Mycobacterium leprae
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Mycobacterium leprae

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  • 1. M YC O B A C T E R IU M LEPRAE
  • 2. INTRODUCTION IT IS A GRAM POSITIVE ORGANISM CAUSING LEPROSY OR HANSEN’S DISEASE. IT IS NON-MOTILE, NON-SPORING, ACID FAST BACILLI WHICH IS MAINLY RESPONSIBLE FOR CAUSING DAMAGE TO NERVES.
  • 3. • THESE ORGANISMS ARE BACILLI, THEY CANNOT BE GROWN IN LABORTARY.• BCG VACCINATION GIVEN FOR TUBERCULOSIS PROVIDES IMMUNITY AGAINST LEPROSY IN NEAR ABOUT 90% OF CASES.• IT IS THE T-LYMPHOCYTE WHICH IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PROTECTION AGAINST LEPROSY.
  • 4. PATHOGENESIS
  • 5.  INFECTION OCCURS BY INHALATION OF BACTERIA INTO THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ALONG WITH THAT, THE ORGANISM ALSO ENTERS INTO THE BODY FROM SMALL ABRSIONS PRESENT ON THE SKIN. MOST OF THE DAMAGE DONE IS BY ENTERING THE NERVES, MAINLY SPINAL NERVES AND CAUSE DAMAGE TO THEM. IT LEADS TO LOSS OF SENSATION OF TOUCH, PAIN, TEMPERATURE.
  • 6.  IT LEADS TO WHITE PATCHES ON THE SKIN WHICH ARISE DUE TO LOSS OF PIGMENTATION FROM SKIN. IF THIS DISEASE STARTS DETERIORATING , NODES APPEAR ON THE SKIN WHICH CONTAINS BUNDLES OF BACTERIA, SLOWLY IT DISSESEMINATES INTO THE COMPLETE BODY AND CAUSES FORMATION OF “ GRANULOMA” . THIS GRANULOMA IS DIFFERENT FROM TUBERCLE GRANULOMA DUE TO ABSENCE OF CENTRAL CASEIATING NECROSIS.
  • 7. STAGES OF LEPROSY
  • 8. TUBERCULOID LEPROSYIT HAS ONE OR TWO WHITE PATCHES.
  • 9. INTERMEIDATE TUBERCULOID LEPROSYIT HAS MORE THAN TWO WHITE PATCHES OF LEPROSY.
  • 10. BORDERLINE LEPROSYPATCHES AND NODES ARE NEAR ABOUT EQUAL IN NUMBER.
  • 11. INTERMEDIATE LEPROMATOUS LEPROSYTHEY HAVE MORE NODES AND A VERY LOW PATCHES.
  • 12. LEPROMATOUS LEPROSYTHEY HAVE ONLY NODES PRESENT.
  • 13. ANTIGENLEPROMIN TEST
  • 14. • IN THIS, 0.1ml OF PURIFIED LEPROMIN IS INJECTED INTRADERMALLY INTO THE VENTRAL ASPECT OF THE FOREARM.• IT IS EXAMINED AFTER 48hrs. THE REDNESS MORE THAN 10mm SHOWS THAT REACTION IS POSITIVE DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF T-LYMPHOCYTES COMBINING WITH THE LEPROMIN . THIS REACTION IS CALLED AS “ FERNANDEZ REACTION”.• AFTER 4-5 DAYS, THERE IS A SWELLING WHICH WILL ULCERATE, IT IS DUE TO T- LYMHPOCYTE FIGHTING WITH LEPROMIN.
  • 15. INTERPRETATIO N
  • 16. I. POSITIVE RAECTION SHOWS THAT T- LYMPHOCYTE IS PRESENT EITHER DUE TO INFECTION OR VACCINATION FOR BCG.II. LEPROMIN TEST IS ALSO A CRITERIA TO SEE PATIENT’S PROGRESS TO IF THE PATIENT IS RESPONDING TO TREATMENT . THE LEPROMIN TEST WHICH WAS INITIALLY NEGATIVE, IT WILL BECOME POSITIVE.
  • 17. LAB DIAGNOSIS
  • 18. IT IS DONE BY TAKING A BIOPSY SAMPLE FROM NASAL SEPTUM. IT WILL SHOW THE COLLECTION OF ORGANISMS WHICH IS CALLED AS “GOLBI”.
  • 19. COLLECTION OF GOLBI AT ONE SITE,MAY SHOW A SIGN OF CIGAR SHAPEDAPPEARANCE.