Smart systems for energy management

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The presentations describes how smart engineering systems are to play a major role in energy systems of today and tomrrow.

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Smart systems for energy management

  1. 1. Smart Systems for Energy Management Dr. R S Shekhawat rajveer1957@hotmail.com
  2. 2. What is ‘Smart’? • Oxford dictionary: (Of a device/System) programmed so as to be capable of some independent action. • Example: Smart Transmitters have capability of: – Configuration – Re-ranging/auto-calibration – Standalone/independent [communication] – Signal conditioning – Self-diagnosis Note: The above arguments can be extended to systems.
  3. 3. Example 1 Smart Transmitters have capability of: – Configuration – Re-ranging/auto-calibration – Standalone/independent [communication] – Signal conditioning – Self-diagnosis
  4. 4. Additional benefits derived out of its’ smartness • Ease of installation and communication, • Self-diagnosis, • improved readability and reliability. • Less subject to effects of temperature and humidity than analog devices. • although vibration can still affect them, the effects are far less than with analog devices. • Smart [transmitters] also provide increased accuracy. • And because can replace several different types of devices, using them allows for inventory reduction.
  5. 5. Requisite Capabilities for smartness for a system Inherently transparent: all the functionality of the system be exposed to the external world by incorporating an information gathering and storage system (computing engine: CE). This can be done by • Sensors to acquire operating parameters and feed these to the internal CE • Processing of primary data to extract useful information for sharing with its overarching system • Communication subsystems for timely and efficiently with sufficient security mechanism
  6. 6. Smart Energy Eco-System
  7. 7. Smart Grid The "smart grid" has come to describe a next-generation electrical power system that is typified by the increased use of communications and information technology in the generation, delivery and consumption of electrical energy. Its main components which also need smartness are: 1. Sources of power: power plants (thermal, solar, wind, Hydro etc. 2. Transmission and Distribution Network 3. Consumption points (homes, commercial, industry etc.) 4. IT infrastructure
  8. 8. Smart Grid Goals Sustainable, Secure, Environmentally Safe Energy • Reduce utility operating costs • Improve grid reliability • Increase energy efficiency – Overall demand reduction – Reduce end-to-end system losses – Peak demand shifting (C&I, residential) – Soft” consumer-driven “demand response” – Verifiable, centrally controlled demand response • “Integrate renewable generation – Intermittent, bulk generation – Distributed Renewable Generation (DRG) • Support electric transportation transition – Commercial and personal vehicles (PHEV)
  9. 9. Smart Grid Infrastructure • Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) – Smart meters and associated hardware installations • Electric Vehicle (EV) Management Systems – Both in-home and distributed charging infrastructure • Distribution Automation (DA) systems – Communications, sensors, equipment for distribution – optimization and management • Substation Automation (SA) – Intelligent substation components and communications • Transmission System Upgrades – High-voltage lines, FACTS equipment, and related – communications gear
  10. 10. Power Sources • Use SCADA systems to monitor and control the operations • The SCADA computers are connected over IP network • All the operational and supervisory parameters of plants can be easily monitored remotely
  11. 11. The Transmission and Distribution Grid • Grid meters are installed at interconnecting points of various sub-grids so as to monitor power borrowed or lent • Grid meters are also installed at end points of the grids such as inflow of power from plants. • These grid meters are embedded systems which can monitor the energy flow at various time along with its quality. • This information is accessed by the utility or distribution agency to monitor the energy flows and health of the power system.
  12. 12. End Users • Smart Homes • Smart Buildings • Smart Industries
  13. 13. Advanced Metering Infrastructure • Smart meters • Communication sub-system (Home Area Network) • In-home Display device • Smart appliances
  14. 14. Design attributes for smart meters • Convert consumption in digital values, store & display (The conversion must be high resolution (few ml)) • Have good local amount of memory for local storage (upto a month) • Flag/log different type of events (e.g. excess usage) • Event-driven communications with minimum delay • Inbuilt self diagnosis • Auto-calibration • Stop/resume flow switch
  15. 15. The desired behaviour of a Smart Meter • Record the consumption with best possible accuracy • Report energy consumption at any interval & on excessive consumption • Elicit behavior of consumption patterns • Correlate consumption rates with appliances in house • Govern consumption by set limits (prepay mode) • Raise alerts/alarms for tampers • Remotely readable and controllable (tariff and supply) • Improved revenue collection with lower overheads
  16. 16. Communication systems (Home Area Network) • Wired or wireless • DLMS • Metering Bus (Mbus) • ZWave • Bluetooth • ZigBee • Wi-Fi • GSM/GPRS • Mesh Radio
  17. 17. Smart Meters and IHD
  18. 18. Smart Appliances • Smart Appliances offer energy management links to HAN or internet • In the United States, ARRA stimulus initiatives driving some key pilots • Some major vendors (LG, Whirlpool, GE) providing early units • Standards for HAN connectivity moving toward ZigBee and HomePlug • Market likely to be slowed by slow HAN adoption by utilities
  19. 19. Smart Home
  20. 20. © Secure Meters Ltd
  21. 21. Thanks

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