Sexual Intercourse,Conception

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Sexual Intercourse,Conception

  1. 1. SEXUAL INTERCOURSE <ul><li>COITUS OR COPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>AT SOME POINT PENIS IS INSERTED INTO VAGINA </li></ul><ul><li>SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. THE FOUR PHASES OF SEXUAL CYCLE <ul><li>EXCITEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>PLATEAU </li></ul><ul><li>ORGASM </li></ul><ul><li>RESOLUTION </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  3. 3. EXCITEMENT <ul><li>CAN BE INITIATED PHYSICALLY (TACTILE STIMULI)AND/OR PSYCHOLOGICALLY </li></ul><ul><li>CLITORIS, SURROUNDING PERINEAL AREA AND PENIS ARE PRIMARY AREAS FOR THIS </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER SENSITIVE AREAS MAY CONTRIBUTE IF STIMULATED, BREASTS, TESTICLES, ETC. </li></ul><ul><li>ERECTION OF PENIS AND CLITORIS RESULT (CLITORIS IS A HOMOLOGUE OF THE PENIS) </li></ul><ul><li>LUBRICATION FROM VAGINAL CAPILLARIES, GLANDS AT OPENING OF VAGINA AND PENIS PREPARE FOR INTERCOURSE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. PLATEAU <ul><li>INTENSIFICATION OF CHANGES DURING EXCITEMENT PHASE </li></ul><ul><li>HEART RATE AND BREATHING CHANGES </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCLE TENSION INCREASES </li></ul><ul><li>VAGINA TIGHTENS AROUND PENIS HEIGHTENING SENSATION </li></ul><ul><li>UTERUS RAISES UPWARD CREATING SPACE FOR EJACULATE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  5. 5. MALE ORGASM <ul><li>RHYTHMIC CONTRACTIONS DURING SEMEN EXPULSION </li></ul><ul><li>INVOLUNTARY RHYTHMIC THROBBING OF PELVIC MUSCLES </li></ul><ul><li>BREATHING AND HEART RATE INCREASED </li></ul><ul><li>EMOTIONAL RESPONSE: RELEASE AND COMPLETE GRATIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>RESOLUTION PHASE INVOLVES SYMPATHETIC VASOCONSTRICTION </li></ul><ul><li>A REFRACTORY PERIOD PREVENTS MULTIPLE ORGASMS IN THE MALE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  6. 6. EPIDIDYMUS, VAS DEFERENS, URETHRA: EJACULATION <ul><li>ROUTE OF EXIT OF SPERM </li></ul><ul><li>DUCTUS DEFERNS STORES SPERM </li></ul><ul><li>DURING EMMISSION PHASE OF EJACULATION SPERM ARE EMPTIED INTO URETHRA BY SYMPATHETICALLY INDUCED CONTRACTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>MOTOR NEURON INDUCED CONTRACTIONS OF SKELETAL MUSCLES AT BASE OF PENIS EXPELL THE SEMEN DURING EXPULSION PHASE OF EJACULATION </li></ul><ul><li>EJACULATION IS A PART OF ORGASM </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  7. 7. FEMALE ORGASM <ul><li>PARALLELS THAT IN MALES WITH TWO EXCEPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>NO COUNTERPART TO EJACULATION </li></ul><ul><li>NO REFRACTORY PERIOD-MULTIPLE ORGASMS POSSIBLE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  8. 8. SEX DETERMINATION AND DIFFERENTIATION <ul><li>SEX CHROMOSOMES X AND Y </li></ul><ul><li>22 PAIRS AUTOSOMAL </li></ul><ul><li>1 PAIR DETERMINES SEX: XX OR XY </li></ul><ul><li>FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND EXTERNAL GENETALIA DEVELOP REGARDLESS </li></ul><ul><li>TESTOSTERONE PRODUCES MALE CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>EVIDENT AFTER 10 TO 12 WEEKS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  9. 9. MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>DEPENDS ON TESTOSTERONE </li></ul><ul><li>TESTICULAR LEYDIG CELLS SECRETE TESTOSTERONE </li></ul><ul><li>TESTES DESCEND AND PASS OUT OF ABDOMINAL CAVITY </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  10. 10. TESTOSTERONE: BEFORE BIRTH <ul><li>BEFORE BIRTH:MASCULINIZES REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND EXTERNAL GENETALIA </li></ul><ul><li>DESCENT OF TESTES </li></ul><ul><li>CEASES AT BIRTH </li></ul><ul><li>RETURNS AT PUBERTY </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  11. 11. PUBERTY IN THE MALE <ul><li>USUALLY 10-14 YEARS OLD </li></ul><ul><li>ENDOCRINE,PHYSICAL, AND BEHAVIORAL </li></ul><ul><li>LEYDIG CELLS “AWAKE” </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  12. 12. TESTOSTERONE: AT PUBERTY <ul><li>SPERMATOGENESIS </li></ul><ul><li>ACCESSORY SEX GLANDS ENLARGE AND BECOME SECRETORY </li></ul><ul><li>PENIS AND SCROTUM ENLARGE </li></ul><ul><li>LIBIDO </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  13. 13. EFFECTS OF TESTOSTERONE ON SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>HAIR GROWTH PATTERN </li></ul><ul><li>DEEP VOICE </li></ul><ul><li>THICK SKIN </li></ul><ul><li>MALE BODY CONFIGURATION </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  14. 14. OTHER EFFECTS OF TESTOSTERONE <ul><li>BONE GROWTH </li></ul><ul><li>PROTEIN ANABOLIC EFFECT </li></ul><ul><li>EVENTUALLY STOPS BONE GROWTH </li></ul><ul><li>AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR(IN ANIMALS) </li></ul><ul><li>MALE MENOPAUSE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  15. 15. CONTROL OF TESTICULAR FUNCTION HYPOTHALAMUS ANTERIOR PITUITARY GRH + TESTES SERTOLI CELL LEYDIG CELL TESTOSTERONE INHIBIN SPERMATOGENESIS FSH LH www.freelivedoctor.com
  16. 16. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>CYCLIC </li></ul><ul><li>OOGENESIS </li></ul><ul><li>FERTILIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>PREGNANCY </li></ul><ul><li>DELIVERY </li></ul><ul><li>MENOPAUSE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  17. 17. THE OVARIAN CYCLE <ul><li>FOLLICULAR PHASE </li></ul><ul><li>LEUTEAL PHASE </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY INTERRUPTED BY PREGNANCY </li></ul><ul><li>ENDS AT MENOPAUSE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  18. 18. FOLLICULAR PHASE <ul><li>PRIMARY OOCYTE IS IN A PREPARATORY PHASE </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST MEIOTIC DIVISION </li></ul><ul><li>OVULATION </li></ul><ul><li>ESTROGEN SECRETED FROM FOLLICLE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  19. 19. LEUTEAL PHASE <ul><li>AFTER OVULATION </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPMENT OF CORPUS LUTEUM </li></ul><ul><li>SECRETES PROGESTERONE AND ESTROGEN </li></ul><ul><li>DEGENERATES AFTER 2 WEEKS IF NOT FERTILIZED </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  20. 20. IF NOT FERTILIZED <ul><li>CORPUS LEUTEUM DEGENERATES </li></ul><ul><li>ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE LEVELS FALL </li></ul><ul><li>MENSTRUAL PHASE INVOLVES SLOUGHING OF PREPARED ENDOMETRIUM </li></ul><ul><li>NEW CYCLE STARTS-NEW FOLLICLES DEVELOP AND BEGIN SECRETING ESTROGEN </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  21. 21. CONTROL OF FSH AND LH SECRETION DURING FOLLICULAR PHASE HYPOTHALAMUS ANTERIOR PITUITARY GRH + OVARY LOW LEVELS OF ESTROGEN INHIBIN FSH LH www.freelivedoctor.com
  22. 22. CONTROL OF LH SURGE AT OVULATION HYPOTHALAMUS ANTERIOR PITUITARY GNRH + OVARY HIGH LEVELS OF ESTROGEN OVULATION FSH LH MATURE FOLLICLE www.freelivedoctor.com
  23. 23. FEEDBACK CONTROL DURING LUTEAL PHASE HYPOTHALAMUS ANTERIOR PITUITARY GNRH + OVARY HIGH LEVELS OF PROGESTERONE LH CORPUS LUTEUM MODERATE LEVELS OF ESTROGEN www.freelivedoctor.com
  24. 24. FERTILIZATION <ul><li>IN OVIDUCT </li></ul><ul><li>SPERM DEPOSITED IN VAGINA AT EJACULATION </li></ul><ul><li>TRAVEL TO OVIDUCT TAKES A LITTLE OVER 1/2 HOUR </li></ul><ul><li>CERVICAL CANAL IS OPEN DUE TO ESTROGEN BEING HIGH AND REMAINS OPEN TWO TO THREE DAYS </li></ul><ul><li>SPERM ENTER UTERUS AND ARE CHURNED AROUND </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN REACH OVIDUCT, SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS PROPELL THEM ONWARD </li></ul><ul><li>MATURE EGG RELEASES A CHEMOTACTIC AGENT </li></ul><ul><li>OUT OF SEVERAL HUNDRED MILLION ONLY A FEW THOUSAND MAKE IT </li></ul><ul><li>TAIL OF SPERM MANEUVERS IT FOR FINAL PENETRATION </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. HORMONES OF PREGNANCY <ul><li>PLACENTA IS ORGAN OF EXCHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>PLACENTA SECRETES HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (HCG)-PROLONGS LIFE OF CORPUS LUTEUM </li></ul><ul><li>ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE LEVELS EVEN HIGHER NOW </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER 10 WEEKS PLACENTA TAKES OVER </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  26. 26. PARTURITION <ul><li>POSITIVE FEEDBACK </li></ul><ul><li>CERVICAL DILATION </li></ul><ul><li>DELIVERY </li></ul><ul><li>DELIVERY OF PLACENTA </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  27. 27. LACTATION <ul><li>MAMMARY GLANDS OR BREASTS </li></ul><ul><li>MILK PRODUCING GLANDS AND FAT </li></ul><ul><li>ACTION OF ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE IS TO PREPARE GLANDS DURING PREGNANCY </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO BLOCK PROLACTIN’S STIMULATION </li></ul><ul><li>OXYTOCIN-MILK EJECTION </li></ul><ul><li>SUCKLING TRIGGERS OXYTOCIN RELEASE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com

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