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THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM www.freelivedoctor.com
ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM BRAIN SPINAL CORD CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) PERIPHERAL NERVOUS  SYSTEM AFFERENT NERV...
NEOCORTEX THALAMUS LIMBIC CORTEX BRAIN STEM SPINAL CORD NOSE EYE TONGUE EAR SKIN SMELL VISION TASTE AUDITION SOMATIC SENSO...
SENSORY MODALITIES AND RECEPTOR CELLS www.freelivedoctor.com
GRADED VS ALL OR NONE  <ul><li>A RECEPTOR’S RESPONSE TO A STIMULUS IS GRADED </li></ul><ul><li>IF THRESHOLD IS EXCEEDED, T...
SENSORY MODALITIES AND RECEPTOR CELLS www.freelivedoctor.com
SENSORY TRANSDUCTION ADEQUATE  STIMULUS MEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE CHANGE GENERATOR POTENTIAL ACTION POTENTIAL www.freelivedocto...
www.freelivedoctor.com
www.freelivedoctor.com
www.freelivedoctor.com
LOCALIZATION, DISTRIBUTION, AND ACUITY <ul><li>CODING OF LOCATION DEPENDS ON RECEPTOR LOCATION </li></ul><ul><li>AREA COVE...
www.freelivedoctor.com
SLOW PAIN <ul><li>OCCURS AFTER A SECOND OR MORE </li></ul><ul><li>OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH TISSUE DESTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><...
MECHANICAL, CHEMICAL AND THERMAL PAIN <ul><li>FAST PAIN IS GENERALLY MECHANICAL OR THERMAL </li></ul><ul><li>SLOW PAIN CAN...
BRAIN STRUCTURES AND PAIN <ul><li>COMPLETE REMOVAL OF THE SENSORY CORTEX DOES NOT DESTROY THE ABILITY TO PERCIEVE PAIN </l...
PAIN CONTROL (ANALGESIA) <ul><li>THE ANALGESIA SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>THE BRAIN’S OPIATE SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>INHIBI...
THE ANALGESIA SYSTEM <ul><li>PREAQUEDUCTAL GRAY </li></ul><ul><li>RAPHE MAGNUS NUCLEUS </li></ul><ul><li>PAIN INHIBITORY C...
PAIN INHIBITORY COMPLEX: PRESYNAPTIC INHIBITION PAIN RECEPTOR BRAIN STEM.NEURON INHIBITORY NEURON ANTEROLATERAL PATHWAY DO...
PAIN TRANSMISSION AND INHIBITION <ul><li>SUBSTANCE P IS THE NEUROTRANSMITTER: BUILDS UP SLOWLY IN THE JUNCTION AND IS SLOW...
THE BRAIN’S OPIATE SYSTEM <ul><li>OPIATE RECEPTORS EXIST IN MANY CENTERS OF THE BRAIN, ESPECIALLY IN THE ANALGESIA SYSTEM ...
INHIBITION OF PAIN BY TACTILE STIMULATION <ul><li>STIMULATION OF LARGE SENSORY FIBERS FOR TACTILE SENSATION INHIBITS PAIN ...
TREATMENT OF PAIN BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION <ul><li>STIMULATION OF  LARGE SENSORY NERVES </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRODES IN S...
REFERED PAIN <ul><li>VISCERAL PAIN FIBERS SYNAPSE ON SAME SECONDARY NEURONS AS RECEIVE PAIN FIBERS FROM SKIN </li></ul>www...
THE VISUAL SYSTEM D. C. MIKULECKY PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY AND FACULTY MENTORING PROGRAM www.freelivedoctor.com
THE VISUAL SYSTEM SENSES ELEECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION <ul><li>ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (EMR) SPANS THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPEC...
www.freelivedoctor.com
ANATOMICAL ORGANIZATION <ul><li>THE EYE </li></ul><ul><li>CORNEA AND LENS: BEND LIGHT RAYS AND FOCUS THEM ON THE RETINA </...
TEAR DUCT AND DRAINAGE CANAL PUPIL IRIS SCLERA www.freelivedoctor.com
STRUCTURE OF THE EYE www.freelivedoctor.com OPTIC DISC OPTIC NERVE BLOOD VESSELS FOVEA SCLERA RETINA CHOROID VITREOUS HUMO...
THE PHOTORECEPTORS <ul><li>RODS: CYLLINDRICALLY SHAPED- BROAD RANGE OF WAVELENGTHS, NIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>CONES: CONICAL...
BEFORE A PHOTON ARRIVES <ul><li>RHODOPSIN ABSORBS PHOTON AND CHANGES SHAPE </li></ul><ul><li>A SEQUENCE OF  BIOCHEMICAL ST...
PATHWAYS FOR VISUAL INFORMATION <ul><li>OPTIC NERVE (GANGLION CELLS FROM RETINA) </li></ul><ul><li>LEAVES THROUGH “BLIND S...
www.freelivedoctor.com
www.freelivedoctor.com
VISUAL ORIENTATION COLUMNS <ul><li>CELLS IN VARIOUS COLUMNS OF CORTEX RESPOND TO DIFFERENT ORIENTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>...
COLOR VISION <ul><li>TRICHROMATIC: RED, BLUE, GREEN </li></ul><ul><li>PARVOCELLULAR NEURONS CARRY INFORMATION </li></ul><u...
THREE KINDS OF CONES <ul><li>RED, BLUE, AND GREEN </li></ul><ul><li>CONNECT TO SMALL GANGLION CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>TRAN...
COLOR NEURONS <ul><li>BROAD BAND: SINGLE COLOR,  + INSIDE, - OUT </li></ul><ul><li>SINGLE - OPPONENT: EXITED BY ONE COLOR ...
LENS DEFECTS <ul><li>FOCUSING IN FRONT OF RETINA </li></ul><ul><li>NEARSIGHTEDNESS (MYOPIA) </li></ul><ul><li>USUALLY DUE ...
NEARSIGHTEDNESS (MYOPIA) UNCORRECTED CORRECTED www.freelivedoctor.com
FARSIGHTEDNESS (HYPEROPIA) UNCORRECTED CORRECTED www.freelivedoctor.com
VISUAL FIELD DEFECTS <ul><li>OPTIC NERVE:VISUAL FIELD ON SAME SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIC CHIASM:OUTER HALF OF BOTH VISUA...
THE AUDITORY SYSTEM AND THE CHEMICAL SENSES D. C. MIKULECKY PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY AND FACULTY MENTORING PROGRAM www.free...
THE NATURE OF SOUND <ul><li>COMPRESSION AND RARIFICATION OF AIR </li></ul><ul><li>WAVES OF HIGH AND LOW PRESSURE </li></ul...
CHARACTERISTICS OF A PRESSURE WAVE A T = WAVELENGTH A = AMPLITUDE f = 1/T FREQUENCY  www.freelivedoctor.com
ANATOMY OF THE EAR <ul><li>OUTER EAR </li></ul><ul><li>MIDDLE EAR </li></ul><ul><li>INNER EAR </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor...
OUTER EAR <ul><li>ACTS TO FOCUS SOUND WAVES ON THE TYMPANIC MEMBRANE </li></ul><ul><li>SHAPED LIKE A SOUND CONE </li></ul>...
OUTER EAR PINNA CANAL www.freelivedoctor.com
MIDDLE EAR <ul><li>THREE BONES LINK TYMPANIC MEMBRANE TO OVAL WINDOW  </li></ul><ul><li>VIBRATIONS TRANSMITTED MECHANICALL...
MIDDLE EAR TYMPANIC MEMBRANE OVAL WINDOW BONES OF MIDDLE  EAR COCHLEAR FLUID SOUND WAVE IN EAR CANAL www.freelivedoctor.com
INNER EAR <ul><li>SITE OF TRANSDUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>VIBRATION OF COCHLEAR FLUID CAUSES BASILAR MEMBRANE TO VIBRATE </...
INNER EAR OVAL WINDOW COCHLEA www.freelivedoctor.com
STRUCTURE OF THE COCHLEA SCALA  VESTIBULI COCHLEAR DUCT SCALA TYPANI OVAL WINDOW ROUND  WINDOW www.freelivedoctor.com
STRUCTURE OF COCHLEAR DUCT BASILAR MEMBRANE TECTORIAL MEMBRANE ORGAN OF CORTI www.freelivedoctor.com
TRANSDUCTION MECHANISM BASILAR MEMBRANE…..VIBRATES TECTORIAL MEMBRANE STATIONARY STEROCILIA AUDITORY NERVE HAIR CELLS www....
TRANSDUCTION MECHANISM TECTORIAL MEMBRANE STATIONARY BASILAR MEMBRANE…..VIBRATES STEROCILIA BEND AUDITORY NERVE HAIR CELLS...
FREQUENCY DISCRIMINATION: LOCALIZATION OF DISPLACEMENT OF BASILAR MEMBRANE BASE APEX HIGH LOW MID www.freelivedoctor.com
AUDITORY PATHWAYS COCHLEA VENTRAL COCHLEAR NUCLEUS MIDLINE VENTRAL COCHLEAR NUCLEUS SUPERIOR OLIVE INFERIOR COLLICULUS www...
AUDITORY PATHWAYS (CONT.) MIDLINE SUPERIOR OLIVE INFERIOR  COLLICULUS INFERIOR  COLLICULUS MEDIAL  GENICULATE MEDIAL  GENI...
CHARACTERISTICS OF A PRESSURE WAVE A T = WAVELENGTH A = AMPLITUDE f = 1/T FREQUENCY  www.freelivedoctor.com
PROPERTIES OF AUDITORY NERVE CELLS <ul><li>EACH AUDITORY NERVE FIBER HAS AN OPTIMUM FREQUENCY </li></ul><ul><li>THIS TONOT...
SOUND LOCALIZATION <ul><li>INTERAURAL TIME DIFFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>TIME DELAY BETWEEN TWO EARS </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO...
DISORDERS OF AUDITION <ul><li>LOSS OF HAIR CELLS: FREQUENCY SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>TINNITUS: RINGING </li></ul><ul><li...
THE VESTIBULAR APPARATUS <ul><li>SEMICIRCULAR CANALS: HAIR CELLS SENSE MOTION </li></ul><ul><li>THREE COORDINATE PLANES: S...
THE VESTIBULAR APPARATUS: UTRICLE & SACCULUS ONE CANAL  IN EACH COORDINATE PLANE AMPULLA UTRICLE & SACCULUS www.freelivedo...
THE UTRICLE & SACCULUS HAIR  CELLS NERVE CELLS OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE- GELATINOUS LAYER OTOCONIA (CALCIUM CARBONATE CRYSTALS) ...
THE UTRICLE & SACCULUS HAIR  CELLS NERVE CELLS OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE- GELATINOUS LAYER OTOCONIA (CALCIUM CARBONATE CRYSTALS) ...
THE VESTIBULAR APPARATUS: SEMICIRCULAR CANALS ONE CANAL  IN EACH COORDINATE PLANE AMPULLA UTRICLE & SACCULUS www.freelived...
THE AMPULLA HAIR  CELLS NERVE CELLS www.freelivedoctor.com
THE AMPULLA HAIR  CELLS BENT NERVE CELLS FIRE INERTIAL FLUID  MOVEMENT MOVEMENT OF HEAD www.freelivedoctor.com
TASTE SENSATION <ul><li>GUSTATORY RECEPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>GUSTATORY PATHWAYS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
GUSTATORY RECEPTORS <ul><li>TASTE BUDS ON TONGUE LOCALIZED </li></ul><ul><li>SWEET: TIP </li></ul><ul><li>BITTER:BACK </li...
GUSTATORY PATHWAYS <ul><li>VII, IX, X CRANIAL NERVES </li></ul><ul><li>TO GUSTATORY NUCLEUS IN BRAIN STEM </li></ul><ul><l...
THE OLIFACTORY SYSTEM <ul><li>RECEPTOR CELLS IN OLIFACTORY MUCOSAL MEMBRANE </li></ul><ul><li>AXONS CROSS CRIBIFORM PLATE ...
THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>TWO NEURON CHAINS </li></ul><ul><li>SYMPATHETIC </li></ul><ul><li>PARASYMATHETIC </li...
TWO NEURON CHAINS SPINE EFFECTOR ORGAN PRESYNAPTIC NEURON POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON www.freelivedoctor.com
SYMPATHETIC <ul><li>GANGLION NEAR SPINE </li></ul><ul><li>SHORT PREGANGLIONIC NEURONS </li></ul><ul><li>LONG POSTGANGLIONI...
PARASYMPATHETIC <ul><li>GANGLION NEAR EFFECTOR ORGAN </li></ul><ul><li>LONG PREGANGLIONIC NEURONS </li></ul><ul><li>SHORT ...
EFFECTS OF ANS www.freelivedoctor.com
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Organisation Of Peripheral Nervous System

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Transcript of "Organisation Of Peripheral Nervous System"

  1. 1. THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM BRAIN SPINAL CORD CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AFFERENT NERVES EFFERENT NERVES EXTERO- RECEPTORS INTERO- RECEPTORS SOMATIC AUTONOMIC EFFECTOR ORGANS SKELETAL MUSCLES SMOOTH AND CARDIAC MUSCLES AND GLANDS www.freelivedoctor.com
  3. 3. NEOCORTEX THALAMUS LIMBIC CORTEX BRAIN STEM SPINAL CORD NOSE EYE TONGUE EAR SKIN SMELL VISION TASTE AUDITION SOMATIC SENSORY INFORMATION TRAVELS TO THE BRAIN VIA SPECIALIZED PATHWAYS www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. SENSORY MODALITIES AND RECEPTOR CELLS www.freelivedoctor.com
  5. 5. GRADED VS ALL OR NONE <ul><li>A RECEPTOR’S RESPONSE TO A STIMULUS IS GRADED </li></ul><ul><li>IF THRESHOLD IS EXCEEDED, THE ACTION POTENTIAL RESULTING IS ALL OR NONE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  6. 6. SENSORY MODALITIES AND RECEPTOR CELLS www.freelivedoctor.com
  7. 7. SENSORY TRANSDUCTION ADEQUATE STIMULUS MEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE CHANGE GENERATOR POTENTIAL ACTION POTENTIAL www.freelivedoctor.com
  8. 8. www.freelivedoctor.com
  9. 9. www.freelivedoctor.com
  10. 10. www.freelivedoctor.com
  11. 11. LOCALIZATION, DISTRIBUTION, AND ACUITY <ul><li>CODING OF LOCATION DEPENDS ON RECEPTOR LOCATION </li></ul><ul><li>AREA COVERED BY RECEPTORS IN A SENSORY UNIT IS A RECEPTIVE FIELD </li></ul><ul><li>ACUITY DEPENDS ON THE DENSITY OF RECEPTORS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  12. 12. www.freelivedoctor.com
  13. 13. SLOW PAIN <ul><li>OCCURS AFTER A SECOND OR MORE </li></ul><ul><li>OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH TISSUE DESTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECTIVELY DESCRIBED AS BURNING, ACHING,THROBBING, NAUSEOUS, OR CHRONIC </li></ul><ul><li>C FIBERS WHICH SYNAPSE IN THE SUBSTANTIA GELITANOSA </li></ul><ul><li>FINAL PROJECTION IS THE FRONTAL CORTEX </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  14. 14. MECHANICAL, CHEMICAL AND THERMAL PAIN <ul><li>FAST PAIN IS GENERALLY MECHANICAL OR THERMAL </li></ul><ul><li>SLOW PAIN CAN BE ALL THREE </li></ul><ul><li>CHEMICAL PAIN RECEPTORS: BRADYKININ, SEROTONIN, HISTAMINE, POTASSIUM IONS, ACIDS, ACETYL CHOLINE AND PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES </li></ul><ul><li>PROSTAGLANDINS ENHANCE PAIN SENSATION </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  15. 15. BRAIN STRUCTURES AND PAIN <ul><li>COMPLETE REMOVAL OF THE SENSORY CORTEX DOES NOT DESTROY THE ABILITY TO PERCIEVE PAIN </li></ul><ul><li>STIMULATION OF THE SENSORY CORTEX EVOKES A SENSATION OF PAIN </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  16. 16. PAIN CONTROL (ANALGESIA) <ul><li>THE ANALGESIA SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>THE BRAIN’S OPIATE SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>INHIBITION OF PAIN BY TACTILE STIMULATION </li></ul><ul><li>TREATMENT OF PAIN BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION </li></ul><ul><li>REFERED PAIN </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  17. 17. THE ANALGESIA SYSTEM <ul><li>PREAQUEDUCTAL GRAY </li></ul><ul><li>RAPHE MAGNUS NUCLEUS </li></ul><ul><li>PAIN INHIBITORY COMPLEX IN DORSAL HORNS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  18. 18. PAIN INHIBITORY COMPLEX: PRESYNAPTIC INHIBITION PAIN RECEPTOR BRAIN STEM.NEURON INHIBITORY NEURON ANTEROLATERAL PATHWAY DORSAL HORN OF SPINAL CORD + - www.freelivedoctor.com
  19. 19. PAIN TRANSMISSION AND INHIBITION <ul><li>SUBSTANCE P IS THE NEUROTRANSMITTER: BUILDS UP SLOWLY IN THE JUNCTION AND IS SLOWLY DESTROYED </li></ul><ul><li>PRESYNAPTIC INHIBITION BY INHIBITORY NEURON BLOCKS THE RELEASE OF SUBSTANCE P (ENKEPHALIN) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  20. 20. THE BRAIN’S OPIATE SYSTEM <ul><li>OPIATE RECEPTORS EXIST IN MANY CENTERS OF THE BRAIN, ESPECIALLY IN THE ANALGESIA SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>AMONG THE NATURAL SUBSTANCES WHICH ACTIVATE THESE RECEPTORS ARE: ENDORPHINS, ENKEPHALINS, AND MORPHINE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  21. 21. INHIBITION OF PAIN BY TACTILE STIMULATION <ul><li>STIMULATION OF LARGE SENSORY FIBERS FOR TACTILE SENSATION INHIBITS PAIN TRANSMISSION FOR SAME REGION </li></ul><ul><li>RUBBING OFTEN EASES PAIN </li></ul><ul><li>LINAMENTS, OIL OF CLOVE, ETC. </li></ul><ul><li>POSSIBLE EXPLANATION FOR ACUPUNCTURE? </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  22. 22. TREATMENT OF PAIN BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION <ul><li>STIMULATION OF LARGE SENSORY NERVES </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRODES IN SKIN OR SPINAL IMPLANTS </li></ul><ul><li>INTRALAMINAR NUCLEUS OF THALAMUS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  23. 23. REFERED PAIN <ul><li>VISCERAL PAIN FIBERS SYNAPSE ON SAME SECONDARY NEURONS AS RECEIVE PAIN FIBERS FROM SKIN </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  24. 24. THE VISUAL SYSTEM D. C. MIKULECKY PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY AND FACULTY MENTORING PROGRAM www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. THE VISUAL SYSTEM SENSES ELEECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION <ul><li>ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (EMR) SPANS THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM (EMS) </li></ul><ul><li>FROM RADIO WAVES (VERY LONG) TO  -RADIATION (VERY SHORT) </li></ul><ul><li>VISIBLE LIGHT IS A SMALL PORTION OF THE SPECTRUM </li></ul><ul><li>PHOTONS OF LIGHT INTERACT WITH MATTER </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  26. 26. www.freelivedoctor.com
  27. 27. ANATOMICAL ORGANIZATION <ul><li>THE EYE </li></ul><ul><li>CORNEA AND LENS: BEND LIGHT RAYS AND FOCUS THEM ON THE RETINA </li></ul><ul><li>CILLIARY MUSCLES LOSSEN OR TIGHTEN TO ADJUST LENS THICKNESS </li></ul><ul><li>RETINA: SITE OF PHOTORECEPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>FOVEA: MOST SENSITVE PART OF RETINA </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  28. 28. TEAR DUCT AND DRAINAGE CANAL PUPIL IRIS SCLERA www.freelivedoctor.com
  29. 29. STRUCTURE OF THE EYE www.freelivedoctor.com OPTIC DISC OPTIC NERVE BLOOD VESSELS FOVEA SCLERA RETINA CHOROID VITREOUS HUMOR AQUEOUS HUMOR CORNEA LENS PUPIL IRIS CONJUNCTIVA CILIARY BODY SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT EXTERNAL EYE MUSCLE
  30. 30. THE PHOTORECEPTORS <ul><li>RODS: CYLLINDRICALLY SHAPED- BROAD RANGE OF WAVELENGTHS, NIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>CONES: CONICALLY SHAPED-NARROW WAVELENGTH RANGE, COLOR </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  31. 31. BEFORE A PHOTON ARRIVES <ul><li>RHODOPSIN ABSORBS PHOTON AND CHANGES SHAPE </li></ul><ul><li>A SEQUENCE OF BIOCHEMICAL STEPS </li></ul><ul><li>MEMBRANE HYPERPOLARIZED </li></ul>AFTER A PHOTON ARRIVES MEMBRANE POLARIZED NORMALLY www.freelivedoctor.com
  32. 32. PATHWAYS FOR VISUAL INFORMATION <ul><li>OPTIC NERVE (GANGLION CELLS FROM RETINA) </li></ul><ul><li>LEAVES THROUGH “BLIND SPOT” </li></ul><ul><li>LATERAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS: PROJECTS TO CORTEX </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  33. 33. www.freelivedoctor.com
  34. 34. www.freelivedoctor.com
  35. 35. VISUAL ORIENTATION COLUMNS <ul><li>CELLS IN VARIOUS COLUMNS OF CORTEX RESPOND TO DIFFERENT ORIENTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>THESE DEVELOP DURING THE EARLY VISUAL EXPERIENCES OF YOUNG ANIMALS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  36. 36. COLOR VISION <ul><li>TRICHROMATIC: RED, BLUE, GREEN </li></ul><ul><li>PARVOCELLULAR NEURONS CARRY INFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFERENT CELL TYPES </li></ul><ul><li>COLOR CONTRAST </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  37. 37. THREE KINDS OF CONES <ul><li>RED, BLUE, AND GREEN </li></ul><ul><li>CONNECT TO SMALL GANGLION CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSMIT COLOR INFORMATION TO PARVOCELLULAR NEURONS IN LGN </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  38. 38. COLOR NEURONS <ul><li>BROAD BAND: SINGLE COLOR, + INSIDE, - OUT </li></ul><ul><li>SINGLE - OPPONENT: EXITED BY ONE COLOR IN CENTER, INHIBITED WHEN ANOTHER COLOR IN PERIPHERY </li></ul><ul><li>DOUBLE OPPONENT: OPPOSING COLORS IN BOTH CENTER AND PERIPHERY </li></ul><ul><li>ANNULAR FIELDS OVERLAP TO RECTANGULAR IN CORTEX </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  39. 39. LENS DEFECTS <ul><li>FOCUSING IN FRONT OF RETINA </li></ul><ul><li>NEARSIGHTEDNESS (MYOPIA) </li></ul><ul><li>USUALLY DUE TO WEAK CILIARY MUSCLES </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUSING BEHIND THE RETINA </li></ul><ul><li>FARSIGHTEDNESS(HYPEROPIA) </li></ul><ul><li>LENS TOO STIFF (AGING) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  40. 40. NEARSIGHTEDNESS (MYOPIA) UNCORRECTED CORRECTED www.freelivedoctor.com
  41. 41. FARSIGHTEDNESS (HYPEROPIA) UNCORRECTED CORRECTED www.freelivedoctor.com
  42. 42. VISUAL FIELD DEFECTS <ul><li>OPTIC NERVE:VISUAL FIELD ON SAME SIDE </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIC CHIASM:OUTER HALF OF BOTH VISUAL FIELDS </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIC TRACT: OPPOSITE HALF IN BOTH VISUAL FIELDS </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIC RADIATIONS:LOWER OR UPPER QUADRANT ON OPPOSITE SIDE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  43. 43. THE AUDITORY SYSTEM AND THE CHEMICAL SENSES D. C. MIKULECKY PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY AND FACULTY MENTORING PROGRAM www.freelivedoctor.com
  44. 44. THE NATURE OF SOUND <ul><li>COMPRESSION AND RARIFICATION OF AIR </li></ul><ul><li>WAVES OF HIGH AND LOW PRESSURE </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSMIT MECHANICAL FORCES </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  45. 45. CHARACTERISTICS OF A PRESSURE WAVE A T = WAVELENGTH A = AMPLITUDE f = 1/T FREQUENCY www.freelivedoctor.com
  46. 46. ANATOMY OF THE EAR <ul><li>OUTER EAR </li></ul><ul><li>MIDDLE EAR </li></ul><ul><li>INNER EAR </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  47. 47. OUTER EAR <ul><li>ACTS TO FOCUS SOUND WAVES ON THE TYMPANIC MEMBRANE </li></ul><ul><li>SHAPED LIKE A SOUND CONE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  48. 48. OUTER EAR PINNA CANAL www.freelivedoctor.com
  49. 49. MIDDLE EAR <ul><li>THREE BONES LINK TYMPANIC MEMBRANE TO OVAL WINDOW </li></ul><ul><li>VIBRATIONS TRANSMITTED MECHANICALLY </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  50. 50. MIDDLE EAR TYMPANIC MEMBRANE OVAL WINDOW BONES OF MIDDLE EAR COCHLEAR FLUID SOUND WAVE IN EAR CANAL www.freelivedoctor.com
  51. 51. INNER EAR <ul><li>SITE OF TRANSDUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>VIBRATION OF COCHLEAR FLUID CAUSES BASILAR MEMBRANE TO VIBRATE </li></ul><ul><li>HAIR CELLS ARE DEFORMED </li></ul><ul><li>AUDITORY NERVE BECOMES EXCITED AS HAIR CELLS DEPOLARIZE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  52. 52. INNER EAR OVAL WINDOW COCHLEA www.freelivedoctor.com
  53. 53. STRUCTURE OF THE COCHLEA SCALA VESTIBULI COCHLEAR DUCT SCALA TYPANI OVAL WINDOW ROUND WINDOW www.freelivedoctor.com
  54. 54. STRUCTURE OF COCHLEAR DUCT BASILAR MEMBRANE TECTORIAL MEMBRANE ORGAN OF CORTI www.freelivedoctor.com
  55. 55. TRANSDUCTION MECHANISM BASILAR MEMBRANE…..VIBRATES TECTORIAL MEMBRANE STATIONARY STEROCILIA AUDITORY NERVE HAIR CELLS www.freelivedoctor.com
  56. 56. TRANSDUCTION MECHANISM TECTORIAL MEMBRANE STATIONARY BASILAR MEMBRANE…..VIBRATES STEROCILIA BEND AUDITORY NERVE HAIR CELLS www.freelivedoctor.com
  57. 57. FREQUENCY DISCRIMINATION: LOCALIZATION OF DISPLACEMENT OF BASILAR MEMBRANE BASE APEX HIGH LOW MID www.freelivedoctor.com
  58. 58. AUDITORY PATHWAYS COCHLEA VENTRAL COCHLEAR NUCLEUS MIDLINE VENTRAL COCHLEAR NUCLEUS SUPERIOR OLIVE INFERIOR COLLICULUS www.freelivedoctor.com
  59. 59. AUDITORY PATHWAYS (CONT.) MIDLINE SUPERIOR OLIVE INFERIOR COLLICULUS INFERIOR COLLICULUS MEDIAL GENICULATE MEDIAL GENICULATE TEMPORAL CORTEX TEMPORAL CORTEX www.freelivedoctor.com
  60. 60. CHARACTERISTICS OF A PRESSURE WAVE A T = WAVELENGTH A = AMPLITUDE f = 1/T FREQUENCY www.freelivedoctor.com
  61. 61. PROPERTIES OF AUDITORY NERVE CELLS <ul><li>EACH AUDITORY NERVE FIBER HAS AN OPTIMUM FREQUENCY </li></ul><ul><li>THIS TONOTOPIC ORGANIZATION ARISES FROM POSITION IN THE COCHLEA </li></ul><ul><li>TONIC AND PHASIC NEURONS IN EACH AREA </li></ul><ul><li>SOME RESPOND TO CHANGE IN FREQUENCY </li></ul><ul><li>SOME RESPOND TO CHANGE IN AMPLITUDE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  62. 62. SOUND LOCALIZATION <ul><li>INTERAURAL TIME DIFFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>TIME DELAY BETWEEN TWO EARS </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO INTENSITY DIFFERENCES </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  63. 63. DISORDERS OF AUDITION <ul><li>LOSS OF HAIR CELLS: FREQUENCY SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>TINNITUS: RINGING </li></ul><ul><li>CONDUCTIVE:l DAMAGE TO MIDDLE EAR </li></ul><ul><li>CENTRAL: BRAIN TUMORS AND LESIONS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  64. 64. THE VESTIBULAR APPARATUS <ul><li>SEMICIRCULAR CANALS: HAIR CELLS SENSE MOTION </li></ul><ul><li>THREE COORDINATE PLANES: SUPERIOR, INFERIOR, AND HORIZONTAL </li></ul><ul><li>UTRICLE AND SACCULE DETECT LINEAR ACCELERATION IN HORIZONTAL AND VERTICLE PLANES </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  65. 65. THE VESTIBULAR APPARATUS: UTRICLE & SACCULUS ONE CANAL IN EACH COORDINATE PLANE AMPULLA UTRICLE & SACCULUS www.freelivedoctor.com
  66. 66. THE UTRICLE & SACCULUS HAIR CELLS NERVE CELLS OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE- GELATINOUS LAYER OTOCONIA (CALCIUM CARBONATE CRYSTALS) www.freelivedoctor.com
  67. 67. THE UTRICLE & SACCULUS HAIR CELLS NERVE CELLS OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE- GELATINOUS LAYER OTOCONIA (CALCIUM CARBONATE CRYSTALS) HEAD MOVEMENT www.freelivedoctor.com
  68. 68. THE VESTIBULAR APPARATUS: SEMICIRCULAR CANALS ONE CANAL IN EACH COORDINATE PLANE AMPULLA UTRICLE & SACCULUS www.freelivedoctor.com
  69. 69. THE AMPULLA HAIR CELLS NERVE CELLS www.freelivedoctor.com
  70. 70. THE AMPULLA HAIR CELLS BENT NERVE CELLS FIRE INERTIAL FLUID MOVEMENT MOVEMENT OF HEAD www.freelivedoctor.com
  71. 71. TASTE SENSATION <ul><li>GUSTATORY RECEPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>GUSTATORY PATHWAYS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  72. 72. GUSTATORY RECEPTORS <ul><li>TASTE BUDS ON TONGUE LOCALIZED </li></ul><ul><li>SWEET: TIP </li></ul><ul><li>BITTER:BACK </li></ul><ul><li>SOUR SIDES </li></ul><ul><li>SALT: FRONT </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  73. 73. GUSTATORY PATHWAYS <ul><li>VII, IX, X CRANIAL NERVES </li></ul><ul><li>TO GUSTATORY NUCLEUS IN BRAIN STEM </li></ul><ul><li>VPM NUCLEUS OF THALAMUS </li></ul><ul><li>GUSTATORY AREA OF NEOCORTEX </li></ul><ul><li>VIA LIMBIC SYSTEM TO HYPOTHALAMUS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  74. 74. THE OLIFACTORY SYSTEM <ul><li>RECEPTOR CELLS IN OLIFACTORY MUCOSAL MEMBRANE </li></ul><ul><li>AXONS CROSS CRIBIFORM PLATE AND TERMINATE ON MITRAL CELLS IN OLIFACTORY BULB-FORM OLIFACTORY TRACT </li></ul><ul><li>OLIFACTORY TRACT GOES TO LIMBIC SYSTEM AND TO ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX </li></ul><ul><li>CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH EATING AND MATING BEHAVIOR </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  75. 75. THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>TWO NEURON CHAINS </li></ul><ul><li>SYMPATHETIC </li></ul><ul><li>PARASYMATHETIC </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  76. 76. TWO NEURON CHAINS SPINE EFFECTOR ORGAN PRESYNAPTIC NEURON POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON www.freelivedoctor.com
  77. 77. SYMPATHETIC <ul><li>GANGLION NEAR SPINE </li></ul><ul><li>SHORT PREGANGLIONIC NEURONS </li></ul><ul><li>LONG POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS </li></ul><ul><li>FLIGHT OR FIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS ARE ADRENERGIC </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  78. 78. PARASYMPATHETIC <ul><li>GANGLION NEAR EFFECTOR ORGAN </li></ul><ul><li>LONG PREGANGLIONIC NEURONS </li></ul><ul><li>SHORT POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS </li></ul><ul><li>“ COUCH POTATO” </li></ul><ul><li>POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS ARE CHOLINERGIC </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  79. 79. EFFECTS OF ANS www.freelivedoctor.com
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