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Chapter 1 The Study of Body Function www.freelivedoctor.com
Human Physiology <ul><li>Study of how the human body functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathophysiology:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Scientific Method <ul><li>Confidence in rational ability, honesty and humility. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate hypothesis. </...
Homeostasis <ul><li>Maintaining constancy of internal environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic consistency. </li></ul><ul><l...
Feedback Loops <ul><li>Sensor:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects deviation from  set point. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integratin...
www.freelivedoctor.com
www.freelivedoctor.com
Negative Feedback <ul><li>Defending the  set point. </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse the deviation. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces ch...
Hormone insulin restores plasma [glucose]. www.freelivedoctor.com
www.freelivedoctor.com
Positive Feedback <ul><li>Action of effectors  amplifies  the change. </li></ul><ul><li>Is in same direction as change. </...
Primary Tissues <ul><li>4 Different Primary Tissues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous </li>...
Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Specialized for contraction. </li></ul><ul><li>3 Types of Muscle Tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skele...
Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Voluntary muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Striated. </li></ul><ul><li>Attach to bones at both ends (tend...
Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Striated. </li></ul><ul><li>Found only in the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnected. </li></ul><u...
Smooth Muscle <ul><li>Not striated. </li></ul><ul><li>Gap junctions. </li></ul><ul><li>Calmodulin. </li></ul><ul><li>Peris...
Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Neurons (nerve cells):  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized for conduction of action potentials. </li...
Neuron <ul><li>Dendrites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive input.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nu...
Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Types of Epithelial Tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells that form membranes: </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Squamous Cells <ul><li>Flattened in shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted for diffusion and filtration. </li></ul><ul><li>Line ...
Cuboidal Cells <ul><li>Cube-shaped cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion, secretion and absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>Line ki...
Columnar Cells <ul><li>Taller column shaped cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion, secretion and absorption. </li></ul><ul><l...
Exocrine Glands <ul><li>Derived from cells of epithelial membranes. </li></ul><ul><li>Secretions are released through duct...
Endocrine Glands <ul><li>Lack ducts. </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete hormones into capillaries within the body. </li></ul><ul><l...
Connective Tissue <ul><li>Large amounts of extracellular (ECF) material in the spaces between connective tissue cells. </l...
Connective Tissue Proper <ul><li>Loose connective tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scattered collagen and tissue fluid. </li>...
Cartilage <ul><li>Chondrocytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive and protective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic properties t...
Bone <ul><li>Hydroxyapatite crystals </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone-forming cells </li></ul></u...
Blood <ul><li>Classified as connective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Half its volume is plasma. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
Organs <ul><li>Organs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of at least two primary tissues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve di...
Systems <ul><li>Organs that are located in different regions of the body and  perform  related functions. </li></ul><ul><l...
Body-Fluid Compartments <ul><li>65-75% of total body weight H 2 0. </li></ul><ul><li>Intracellular compartment: </li></ul>...
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Study Of Bodyfunction

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Transcript of "Study Of Bodyfunction"

  1. 1. Chapter 1 The Study of Body Function www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. Human Physiology <ul><li>Study of how the human body functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathophysiology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How physiological processes are altered in disease or injury. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  3. 3. Scientific Method <ul><li>Confidence in rational ability, honesty and humility. </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing the hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze results. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusion. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. Homeostasis <ul><li>Maintaining constancy of internal environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic consistency. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained by negative feedback loops. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  5. 5. Feedback Loops <ul><li>Sensor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects deviation from set point. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrating center: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines the response. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effector: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces the response. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  6. 6. www.freelivedoctor.com
  7. 7. www.freelivedoctor.com
  8. 8. Negative Feedback <ul><li>Defending the set point. </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse the deviation. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces change in opposite direction. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  9. 9. Hormone insulin restores plasma [glucose]. www.freelivedoctor.com
  10. 10. www.freelivedoctor.com
  11. 11. Positive Feedback <ul><li>Action of effectors amplifies the change. </li></ul><ul><li>Is in same direction as change. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytocin (parturition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voltage gated Na + channels (depolarization) </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  12. 12. Primary Tissues <ul><li>4 Different Primary Tissues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  13. 13. Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Specialized for contraction. </li></ul><ul><li>3 Types of Muscle Tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  14. 14. Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Voluntary muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Striated. </li></ul><ul><li>Attach to bones at both ends (tendons). </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged in parallel. </li></ul><ul><li>Grade contraction. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  15. 15. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Striated. </li></ul><ul><li>Found only in the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnected. </li></ul><ul><li>Intercalated discs. </li></ul><ul><li>Syncytium. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  16. 16. Smooth Muscle <ul><li>Not striated. </li></ul><ul><li>Gap junctions. </li></ul><ul><li>Calmodulin. </li></ul><ul><li>Peristalsis. </li></ul><ul><li>Syncytium. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  17. 17. Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Neurons (nerve cells): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized for conduction of action potentials. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supporting cells: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide anatomical and functional support. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  18. 18. Neuron <ul><li>Dendrites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive input. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolic center. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Axon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducts nerve impulses. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  19. 19. Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Types of Epithelial Tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells that form membranes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Columnar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuboidal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exocrine glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine glands </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  20. 20. Squamous Cells <ul><li>Flattened in shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted for diffusion and filtration. </li></ul><ul><li>Line all blood vessels. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  21. 21. Cuboidal Cells <ul><li>Cube-shaped cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion, secretion and absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>Line kidney tubules, salivary ducts, and pancreatic ducts. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  22. 22. Columnar Cells <ul><li>Taller column shaped cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion, secretion and absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>May contain cilia. </li></ul><ul><li>Line digestive tract and respiratory passageways. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  23. 23. Exocrine Glands <ul><li>Derived from cells of epithelial membranes. </li></ul><ul><li>Secretions are released through ducts. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple tubes or modified as acini. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tear glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostate glands </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  24. 24. Endocrine Glands <ul><li>Lack ducts. </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete hormones into capillaries within the body. </li></ul><ul><li>May be discrete organs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary functions are the production and secretion of hormones. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. Connective Tissue <ul><li>Large amounts of extracellular (ECF) material in the spaces between connective tissue cells. </li></ul><ul><li>4 Types of Connective Tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue proper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  26. 26. Connective Tissue Proper <ul><li>Loose connective tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scattered collagen and tissue fluid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dermis of skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dense fibrous connective tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular arranged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen oriented in same direction. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregularly arranged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resists forces applied in many directions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capsules and sheaths </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  27. 27. Cartilage <ul><li>Chondrocytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive and protective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic properties to tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Precursor to many bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Articular surfaces on joints. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  28. 28. Bone <ul><li>Hydroxyapatite crystals </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone-forming cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteocytes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trapped osteoblasts: less active </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone resorbing cells </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  29. 29. Blood <ul><li>Classified as connective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Half its volume is plasma. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  30. 30. Organs <ul><li>Organs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of at least two primary tissues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve different functions of the organ. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  31. 31. Systems <ul><li>Organs that are located in different regions of the body and perform related functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GI system </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  32. 32. Body-Fluid Compartments <ul><li>65-75% of total body weight H 2 0. </li></ul><ul><li>Intracellular compartment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid inside the cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 of H 2 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extracellular compartment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 H 2 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Subdivisions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood plasma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interstitial fluid </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
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