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Interview Questions

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Some Important Questions during Interviews

Some Important Questions during Interviews


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  • 1. INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR IT HARDWARE What is the difference between Windows XP Professional Edition and Windows XP Home Edition? Although the XP Pro and Home Editions share the same common core code, they don't have the same features. The right version for you depends on the functionality you need. Think of XP Pro as a superset of XP Home. Below is a short list of supported features: Backup—XP Pro has the standard Win2K backup program; XP Home has no backup program. Dynamic Disks—XP Pro supports dynamic disks; XP Home doesn't. IIS—XP Pro includes IIS; XP Home doesn't. Encrypted File System (EFS)—EFS debuted in Win2K and lets you encrypt files on an NTFS partition, a very useful feature for mobile machines. XP Pro includes EFS; XP Home doesn't. Multiprocessor—XP Pro supports up to two processors; XP Home supports only one (as did Windows Me/Win98). Remote Assistance—Both editions support Remote Assistance, which lets someone from a Help desk connect to the client desktop to troubleshoot problems. Remote Desktop—XP Pro adds to Remote Assistance by letting any machine running a Terminal Services client run one Terminal Services session against an XP Pro machine. Domain Membership—XP Pro systems can be domain members; XP Home systems can't, but they can access domain resources. Group Policy—XP Pro supports group policies; XP Home doesn't. IntelliMirror—XP Pro supports IntelliMirror, which includes Microsoft Remote Installation Services (RIS), software deployment, and user setting management; XP Home doesn't support IntelliMirror. Upgrade from Windows Me/Win98—Both XP Pro and XP Home support this upgrade. Upgrade from Win2K/NT—Only XP Pro supports this upgrade. 64-bit Support—Only XP Pro will have a 64-bit version that supports the Itanium systems. Network Support—XP Pro includes support for Network Monitor, SNMP, IP Security (IPSec), and the Client Services for NetWare (CSNW); XP Home doesn't. What is the difference between LCD and TFT ? A liquid crystal display (commonly abbreviated LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It is prized by engineers because it uses very small amounts of electric power, and is therefore suitable for use in battery-powered electronic devices. TFT-LCD (Thin Film Transistor-Liquid Crystal Display) is a variant of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) which uses Thin-Film Transistor (TFT) technology to improve image quality. TFT LCD is one type of active matrix LCD, though it is usually synonymous with LCD. It is used in both flat panel displays and projectors. In computing, TFT monitors are rapidly displacing competing CRT technology, and are commonly available in sizes from 12 to 30 inches. LCD Means Liquid crystal display TFT means Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display. What I think you mean is Active and Passive matrix LCD panels. This is where there is a difference in price. A typical active TFT panel capable of resolutions of just 1024x768 is made up of nearly 2.5 million transistors (commonly known as small 3 legged lumps of silicon found in TV's and most other electronics) eccept in this case, the transistors are etched onto glass, to microscopic precision hence the name "Thin Film Transistor". A normal LCD basicaly has two layers of glass, one with rows, one with columns, this makes up a grid that can be referenced to control each pixel. The control is done with an IC (integrated
  • 2. circuit or silicon chip) on the LCD's circuit board/s. TFT's tend to be quicker ( response time) and nicer to look at in general. How will you install Operating System in more than 50 PC at a time when the all Pcs having same configuration. Create a image of Operating System and the software’s which you want to install on all systems from Symantec ghost and paste or distribute the image on the network. If the pcs are on network you can have RIS or WDS setup. Requirement for clients is they should have network bootable NIC. What is IMAP? How does it work? IMAP is a standard protocol for accessing e-mail from a local server. Using IMAP an email client program can not only retrieve email but can also manipulate message stored on the server, without having to actually retrieve the messages. So messages can be deleted, have their status changed, multiple mail boxes can be managed, etc. IMAP allows for clients / users to read only the header information and then decide if they wish to download the whole msg, useful for blackberry's etc where data costs money Explain the Windows XP, 2000 and 2003 Boot Process? following are the booting files for xp boot.ini, ntldt, ntdetect.com, ntoskrnl.exe,bootdd.sys, bootsect.dos,hal.dll, system. First there will be pre- boot sequence, it includes the following 1.POST(power on self test) first check for hardware 2.loads boot.ini, loads mbr. 3.mbr loads active partation 4ntldr loads o.s. boot process: first loads boot.ini, ntldr will be in boot.ini it loads os. boot.ini shows available os for selection, ntdetect.com check for hardware, ntoskrnl.exe loads drivers for devices. Booting process are classified into 5 steps. 1.POST 2.The MBR reads the boot sector which is the first sector of the active partition. 3.Ntldr locket path of os from boot.ini 4.Ntldr to run ntdedetect.com to get information about installed hardware. 5.Ntldr reads the registry files then select a hardware profile, control set and loads device drivers. 6.After that Ntoskrnl.exe takes over and starts winlogon.exe which starts lsass.exe this is the program that display the welcome screen. What is an Open Source OS? List some Definition: Open Source OS is any OS which has the source code with its installation package. This source code is modifiable. If you want your OS to work for you as you want it to, you put your creativity and start redesigning. Get it completed as a new OS and sell it if you are business-minded.
  • 3. An operating system that supports a set of principles and practices on how to write softwares whose source code is openly available. Examples: Linux versions UNIX source code is made free and is available for students What is the difference between unix and windows operating systems? These both os are multihtread os not multprocessing. Multiprocessing is not possible on single processor system.It's only possible on multcore or multiprocessor system where more then two process can be scheduled simulteniously .So system having one processor can not do multiprocessing it is only psedo-multiporcessing. Winodow uses Priority based preemptive scheduling while Unix uses Round robin preemtive scheduling. In windows process or thread which has higer priority will take over but this will be the case in Unix.They all will be in Q regardless of their priority. Window is component based syste.TCP/IP and File systems are the component of the system where Unix is integrated system. Unix is text based...Windows is GUI based. UNIX is not event driven....Windows is event driven And for God sake both are multithreaded. Why we want Mac address as well as IP address ? Why one address is not enough in net work ? Mac address is the physical address of a computer. Which is 48 bit.but ip adress is the logical adress assinged to perticular computer .there is two version of ip adress ipv4(32 bit) and ipv6(64 bit).if u type ipconfig/all from the command promt of a computer u can find that both adress. What is ADS & ADSL? ADS stands for Active Directory Services. Generally anything to do with authentication against an Active Directory to workstations or network shares as well as global and security group membership is covered under ADS. ADSL is short for Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line. DSL is a very common broadband Internet access method in use all over the place. Asynchronous means that the rate of download is different from, and in my experience always greater than, the rate of upload. It is also possible to have SDSL. That would be Synchronous where the rate of download and upload is the same. Why do we use Subnet mask? What are its uses? Subnetmask is use to isolate the network ID and Host ID. eg- if an IP is:192.168.0.1 then the default subnet is:255.255.255.0 because it is a C Class Address C Class Add. have 3 network octate and 1 host octate i.e. network ID :192.168.0.0 host ID : 0.0.0.1
  • 4. A subnet allows the flow of network traffic between hosts to be segregated based on a network configuration. By organizing hosts into logical groups, subnetting can improve network security and performance. the most recognizable aspect of subnetting is the subnet mask. Like IP addresses, a subnet mask contains four bytes (32 bits) and is often written using the same "dotted-decimal" notation. For example, a very common subnet mask in its binary representation 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 is typically shown in the equivalent, more readable form 255.255.255.0 Subnet mask is 32 bit long TCP/IP address divided in four equal part.It is used for isolation of network address and host address What is the difference b/w subnet mask and default gateway? Subnet Mask:- the mask is used to detrmine that which part of IP belonged to network or which part belong to host. E.g. if u have a IP 172.16.25.32 and its subnet mask is 255.255.0.0. then the 172.16 is network part , and 25.16 is host part. If subneting is enable then we can use some bit of host part in network .Subnet mask mainly use in subneting. for above example subnet mask is 255.255.255.0 the nwk address become 172.16.25. and the host part is 32. Default gateway:- For a simple LAN there is no use of default gateway, It is used when network communicate with other network. it is just like a Main gate of home when a person wanna go to outside from home or come inside he can only do the same by main gate. Same Concept used here. In network if the packet have address of same address then switch direct forward the packet to its desired destination. And if packet have another network address it should be come out from Default gate way. Basically it reduces the collision. subnetmask is just used to identify the class of ip address and its is used for subnetting of ip address for eg:- ipaddress -192.168.1.2 subnetmask- 255.255.255.0 we can find N/W part that is 192.168.1 and Host part that is 2 the class of ip is C where as default gateway is a ip address given to a router or ASDL modem which is used to communuicate with other N/Ws or internet What is FTP & UDP?What is the different version of IP? FTP or File Transfer Protocol is used to transfer data from one computer to another over the Internet, or through a network User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. Using UDP, programs on networked computers can send short messages sometimes known as datagrams(using Datagram Sockets) to one another. ip versions IPv6,IPv4
  • 5. Questions Regarding Operating Systems What is the difference between x86 and i386 computer? x86 refers to a popular set of instructions most commonly used in processors from Intel, AMD, VIA, and others. It usually implies a binary compatibility with the 32-bit instruction set of the 80386 (a.k.a. i386). i386 (as eluded to above) is the common name for the Intel386 (or 80386) based PCs. It is sometimes emphasized as x86-32 (for 32-bit) and x86-64 (also called x64 - for 64-bit). 2) Which of the following system software resides in main memory always ? 1. Text editor 2. Assembler 3. Linker 4. Loader? Assembler 3) What is the Difference between NTFS and FAT32? a) FAT (FAT16 and FAT32) and NTFS are two methods for storing data on a hard drive. The hard drive has to either be formatted using one or the other, or can be converted from one to the other (usually FAT to NTFS) using a system tool NTFS is a high-performance and self-healing file system proprietary to Windows XP 2000 NT, which supports file-level security, compression and auditing. It also supports large volumes and powerful storage solution such as RAID. The most important new feature of NTFS is the ability to encrypt files and folders to protect your sensitive data b) NTFS 1)allows access local to w2k,w2k3,XP,win NT4 with SP4 & later may get access for somefile. 2)Maximum size of partition is 2 Terabytes & more. 3)Maximum File size is upto 16TB. 4)File & folder Encryption is possible only in NTFS. FAT 32 1)Fat 32 Allows access to win 95,98,win millenium,win2k,xp on local partition. 2)Maximum size of partition is upto 2 TB. 3)Maximum File size is upto 4 GB. 4)File & folder Encryption is not possible. 4) What is DHCP, How it Works? DHCP stands for dynamic host configuration protocol. What it does is dynamically assign network settings from a server.hence a DHCP configured PC boots, it requests its IP address from the DHCP
  • 6. server. It does this by sending a standardized DHCP broadcast request packet to the DHCP server with a source IP address of 255.255.255.255. If your DHCP server has more than one interface, you have to add a route for this 255.255.255.255 address so that it knows the interface on which to send the reply; if not, it sends it to the default gateway. (In both of the next two examples, we assume that DHCP requests will be coming in on interface eth0). Q. Can you tell me what causes CMOS checksum errors? A. A CMOS checksum is generated by adding all of the bytes (or bits) in the CMOS one after the other. That is, byte one is added to byte 2, byte 3 is added is to the sum of bytes 1 and 2, etc. The carry bits are dropped. The result (checksum) is stored in the CMOS. During the boot-up process or POST (Power-On Self Test) a checksum is generated by the BIOS from the CMOS and compared to the one saved the last time the CMOS Setup was run or the BIOS defaults were loaded. If the two numbers don't agree it is an indication that the data in the CMOS has been corrupted (one or more bits in the CMOS changed when it/ they weren't supposed to) and a checksum error is issued by the BIOS ("CMOS checksum invalid, " "CMOS invalid," and relate error, "CMOS battery low"). Causes include: A bad battery. A battery that has become discharged (the computer has been off a very long time). A disconnected battery. Insertion of an expansion board in such a manner (cock-eyed) as to short-out the bus (even if the computer is off, which it should be) A power surge. Lightning. Static electricity. Grounding the CMOS circuitry. A bad motherboard. A bad real-time clock. Q. Every time I boot up my PC the date is 1/1/1998, the time is 00:00. The CMOS battery is coin- shaped... A. Coin-shaped batteries on most motherboareds should be a CR2032. Make sure it is properly installed and + is up. If you have a multimeter or you have a friend who has a multimeter, remove the battery and check the voltage. It should read 3.0 volts when fully charged. If it reads 1.8 volts or higher it is probably OK. Be very careful installing and removing coin-shaped batteries. Most of the battery holders I have seen for these batteries are quite fragile and easily broken. I ease these batteries into the holder with the aid of a “tweaker” (small screw driver). nonameyet states in the Dux General Forum that Microsoft Knowledge Base Article Windows Clock on Taskbar and in Date/Time Tool Loses Time (Q189706) may be of interest to some readers with clock problems. 7/27/02 After doing some more research it appears that those blue batteries that were soldered on old motherboards, or at least some of those blue batteries, were Nickel-Cadmium and they were rechargable. The following reference is worth a bookmark if you are interested in the subject. Larry What is the CMOS memory?
  • 7. A. CMOS is an abbreviation for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. CMOS uses a complimentary arrangement of both NMOS and PMOS, negative and positive Metal Oxide transistor circuits. CMOS memory draws very little current (nano-Amps). Values stored in it can be maintained for very a long period of time while the computer is off with a rechargeable lithium battery. The CMOS memory is used to store system configuration information, such as disk drive parameters, memory configuration, and the date-time, some of which you enter in the CMOS Setup program, . It is used by the Basic Input Output System (BIOS), a program permanently stored in the flash memory on recent motherboards and in read-only memory (ROM) on older motherboards, to configure the computer. The CMOS Setup is part of the BIOS program. The CMOS memory is usually located with the real-time clock in the motherboard chipset or in a separate real-time clock chip. It is located in the chipset on most recent motherboards. For example, the CMOS memory is located in the VT82C596B Southbridge chip in the VIA MVP3C chipset on the Epox MVP3G2 Super7 Motherboard and in the AMD-756 Southbridge in the AMD-750 chipset on the MSI MS-6167 Athlon motherboard. Q. What causes a computer to reboot itself? A. It could be caused by a lot of things, but it is usually a hardware problem, especially if it occurs randomly. A noisy power supply, loose screw under the motherboard, bad CPU fan, and memory, expansion boards, socketed chips, and cables that are not fully seated are among the common causes. Q. During bootup my computer hangs at "Verifying DMI pool data." What is it and how do I fix it? A. DMI or DesktopManagement Interface (pdf) is a layer of abstraction between system components and the software that manages them. The System Management BIOS (SMBIOS) is an extension of the Basic Input Output System (BIOS) that formulates and delivers this information to the operating system. The pool data is the information. In short, when the BIOS is "Verifying DMI pool data" it is verifying the table of data it sends to the operating system (Windows, etc.). If it isn't sucessful, it should return an error. Wait a reasonable period of time for it to finish. It may make take some time or it may be stuck. Possible fixes: 1. If you changed the hardware just before this problem occurred (e.g., installed a new hard disk drive), unchange it. 2. If you installed a new hard disk drive, set the motherboard CMOS Setup to Auto for the drive type. You may have to disconnect the drive first. 3. Enable "Reset Configuration Data" (may be "Force Update ESCD" in some CMOS Setuups) in the motherboard CMOS Setup PNP/PCI configuration. (Rebooting will automatically disabled it after it has done its thing.) 4. The CMOS may be corrupted. Clear it. 5. Disconnect all drives not required to boot the computer. If this fixes it, reconnect one at time. 6. The floppy drive may be bad or not connected properly. 7. Reseat all expansion boards. 8. Pull all boards not required to boot the computer. Q. How can I determine where and how the various front panel connectors (Power-on, hard disk LED, speaker, etc.) connect to the header(s) on my motherboard without the motherboard documentation or clear labeling?
  • 8. A. You can plug LEDs in backwards and it won't hurt them or the motherboard. Switches do not have a polarity and can be plugged-in either way. The speaker can be plugged-in either way. It has two wires that usually connect to a four-wire plug. You can plug a switch, which is not closed (most aren’t except, possibly, the key lock on older cases), into a LED connection on the motherboard and it won't hurt the motherboard (or switch). Do not plug a LED into a switch header on a motherboard or a closed (short) switch into a LED header on the motherboard. I generally start with the Power on switch (ATX motherboard), and then the speaker, and follow with the Power on LED. The Power on LED usually plugs into a five-pin header or a group of five pins on a header with the keylock. Keep plugging it in the four possible positions, backward and forwards, until it lights. The key lock (if it isn’t on a five-pin plug with the Power on) goes into the remaining two pins. You can do this with the computer on. Follow with the reset switch and test. Next, hunt for the HD LED like the Power on, using the Reset switch to boot the computer and light the LED… There are still Turbo LEDs and Switches in the world and some motherboards still accommodate a Turbo LED. I handle them last because the wiring is not consistent from case to case and motherboard to motherboard, and they have no meaningful function except eliminate the problem of having to explain to a customer why the Turbo LED isn’t on and why the Turbo switch has no real purpose. If I can’t get them to work after a few minutes or fidgeting, I leave them disconnected and bundle them with the other wires with a zip (cable) tie. Sometimes, one must resort to tracing wires to the appropriate LEDs and switches... The last case LED I burned-out in my shop was about five years ago and that was caused by error, not procedure. Q. What is a SIMM? A. A Single In-line Memory Module or SIMM is a small printed circuit board containing memory chips (DRAMs). Most SIMMs have 30 or 72 pins (which are actually printed circuit contacts and not pins). 30- pin SIMMs come in 8-bit (non-parity) or 9-bit (parity). 72-pin SIMMs are generally available in 32-bit (non-parity) or 36-bit (parity) configurations. Q. What is a DIMM? A. A Dual In-line Memory Module or DIMM combines two 72-pin SIMMS into a 168-pin module with 64- bit (non-parity) or 72-bit (parity) data paths. Q. Will PC133 or PC100 memory work on a motherboard that has a 66 Mhz Front Side Bus (FSB)? A. Let me answer that with a qualified YES. In general, SDRAM is backward compatible and can run at bus speeds slower than that for which it is rated. For example, the 128 Mbytes of PC133 memory I have in my computer with an EpoX MVP3G2 Super 7 motherboard, which supports PC100 memory, works with a 100 Mhz FSB.. There are a few older 66 Mhz motherboards that will not work PC100 or PC133 memory, but they are exceptions, not the rule.
  • 9. Nonverbal Communications: Escape the Pitfalls It begins even before you say your first word in an interview. As the interviewer walks toward you to shake hands, an opinion is already being formed. And as you sit waiting to spew out your answers to questions you've prepared for, you are already being judged by your appearance, posture, smile or your nervous look. Look back at speakers or teachers you've listened to. Which ones stand out as memorable? The ones who were more animated and entertaining, or the ones who just gave out information? This is not to say you have to entertain the interviewer -- no jokes required -- but it does mean the conversation should be animated and interactive. If you say you are excited about the prospect of working for this company but don't show any enthusiasm, your message will probably fall flat. So smile, gesture once in a while, show some energy and breathe life into the interview experience. And don't underestimate the value of a smile. In addition to the enthusiasm it expresses to the interviewer, smiling often makes you feel better about yourself. Nonverbal Messages: * The Handshake: It's your first encounter with the interviewer. She holds out her hand and receives a limp, damp hand in return -- not a very good beginning. Your handshake should be firm -- not bone-crushing -- and your hand should be dry and warm. Try running cold water on your hands when you first arrive at the interview site. Run warm water if your hands tend to be cold. The insides of your wrists are especially sensitive to temperature control. * Your Posture: Stand and sit erect. We're not talking ramrod posture, but show some energy and enthusiasm. A slouching posture looks tired and uncaring. Check yourself out in a mirror or on videotape.
  • 10. * Eye Contact: Look the interviewer in the eye. You don't want to stare at her like you're trying to look into her soul, but be sure to make sure your eyes meet frequently. Avoid constantly looking around the room while you are talking, because that can convey nervousness or a lack of confidence with what is being discussed. * Eye Contact: Look the interviewer in the eye. You don't want to stare at her like you're trying to look into her soul, but be sure to make sure your eyes meet frequently. Avoid constantly looking around the room while you are talking, because that can convey nervousness or a lack of confidence with what is being discussed. * Don't Fidget: There is nothing worse than people playing with their hair, clicking pen tops, tapping feet or unconsciously touching parts of the body. Preparing what you have to say is important, but practicing how you will say it is imperative. The nonverbal message can speak louder than the verbal message you're sending. Coping with Interviews After coming through all the hurdles of the selection process, you will eventually arrive at an interview. This is of course, a major obstacle for many job applicants. Although they may have the qualifications, experience and a proven track record, they may lose out to a candidate who 'interviews better.' So what does 'interviewing better' actually mean? It comes down to the candidate being well prepared and confident. A candidate who can answer questions in a way which is acceptable (but not necessarily right) to the interviewer, someone who knows something about their potential employers business and the post they hope to fill. These are really the basic components of any candidate who 'interviews well'. There are undoubtedly other aspects employers may look for in relation to specific posts - having their own ideas, articulate, thinking on their feet, aspects which will be related to the job and to the company's preference in employees. The employer will also be looking to fill a post, which has a particular job specification - in other words personal aspects besides the experience, and qualifications that can be put down on paper. The interviewer will set out to ascertain that the candidate has these personal qualities, skills and abilities the company requires. These two essential ingredients are interlinked. Good preparation instils confidence. So the basic approach to an interview is to be well prepared. This means two things - preparing yourself practically for the interview, and gathering knowledge and information you can draw on during the interview. * Be sure you know the time, date and location of the interview and name of interviewee where appropriate. * Check out how you will get to the location, and when you need to set off to be there in good
  • 11. time - do a dummy run if necessary. Plan to get there no earlier than half an hour before the interview time, anticipate delays. * Have what you are going to wear ready in advance - everything down to your underwear. * Do not go to the interview laden down with baggage - psychological as well as physical. * Take the bare minimum of belongings necessary. * Concentrate on the interview at the interview - nothing else. * If you are asked to bring certificates, references etc, get them ready before the day. * Take your interview letter. * On arrival ensure the receptionist knows you are there, visit the toilets to tidy up etc. If you are well organised and have planned for the day your confidence will increase. The interview is a chance for you and the employer to get to know one another. It is NOT the time to get to know about the post or the employers business. Do gather information about your employer before you are interviewed - what do they do, what are their current projects, what other interests do they have? Ask staff - many companies will offer you the chance to talk about the vacancy with someone, use the opportunity to find out more about the company. Bigger companies will have PR departments, smaller ones will provide you with some information - libraries can provide information on local business and keep directories of national business. Use the internet - many companies have a presence here now. Make sure you know what the job entails - get a job description, ask someone in a similar post; ring the company to clarify if unsure. Remember the employer is interested in you as a person, your experiences and your opinions (in most cases). Do take the time to sit down and think about you, who you are and what you've achieved. It can be highly embarrassing to know more about the employer than yourself. Sit down with your CV and make notes, about your work record, what you've achieved. Look at yourself as a person in employment - how do you see yourself, what have you done, what ambitions do you have. Make notes and prepare and rehearse sound bites about yourself. Remember that one of the most common of interview questions is 'Tell me about yourself' prepare a sound bite for this in particular, but not a life history. Usually interviewers want to know about personal qualities not achievements - though examples can be included to support your statement.
  • 12. Interviews vary tremendously, from very informal to formal. However, some questions can be anticipated, as can the subject matter. If you are well prepared, then the majority of problem questions should not arise. You will know about the company, you will know about yourself and you will have a good idea of the demands of the job - these questions will not be a problem to the well prepared interviewee.