Oracle PL/SQL Programming
FIFTH EDITION
Oracle PL/SQL Programming
Steven Feuerstein
with Bill Pribyl
Beijing • Cambridge • Farnham • Köln • Sebastop...
Oracle PL/SQL Programming, Fifth Edition
by Steven Feuerstein with Bill Pribyl
Copyright © 2009 Steven Feuerstein and Bill...
To my father, Sheldon Feuerstein, whose intellec-
tual curiosity, personal integrity, and devotion to
family inspire me da...
Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
Running a PL/SQL Program 28
Running a Script 30
What Is the “Current Directory”? 31
Other SQL*Plus Tasks 32
Error Handling...
The PRAGMA Keyword 76
Labels 77
Part II. PL/SQL Program Structure
4. Conditional and Sequential Control . . . . . . . . . ...
The Proper Way to Say Goodbye 120
Obtaining Information About FOR Loop Execution 121
SQL Statement as Loop 122
6. Exceptio...
Internet Datatypes 174
“Any” Datatypes 174
User-Defined Datatypes 174
Declaring Program Data 175
Declaring a Variable 175
...
Number Conversions 247
The TO_NUMBER Function 247
The TO_CHAR Function 251
The CAST Function 256
Implicit Conversions 257
...
Multiplying and Dividing Intervals 306
Using Unconstrained INTERVAL Types 306
Date/Time Function Quick Reference 308
11. R...
Maintaining Schema-Level Collections 393
Necessary Privileges 393
Collections and the Data Dictionary 394
13. Miscellaneou...
Defining Autonomous Transactions 455
Rules and Restrictions on Autonomous Transactions 456
Transaction Visibility 457
When...
16. Dynamic SQL and Dynamic PL/SQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
NDS S...
Calling a Function 575
Functions Without Parameters 576
The Function Header 577
The Function Body 577
The RETURN Statement...
Encapsulate Data Access 642
Avoid Hardcoding Literals 645
Improve Usability of Built-in Features 647
Group Together Logica...
To Fix or Not to Fix? 704
Maintaining Triggers 705
Disabling, Enabling, and Dropping Triggers 705
Creating Disabled Trigge...
Dynamic Wrapping with DBMS_DDL 775
Guidelines for Working with Wrapped Code 776
Introduction to Edition-Based Redefinition...
Reading and Writing Files 876
The UTL_FILE_DIR Parameter 877
Work with Oracle Directories 879
Open Files 880
Is the File A...
Padding and Chaining 924
The DBMS_CRYPTO Package 925
Encrypting Data 926
Encrypting LOBs 929
SecureFiles 930
Decrypting Da...
The Inquiry Directive 1000
The $IF Directive 1004
The $ERROR Directive 1005
Synchronizing Code with Packaged Constants 100...
Creating a Base Type 1076
Creating a Subtype 1078
Methods 1079
Invoking Supertype Methods in Oracle Database 11g 1084
Stor...
SET_OUTPUT: Enabling Output from Java 1152
EXPORT_SOURCE, EXPORT_RESOURCE, and EXPORT_CLASS:
Exporting Schema Objects 1153...
Preface
Millions of application developers and database administrators around the world use
software provided by Oracle Co...
• An explicit and highly readable block structure that makes it easy to enhance and
maintain PL/SQL applications
• Conditi...
company or your customers. In this book, I try hard to help you tackle real-world
problems, the kinds of issues developers...
Optimizing PL/SQL Performance
Chapter 21 is new in the fifth edition. It collects together previous content in this
book o...
About the Contents
The fifth edition of Oracle PL/SQL Programming is divided into six parts:
Part I, Programming in PL/SQL...
managing dependencies; it also provides an overview of the edition-based redefi-
nition capability introduced in Oracle Da...
Administration of Oracle databases
While database administrators (DBAs) can use this book to learn how to write the
PL/SQL...
/* and */
In code examples, these characters delimit a multiline comment that can extend
from one line to another.
.
In co...
About the Code
All of the code referenced in this book is available from:
http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/9780596514464
Cli...
amount of example code from this book into your product’s documentation does re-
quire permission.
We appreciate, but do n...
To ask technical questions or comment on the book, send email to:
bookquestions@oreilly.com
As mentioned in the previous s...
OakTable Network. He would like to thank James Padfield (Padders), Tom Kyte, and
Steven Feuerstein for inspiring him to be...
With such a big book, we needed lots of reviewers, especially because we asked them
to test each code snippet and program ...
Larry Elkins, Bruce Epstein, R. James Forsythe, Mike Gangler, Beverly Gibson, Steve
Gillis, Eric Givler, Rick Greenwald, R...
PART I
Programming in PL/SQL
This first part of this book introduces PL/SQL, explains how to create and run PL/SQL
code, a...
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to PL/SQL
PL/SQL stands for “Procedural Language extensions to the Structured Query Lan-
guage.” SQ...
Alternatively, you can define and execute PL/SQL programs from within an Oracle
Developer form or report (this approach is...
implement array support and could not interact with the operating system (for input
or output). It was a far cry from a fu...
to execute a procedure, which controls and provides access to the underlying data
structures. The procedure is owned by a ...
So This Is PL/SQL
If you are completely new to programming or to working with PL/SQL (or even SQL,
for that matter), learn...
Line(s) Description
1–3 This is the declaration section of this so-called “anonymous” PL/SQL block, in which I declare an ...
15 END LOOP;
16 END pay_out_balance;
Let’s take a more detailed look at this code in the following table:
Line(s) Descript...
25 WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND
26 THEN
27 -- No account found for this ID
28 log_error (...);
29
30 WHEN l_balance_below_minimum
31...
applications, and determining which new techniques are so useful that we should
modify existing applications to take advan...
Oracle Database release PL/SQL version highlights
using a record, for example), and many improvements to UTL_FILE (which a...
FORCE option with CREATE TYPE (Release 2 only)
You can now specify that you want to force the “CREATE OR REPLACE” of a new...
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Loop index = ' || TO_CHAR (l_index));
END LOOP;
END;
The CONTINUE statement is described in detail ...
SecureFiles
The terminology for the LOB implementation has changed in Oracle Database 11g.
Oracle has re-engineered the im...
PL/SQL hierarchical profiler
In Oracle Database 11g, Oracle complements the existing PL/SQL Profiler
(DBMS_PROFILER) with ...
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