Organisation Of Cns

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Organisation Of Cns

  1. 1. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM BRAIN SPINAL CORD CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AFFERENT NERVES EFFERENT NERVES EXTERO- RECEPTORS INTERO- RECEPTORS SOMATIC AUTONOMIC EFFECTOR ORGANS SKELETAL MUSCLES SMOOTH AND CARDIAC MUSCLES AND GLANDS www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. MAINTENANCE AND PROTECTION OF THE CNS <ul><li>Glial Cells: physical and metabolic support </li></ul><ul><li>Skull and Spinal Column </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrospinal fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Blood-brain barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Blood supply </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  3. 3. GLIAL CELLS OR NEUROGLIA : <ul><li>PHYSICAL AND METABOLIC SUPPORT </li></ul><ul><li>90% OF CELLS IN BRAIN </li></ul><ul><li>FOUR TYPES: ASTROCYTES, OLIGODENDROCYTES, EPENDYMAL CELLS, AND MICROGLIA </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. Skull and Spinal Column <ul><li>PROVIDE MECHANICAL SUPPORT </li></ul><ul><li>PROTECTS THE NEURAL AND SUPPORTING TISSUE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  5. 5. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID <ul><li>DENSITY IS THE SAME AS BRAIN </li></ul><ul><li>SHOCK ABSORBER </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  6. 6. Blood-brain barrier <ul><li>LIMITS ACCESS OF BLOOD MATERIALS TO BRAIN TISSUE </li></ul><ul><li>PROTECTS BRAIN FROM FLUCTUATIONS IN BLOOD LEVELS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  7. 7. STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN <ul><li>BRAIN STEM </li></ul><ul><li>CEREBELLUM </li></ul><ul><li>FOREBRAIN </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  8. 8. www.freelivedoctor.com
  9. 9. THE FOREBRAIN <ul><li>THE DIENCEPHALON </li></ul><ul><li>THE CEREBRUM </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  10. 10. THE DIENCEPHALON <ul><li>HYPOTHALAMUS </li></ul><ul><li>THALAMUS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  11. 11. THE CEREBRUM <ul><li>BASAL NUCLEI </li></ul><ul><li>CEREBRAL CORTEX </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  12. 12. www.freelivedoctor.com
  13. 13. WHITE AND GRAY <ul><li>GRAY MATTER - MAINLY CELL BODIES </li></ul><ul><li>WHITE MATTER - MYELINATED AXONS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  14. 14. SUBCORTICAL STRUCTURES <ul><li>BASAL GANGLIA </li></ul><ul><li>THALAMUS </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOTHALAMUS </li></ul><ul><li>LIMBIC SYSYTEM </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  15. 15. BASAL GANGLIA <ul><li>PLAY A COMPLEX ROLE IN THE CONTROL OF MOVEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>INHIBIT MUSCLE TONE THROUGHOUT BODY </li></ul><ul><li>SUPPRESS USELESS OR UNWANTED PATTERNS OF MOVEMENT </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  16. 16. THALAMUS <ul><li>RELAY STATION </li></ul><ul><li>HELP US DIRECT OUR ATTENTION </li></ul><ul><li>FILTERS OUT INSIGNIFICANT SIGNALS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  17. 17. HYPOTHALAMUS <ul><li>REGULATES HOMEOSTATIC FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>THIRST AND URINE OUTPUT </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD INTAKE </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONE SECRETION </li></ul><ul><li>BODY TEMPERATURE </li></ul><ul><li>AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM’S COORDINATING CENTER </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  18. 18. LIMBIC SYSTEM <ul><li>COMPLEX NETWORK OF FOREBRAIN STRUCTURES </li></ul><ul><li>EMOTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC SURVIVAL </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>LEARNING </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  19. 19. BEHAVIOR AND NEUROTRANSMITTERS <ul><li>NOREPINEPHRINE </li></ul><ul><li>DOPAMINE </li></ul><ul><li>SEROTONIN </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  20. 20. LEARNING AND MEMORY <ul><li>SHORT TERM VS LONG TERM </li></ul><ul><li>WORKING MEMORY </li></ul><ul><li>ASSOCIATIVE VS CONDITIONED </li></ul><ul><li>MULTIPLE LOCATIONS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  21. 21. THE MOTOR CORTEX <ul><li>SOMATOTOPIC ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>DESCENDING PATHWAYS </li></ul><ul><li>SENSORY FEEDBACK </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  22. 22. CORTICAL AREAS INVOVED IN MOTOR CONTROL www.freelivedoctor.com
  23. 23. www.freelivedoctor.com
  24. 24. SOMATOTOPIC ORGANIZATION OF THE MOTOR CORTEX www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. THE SPINAL CORD IN SOMATIC SENSORY FUNCTION <ul><li>WHITE AND GREY MATTER </li></ul><ul><li>SEGMENTAL ORGANIZATION </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  26. 26. SEGMENTAL STRUCTURE OF SPINAL NERVES DERMATOMES www.freelivedoctor.com
  27. 27. SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN GREY MATTER DORSAL VENTRAL SPINAL NERVE DORSAL ROOT GANGLION VENTRAL HORN WHITE MATTER LATERAL www.freelivedoctor.com
  28. 28. THE SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX www.freelivedoctor.com
  29. 29. SOMATOTOPIC ORGANIZATION OF THE SENSORY CORTEX www.freelivedoctor.com
  30. 30. MOTIVATIONAL SYSTEMS <ul><li>HUNGER </li></ul><ul><li>THIRST </li></ul><ul><li>SEXUAL BEHAVIOR </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  31. 31. HUNGER LACK OF FOOD REDUCED AVAILABILITY OF GLUCOSE CONTRACTIONS OF EMPTY STOMACH LOW TRIGLYCERIDE LEVELS IN FAT CELLS GLUCOSE RECEPTORS IN HYPOTHALAMUS MECHANO- RECEPTORS IN STOMACH PANCREAS HUNGER LONG TERM SHORT TERM www.freelivedoctor.com
  32. 32. THIRST WATER DEFICIENCY OSMORECEPTORS IN SUPRAOPTIC AND SUPRA- VENTRICULAR NUCLEI OF HYPOTHALAMUS THIRST ADH SERETION BY PITUITARY WATER RETENTION BY KIDNEY www.freelivedoctor.com
  33. 33. SEXUAL BEHAVIOR <ul><li>ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMUS ORGANIZES RESPONSES TO PHERMONES </li></ul><ul><li>OLIFACTORY CUES SENT TO PYRIFORM CORTEX AND AMYGDALA AND INDIRECTLY TO HYPOTHALAMUS </li></ul><ul><li>ANDROGENS DETERMINE RELEASE OF LEUTINIZING HORMONE- CONSTANT OR CYCLIC </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  34. 34. LEARNING AND MEMORY <ul><li>ASSOSCIATIVE VS NONASSOCIATIVE LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>SHORT AND LONG TERM MEMORY </li></ul><ul><li>NEURONAL PATHWAYS </li></ul><ul><li>SPLIT BRAIN STUDIES </li></ul><ul><li>CELLULAR MANIFESTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>USE AND DISUSE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  35. 35. LOCALIZATION OF LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS COMPREHENSION www.freelivedoctor.com
  36. 36. LATERALITY OF BRAIN FUNCTION <ul><li>RIGHT AND LEFT BRAIN </li></ul><ul><li>GENDER DIFFERENCES </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  37. 37. RIGHT AND LEFT BRAIN <ul><li>RIGHT HEMISPHERE: SPATIAL ABILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>LEFT HEMISPHERE: MUSICAL ABILITY </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  38. 38. GENDER DIFFERENCES <ul><li>MALES TEND TO EXHIBIT MORE LATERALIZATION OF SPECIFIC TASKS </li></ul><ul><li>FEMALES USE BOTH HEMISPHERES MORE SYMMETRICALLY </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  39. 39. ANATOMY OF THE CEREBELLUM Floculonodular Lobe Lateral Zone Intermediate Zone www.freelivedoctor.com
  40. 40. www.freelivedoctor.com
  41. 41. SOMATIC SENSORY PROJECTIONS ONTO THE CEREBELLAR CORTEX www.freelivedoctor.com
  42. 42. THE BASAL GANGLIA www.freelivedoctor.com
  43. 43. THE FLEXOR WITHDRAWAL REFLEX <ul><li>PAINFUL STIMULUS DETECTED </li></ul><ul><li>IPSILATERAL EXTENSORS INHIBITED </li></ul><ul><li>IPSILATERAL EXTENSORS EXCITED </li></ul><ul><li>LIMB IS WITHDRAWN </li></ul><ul><li>IF INVOLVING ONE FOOT WHILE STANDING, CONTRALATERAL SIDE EXTENSORS ACTIVATED AND FLEXORS INHIBITED TO SUPPORT GREATER WEIGHT </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  44. 44. FLEXOR WITHDRAWAL REFLEX STEPON TACK SENSORY SIGNAL TO SPINE VIA INTERNEURONS IPSILATERAL EXTENSORS INHIBITED IPSILATERAL FLEXORS CONTRACT-LEG LIFTS CONTRALATERAL EXTENSORS CONTRACT CONTRALATERAL FLEXORS INHIBITED- MAINTAIN BALANCE AND SUPPORT WEIGHT www.freelivedoctor.com

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