethical, then the person will trust those companies, too” – Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the WebWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 54
    56. 56. geo:about_london<geo:london><voc:isPartOf><geo:England>.<geo:london><rdfs:label> “London”@en.<geo:london><voc:population> “7825200”^^xsd:integer.<geo:london><voc:lat> “51.50853”^^xsd:decimal.<geo:london><voc:long> “-0.12574”^^xsd:decimal.Wimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 55
    57. 57. geo:about_london<geo:london><voc:isPartOf><geo:England>.<geo:london><rdfs:label> “London”@en.<geo:london><voc:population> “7825200”^^xsd:integer.<geo:london><voc:lat> “51.50853”^^xsd:decimal.<geo:london><voc:long> “-0.12574”^^xsd:decimal. endorses trustWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 56
    58. 58. geo:about_london<geo:london><voc:isPartOf><geo:England>. •Explicit endorsements<geo:london><rdfs:label> “London”@en. •Incoming links: owl:sameAs<geo:london><voc:population> “7825200”^^xsd:integer.<geo:london><voc:lat> “51.50853”^^xsd:decimal.<geo:london><voc:long> “-0.12574”^^xsd:decimal. endorses trustWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 57
    59. 59. geo:about_london<geo:london><voc:isPartOf><geo:England>. •Explicit endorsements<geo:london><rdfs:label> “London”@en. •Incoming links: owl:sameAs<geo:london><voc:population> “7825200”^^xsd:integer.<geo:london><voc:lat> “51.50853”^^xsd:decimal.<geo:london><voc:long> “-0.12574”^^xsd:decimal. •Explanation of trust and endorsement network endorses trustWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 58
    60. 60. Please see the research report RR-7974 for the list of references: http://hal.inria.fr/hal-00702277 Thank youWimmics Seminar 6/8/2012 - 59
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