Study Of Bodyfunction
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Study Of Bodyfunction

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Study Of Bodyfunction Study Of Bodyfunction Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 1 The Study of Body Function www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Human Physiology
    • Study of how the human body functions.
    • Pathophysiology:
      • How physiological processes are altered in disease or injury.
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  • Scientific Method
    • Confidence in rational ability, honesty and humility.
    • Formulate hypothesis.
    • Testing the hypothesis.
    • Analyze results.
    • Draw conclusion.
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  • Homeostasis
    • Maintaining constancy of internal environment.
    • Dynamic consistency.
    • Maintained by negative feedback loops.
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  • Feedback Loops
    • Sensor:
      • Detects deviation from set point.
    • Integrating center:
      • Determines the response.
    • Effector:
      • Produces the response.
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  • Negative Feedback
    • Defending the set point.
    • Reverse the deviation.
    • Produces change in opposite direction.
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  • Hormone insulin restores plasma [glucose]. www.freelivedoctor.com
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  • Positive Feedback
    • Action of effectors amplifies the change.
    • Is in same direction as change.
    • Examples:
      • Oxytocin (parturition)
      • Voltage gated Na + channels (depolarization)
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  • Primary Tissues
    • 4 Different Primary Tissues:
      • Muscle
      • Nervous
      • Epithelial
      • Connective
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  • Muscle Tissue
    • Specialized for contraction.
    • 3 Types of Muscle Tissue:
      • Skeletal
      • Cardiac
      • Smooth
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  • Skeletal Muscle
    • Voluntary muscle.
    • Striated.
    • Attach to bones at both ends (tendons).
    • Arranged in parallel.
    • Grade contraction.
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  • Cardiac Muscle
    • Striated.
    • Found only in the heart.
    • Interconnected.
    • Intercalated discs.
    • Syncytium.
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  • Smooth Muscle
    • Not striated.
    • Gap junctions.
    • Calmodulin.
    • Peristalsis.
    • Syncytium.
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  • Nervous Tissue
    • Neurons (nerve cells):
      • Specialized for conduction of action potentials.
    • Supporting cells:
      • Provide anatomical and functional support.
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  • Neuron
    • Dendrites:
      • Receive input.
    • Cell body:
      • Nucleus.
      • Metabolic center.
    • Axon:
      • Conducts nerve impulses.
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  • Epithelial Tissue
    • Types of Epithelial Tissue:
      • Cells that form membranes:
        • Squamous
        • Columnar
        • Cuboidal
      • Exocrine glands
      • Endocrine glands
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  • Squamous Cells
    • Flattened in shape.
    • Adapted for diffusion and filtration.
    • Line all blood vessels.
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  • Cuboidal Cells
    • Cube-shaped cells.
    • Excretion, secretion and absorption.
    • Line kidney tubules, salivary ducts, and pancreatic ducts.
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  • Columnar Cells
    • Taller column shaped cells.
    • Excretion, secretion and absorption.
    • May contain cilia.
    • Line digestive tract and respiratory passageways.
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  • Exocrine Glands
    • Derived from cells of epithelial membranes.
    • Secretions are released through ducts.
    • Simple tubes or modified as acini.
    • Examples:
      • Tear glands
      • Sweat glands
      • Prostate glands
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  • Endocrine Glands
    • Lack ducts.
    • Secrete hormones into capillaries within the body.
    • May be discrete organs:
      • Primary functions are the production and secretion of hormones.
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  • Connective Tissue
    • Large amounts of extracellular (ECF) material in the spaces between connective tissue cells.
    • 4 Types of Connective Tissue:
      • Connective tissue proper
      • Cartilage
      • Bone
      • Blood
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  • Connective Tissue Proper
    • Loose connective tissue:
      • Scattered collagen and tissue fluid.
        • Dermis of skin
    • Dense fibrous connective tissue:
      • Regular arranged.
        • Collagen oriented in same direction.
          • Tendons
      • Irregularly arranged.
        • Resists forces applied in many directions.
          • Capsules and sheaths
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  • Cartilage
    • Chondrocytes.
    • Supportive and protective tissue.
    • Elastic properties to tissues.
    • Precursor to many bones.
    • Articular surfaces on joints.
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  • Bone
    • Hydroxyapatite crystals
    • Osteoblasts:
      • Bone-forming cells
    • Osteocytes:
      • Trapped osteoblasts: less active
    • Osteoclasts:
      • Bone resorbing cells
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  • Blood
    • Classified as connective tissue.
    • Half its volume is plasma.
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  • Organs
    • Organs:
      • Composed of at least two primary tissues.
      • Serve different functions of the organ.
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  • Systems
    • Organs that are located in different regions of the body and perform related functions.
    • Examples:
      • Skeletal system
      • Cardiovascular system
      • GI system
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  • Body-Fluid Compartments
    • 65-75% of total body weight H 2 0.
    • Intracellular compartment:
      • Fluid inside the cell.
      • 2/3 of H 2 0
    • Extracellular compartment:
      • 1/3 H 2 0
      • 2 Subdivisions:
        • Blood plasma
        • Interstitial fluid
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