Terms in psychiatry


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Terms in psychiatry

  1. 1. 1Terms in Psychiatry
  2. 2. 2ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you will be able to:•Describe common mental disorders•Define combining forms used in building wordsthat relate to mental disorders•Identify the meaning of related abbreviations•Name the common tests, procedures, andtreatments used in treating mental disorders•Recognize common pharmacological agents usedin treating psychiatric ailments
  3. 3. 3Psychiatric Disorders TermsDisorders of the mind canhave many causes such as:•Heredity•Environmental stressMost mental disorders must be assessedby a specialist trained in understandinghow a group of symptoms equals a mentaldisorder and how to treat that disorder.•Neurochemical imbalances•Medication
  4. 4. 4Non-Medical PractitionersPsychiatry is the medical specialty that diagnosesand treats mental disorders, usually thoserequiring medication.Non-medical practitionersNon-medical practitioners•psychologists•psychotherapists•therapists•social workersPsychotherapy, also known as talk therapy, is thetreatment of mental disorders with verbal and nonverbalcommunication.
  5. 5. 5Symptoms of Emotional IllnessSymptoms of Emotional IllnessesWHAT!!•Aggressiveness-attacking forcefulness•Agitation-abnormal restlessness•Ambivalence-feeling of conflictingemotions about the sameperson or issue•Anxiety-abnormal worryCatalepsy-trancelike statewith holding of onepose for a long time•Deliriousness-mental confusion•Delusional-having false beliefs•Depression-condition withfeelings of despairand low self-esteem
  6. 6. 6Symptoms of Emotional IllnessPart 2Symptoms of Emotional Illnesses (cont’d)•Dementia-disorder, mainly in olderadulthood, with multiplecognitive defects•Paranoia-abnormal distrust of others•Phobia-obsessive fear of something•Psychosis-extreme disordered thinking
  7. 7. 7Mental DisordersMental DisordersMental DisordersMental disorders are diagnosed and categorized accordingto ICD-10 0r DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ofMental Disorders.Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder•Anxiety disorder-condition with chronic,unrealistic fear over aperiod of time•Panic disorder-condition with recurringpanic attacks, short periodsof intense and immobilizingfearSymptomsSymptoms-feelings of shortness ofbreath-chest pain whichincreases fear andanxiety
  8. 8. 8Alcohol/Substance AbuseAlcohol/Substance Abuse•Condition in which the patient usesalcohol or drugs recurrently•Ability to function at school, home orwork is affected•Individuals are referred to as addictsObsessive-compulsive Disorder•Condition in which persistentthoughts, ideas and actions leadto repetitive behaviors•Individuals are inflexible andperfectionists
  9. 9. 9Dissociative DisordersDissociative Disorders•Gradual or sudden loss of the ability to integrate memoryand identity with the environment•Patients may have more than one identity or becomeextremely depersonalizedPost-traumatic Stress Disorder•Condition of extreme stress following a traumatic event ora period of time in an extremely stressful environment•This condition may take years to develop, especially afterthese traumatic experiences:-prisoners of war-victims of torture-victims of child abuse
  10. 10. 10Eating DisordersEating DisordersAnorexia NervosaAnorexia Nervosa•Patients refuse to eat enough tomaintain a normal body weight•Individuals have a distortedbody image•Patients have an obsessiveneed to lose weight regardlessof how thin they areBulimia NervosaBulimia Nervosa•Patients eatuncontrollably(binge), then forcethemselves toregurgitate (purge)PicaPica•Patients crave and eatsubstances that are not nutritioussuch as clay and paint
  11. 11. 11Mood DisordersMood DisordersClinical DepressionClinical Depression•Clinical depression is adisabling disorder with aloss of interests and theindividual can becomesuicidalManicManic•Patients have moods thatbecome dangerouslyelevated to the point thatthey cannot work, sleep orconcentrateBipolar DisordersBipolar DisordersPatients have drastic swingsbetween manic and depressivemoods
  12. 12. 12Personality DisorderPersonality DisorderObsessive-CompulsiveObsessive-Compulsive•Characteristics areinflexibility and perfectionismParanoiaParanoia•Extreme unfoundedmistrust of othersDependencyDependency•Abnormalsubmissiveness,especially in adulthoodSociopathySociopathy•Antisocial behavior,having an unusuallycallous disregard forothers
  13. 13. 13SchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophrenia has many degrees of severity.Common SymptomsCommon Symptoms•Hallucinations- Which may be in theform of imagined innervoices that direct thepatient’s life•Psychosis-Extreme disorderedthinking that interfereswith the patient’s abilityto complete activities ofdaily livingSomatoform Disorder•Patients arepreoccupied withimagined physicaldefects in their body
  14. 14. 14Combining Forms &Abbreviations (hypn)Combining Form Meaninghypn(o)neur(o)psych(o)schiz(o)sleepnerve, nervous systemmind, mentalsplit, schizophrenia
  15. 15. 15Combining Forms &Abbreviations (mania)Suffix Meaning-mania-philia-phobia-phoriaabnormal impulse toward somethingor someonecraving for, affinity forabnormal fear offeeling
  16. 16. 16Combining Forms &Abbreviations (AA)Abbreviation MeaningAAAAMRAPADSMDTECTEQAlcoholics AnonymousAmerican Association on MentalRetardationAmerican Psychiatric AssociationDiagnostic and Statistical Manualof Mental Disordersdelirium tremenselectroconvulsive therapyemotional “intelligence” quotient
  17. 17. 17Combining Forms &Abbreviations (EST)Abbreviation MeaningESTIQMHAMMPINAMHNARCNIMHelectroshock therapyintelligence quotientMental Health AssociationMinnesota MultiphasicPersonality InventoryNational Association of MentalHealthNational Association forRetarded ChildrenNational Institute of MentalHealth
  18. 18. 18Combining Forms &Abbreviations (OCD)Abbreviation MeaningOCDPTSDTATTDMWAISWISCWPPSIobsessive-compulsive disorderpost-traumatic stress disorderThematic Apperception Testtherapeutic drug monitoringWechsler Adult Intelligence Scalefor ChildrenWechsler Intelligence Scale forChildrenWechsler Preschool and PrimaryScale of Intelligence
  19. 19. 19Tests Used for DiagnosisA clear diagnosis must be made before treatmentof the patient is started.Tests Used for DiagnosisTests Used for Diagnosis•Stanford-Binet IQ Test- tests intellectual ability•Thematic Apperception Test-tests personality traits•Rorschach Test-reveals personality traits through ink blot test•Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-tests of personality traits
  20. 20. 20TreatmentsTreatmentsplay therapy biofeedbackhypnosispsychoanalysis-having a childreveal feelingsthrough play-method ofmeasuringphysicalresponses toemotional issues-attempts to havethe patient bringunconsciousemotions to thesurface to be dealtwith-a state ofsemiconsciousness inwhich the patient mayreveal hidden thoughts
  21. 21. 21Treatments Part 2TreatmentsCont’dBehavior Therapy Group TherapyElectroshock Therapy-the use of electric current to aspecific area of the brain thatchanges the brain’s electricalpattern-changing of adestructivepattern of behaviorby substituting amore beneficialpattern of behavior-involves a smallgroup of peopleled by a trainedpsychotherapist
  22. 22. 22Pharmacological TermsPsychopharmacology is the science that dealswith medications that affect emotions.Pharmacokinetics is the study of the action ofdrugs on the body.Drug Class PurposeAntianxiety agentsAntipsychotic agentsAntidepressantto relieve anxietyrelieves agitation andsome psychosesrelieves clinicaldepression
  23. 23. 23Apply Your KnowledgeJamie has difficulty making decisions. Whenasked if she wanted pizza for dinner, she stated“I hate the cheese they put on pizzas, but I lovethe taste of the sauce”.Jamie did not answer the question, and herresponse is an example of which of thefollowing symptoms?A. ambivalenceB. agitationC. catalepsyAnswer: A. ambivalence
  24. 24. 24Apply Your Knowledge Part 2Angela has cleaned her bathroom seven times inthe past hour. She never feels that it is cleanenough. Which of the following disorders mightshe have?A. dissociative disorderB. post-traumatic stress disorderC. obsessive-compulsive disorderAnswer: C. obsessive-compulsive disorder
  25. 25. 25Apply Your Knowledge Part 3Terry, age 18, has been attending therapysessions for the past year, and herpsychotherapist wants to monitor her bloodpressure and brain waves as she answersquestions about emotions issues.Which treatment method is the psychotherapistusing?A. hypnosisB. behavior therapyC. biofeedbackAnswer: C. biofeedback
  26. 26. 26http://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=ppt%20on