NUTRITION, ENERGY BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE REGULATION D. C. MIKULECKY PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY AND FACULTY MENTORING PROGRAM
ENERGY <ul><li>THE CAPACITY TO DO WORK </li></ul><ul><li>THE CALORIE IS THE AMMOUNT OF HEAT ENERGY NECESSARY TO RAISE THE ...
ENERGY BALANCE INPUT  -  OUTPUT = STORAGE OR DEPLETION OUTPUT = INTERNAL WORK + EXTERNAL WORK INTERNAL WORK ------> HEAT
STORAGE AND/OR DEPLETION <ul><li>NUETRAL ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN INPUT AND OUTPUT MATCH </li></ul><ul><li>POSITIVE ENER...
FOOD AS STORED FUEL <ul><li>3500 CALORIES =  1 LB OF BODY MASS </li></ul>
ENERGY INPUT  <ul><li>50% GOES TO ATP </li></ul><ul><li>50% GOES TO HEAT </li></ul><ul><li>CARBOHYDRATE, FAT AND PROTEIN <...
THE METABOLIC RATE METABOLIC RATE =  ENERGY EXPENDITURE PER UNIT TIME (Calories/hour)
FACTORS INFLUENCING METABOLIC RATE <ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD INTAKE </li></ul><ul><li>SHIVERING </li></ul><u...
BASAL METABOLIC RATE <ul><li>BODY’S “IDLING SPEED” </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT CALORIMETERY </li></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT CALORI...
CONTROL OF FOOD INTAKE <ul><li>POORLY UNDERSTOOD </li></ul><ul><li>OBESITY IS TOO MUCH STORED FAT </li></ul><ul><li>LIPOST...
FOOD INTAKE <ul><li>CONTROLED BY HYPOTHALAMUS </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING CENTERS </li></ul><ul><li>SATIETY CENTERS </li></ul>
FOOD AS FUEL <ul><li>CARBOHYDRATE 4 CAL/G </li></ul><ul><li>PROTEIN  4 CAL/G </li></ul><ul><li>FAT 9 CAL/GRAM </li></ul><u...
FOOD AS STORED FUEL <ul><li>3500 CALORIES =  1 LB OF BODY MASS </li></ul>
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS <ul><li>VALINE </li></ul><ul><li>THREONINE </li></ul><ul><li>ISOLEUCINE </li></ul><ul><li>LEUCINE </...
PROTEIN QUALITY <ul><li>ONLY 20% OF THE RDA NEEDS TO BE COMPLETE PROTEIN (11 GRAMS FOR MALES 9 GRAMS FOR FEMALES …A LITTLE...
PLANTS AND PROTEIN QUALITY
PLANTS AS A PROTEIN SOURCE <ul><li>65% OF THE PER CAPITA SUPPLY WORLD WIDE </li></ul><ul><li>32% OF THE PER CAPITA SUPPLY ...
PROTEIN SOURCES-EXCEPTIONS <ul><li>SOYBEANS </li></ul><ul><li>QUINONA </li></ul><ul><li>SPINACH </li></ul><ul><li>HAVE THE...
INCOMPLETE PROTEINS NEEDED TO MEET REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>2 2/3 CUPS COOKED WHEAT </li></ul><ul><li>3 CUPS COOKED RICE </li>...
SOME DISEASES LINKED WITH DIET <ul><li>CANCER </li></ul><ul><li>HEART DISEASE </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE </li><...
FOOD INGREDIENTS AND DISEASE <ul><li>REFINED SUGAR </li></ul><ul><li>FAT </li></ul><ul><li>SALT </li></ul><ul><li>LOW IN F...
CANCER AND DIET: PHYTOCHEMICALS <ul><li>FOUND ONLY IN PLANTS </li></ul><ul><li>IMMUNE FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONE B...
CANCER AND DIET N.R.C.RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>EAT LESS FAT (30% OR LESS 0F TOTAL CALORIES) </li></ul><ul><li>EAT FRUITS, V...
SOME WAYS TO CUT DOWN ON FAT <ul><li>EAT MORE VEGETARIAN MEALS </li></ul><ul><li>EAT MORE FRESH FRUIT OR YOGURT INSTEAD OF...
TYPES OF VEGETARIAN DIETS <ul><li>VEGAN: NO ANIMAL PRODUCTS (NEED DIETARY SUPPLIMENTS AND VARIED PROTEIN SOURCES) </li></u...
FIBER <ul><li>ROUGHLY SPEAKING, EVERYTHING IN PLANT FOODS OUR DIGESTIVE ENZYMES CAN NOT  BREAK DOWN </li></ul><ul><li>NURT...
TYPES OF FIBER <ul><li>PECTINS: IN CELL WALL OF FRUITS, BIND BILE SALTS </li></ul><ul><li>GUMS: STICKY SUBSTANCES EXUDED B...
EFFECT ON MICROFLORA <ul><li>LOWER TOTAL ANAEROBIC,  IN PARTICULAR,  CLOSTRIDIUM </li></ul><ul><li>DIET CAN ALTER THE META...
RECOMMENDED FIBER INTAKE <ul><li>20 - 25 g/day WITH AN UPPER LIMIT OF 35 g/day </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY HISTORY OF DIET-IM...
SOURCES OF FIBER <ul><li>LEGUMES (ALSO PROTEIN SOURCE) </li></ul><ul><li>FRUITS AND VEGETABLES </li></ul><ul><li>WHOLE GRA...
PROPOSED MECHANISMS FOR FIBER CANCER PREVENTION <ul><li>INCREASED FECAL BULK DECREASES CARCINOGEN CONCENTRATION </li></ul>...
CHELATORS LOWER MINERAL ABSORPTION <ul><li>PHYTATES </li></ul><ul><li>OXALATES </li></ul>
TEMPERATURE REGULATION <ul><li>INTERNAL CORE TEMPERATURE IS 100 DEGREES F </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT BALANCE RESEMBLES ENERGY ...
HEAT BALANCE RESEMBLES ENERGY BALANCE INPUT -  OUTPUT = +  >>RISE IN TEMPERATURE  INPUT -  OUTPUT = -  >>FALL  IN TEMPERAT...
HEAT EXCHANGE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>HEAT ALWAYS MOVES FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE TO LOW </li></ul><ul><li>RADIATION </li...
RADIATION <ul><li>THE EMISSION OF HEAT ENERGY BY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, IN THE FORM OF HEAT WAVES </li></ul>
CONDUCTION <ul><li>TRANSFER OF HEAT BETWEEN BODIES AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE IN CONTACT WITH EACH OTHER </li></ul>
CONVECTION <ul><li>TRANSFER OF HEAT BY AIR CURRENTS </li></ul>
EVAPORATION <ul><li>THE TRANSITION FROM LIQUID TO GAS USES HEAT ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>UNCONTROLLED: FROM RESPIRATORY TR...
THERMOREGULATION PATHWAYS <ul><li>INPUTS TO HYPOTHALAMUS </li></ul><ul><li>BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES </li></ul><ul><li>SHIVERIN...
INPUTS TO HYPOTHALAMUS <ul><li>FROM THE SKIN: PERIPHERAL THERMORECEPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>FROM THE CORE: CENTRAL THERMORE...
BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES <ul><li>MOVE TO A MORE SUITABLE LOCATION (SHADE, INDOORS, ETC.) </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGE CLOTHING </l...
SHIVERING <ul><li>RHYTHMIC, OSCILLATING SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS (ABOUT 10-20 PER SECOND) </li></ul><ul><li>MAY INCREA...
VASODILATION OR CONSTRICTION OF BLOOD VESSELS IN THE SKIN <ul><li>SKIN BLOOD FLOW VARIES FROM 400 ML/MIN TO 2,500 ML/MN </...
SWEATING <ul><li>CONTROLED BY SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>DEPENDS ON RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF SURROUNDING AIR...
CENTRAL CONTROL <ul><li>HYPOTHALAMUS  CONTROLS </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT LOSS </li></ul><ul...
FEVER <ul><li>FIGHTS INFECTION </li></ul><ul><li>ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN FROM WBC </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL RELEASE OF PROSTAGLAN...
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Nutrition,Energybalance&Temperature Regulation

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Nutrition,Energybalance&Temperature Regulation

  1. 1. NUTRITION, ENERGY BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE REGULATION D. C. MIKULECKY PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY AND FACULTY MENTORING PROGRAM
  2. 2. ENERGY <ul><li>THE CAPACITY TO DO WORK </li></ul><ul><li>THE CALORIE IS THE AMMOUNT OF HEAT ENERGY NECESSARY TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE OF 1 GRAM OF WATER 1 DEGREE CENTIGRADE </li></ul><ul><li>THE NUTRITIONAL CALORIE IS 1000 CALORIES OR THE KILOCALORIE </li></ul>
  3. 3. ENERGY BALANCE INPUT - OUTPUT = STORAGE OR DEPLETION OUTPUT = INTERNAL WORK + EXTERNAL WORK INTERNAL WORK ------> HEAT
  4. 4. STORAGE AND/OR DEPLETION <ul><li>NUETRAL ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN INPUT AND OUTPUT MATCH </li></ul><ul><li>POSITIVE ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN INTAKE EXCEEDS OUTPUT - ENERGY IS STORED AS GLYCOGEN OR FAT </li></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN OUTPUT EXCEEDS INTAKE- ENERGY STORES ARE DEPLETED </li></ul>
  5. 5. FOOD AS STORED FUEL <ul><li>3500 CALORIES = 1 LB OF BODY MASS </li></ul>
  6. 6. ENERGY INPUT <ul><li>50% GOES TO ATP </li></ul><ul><li>50% GOES TO HEAT </li></ul><ul><li>CARBOHYDRATE, FAT AND PROTEIN </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE METABOLIC RATE METABOLIC RATE = ENERGY EXPENDITURE PER UNIT TIME (Calories/hour)
  8. 8. FACTORS INFLUENCING METABOLIC RATE <ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD INTAKE </li></ul><ul><li>SHIVERING </li></ul><ul><li>ANXIETY </li></ul>
  9. 9. BASAL METABOLIC RATE <ul><li>BODY’S “IDLING SPEED” </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT CALORIMETERY </li></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT CALORIMETERY </li></ul>
  10. 10. CONTROL OF FOOD INTAKE <ul><li>POORLY UNDERSTOOD </li></ul><ul><li>OBESITY IS TOO MUCH STORED FAT </li></ul><ul><li>LIPOSTATIC THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>GI DISTENSION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>GLUCOSTATIC THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>ISCHYMETRIC THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>CCK SECRETION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOSOCIAL INFLUENCES </li></ul>
  11. 11. FOOD INTAKE <ul><li>CONTROLED BY HYPOTHALAMUS </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING CENTERS </li></ul><ul><li>SATIETY CENTERS </li></ul>
  12. 12. FOOD AS FUEL <ul><li>CARBOHYDRATE 4 CAL/G </li></ul><ul><li>PROTEIN 4 CAL/G </li></ul><ul><li>FAT 9 CAL/GRAM </li></ul><ul><li>ETHANOL 7 CAL/G </li></ul>
  13. 13. FOOD AS STORED FUEL <ul><li>3500 CALORIES = 1 LB OF BODY MASS </li></ul>
  14. 14. ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS <ul><li>VALINE </li></ul><ul><li>THREONINE </li></ul><ul><li>ISOLEUCINE </li></ul><ul><li>LEUCINE </li></ul><ul><li>HISTADINE (IN INFANTS) </li></ul><ul><li>METHIONINE, </li></ul><ul><li>PHENYLALANINE </li></ul><ul><li>TRYPTOPHAN </li></ul><ul><li>LYSINE </li></ul>
  15. 15. PROTEIN QUALITY <ul><li>ONLY 20% OF THE RDA NEEDS TO BE COMPLETE PROTEIN (11 GRAMS FOR MALES 9 GRAMS FOR FEMALES …A LITTLE MORE THAN SUPPLIED BY A GLASS OF MILK) </li></ul><ul><li>MORE DIVERSITY IS THE KEY THOUGH: 60% RDA FROM GRAIN, 35% FROM LEGUMES, 5% FROM GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES </li></ul>
  16. 16. PLANTS AND PROTEIN QUALITY
  17. 17. PLANTS AS A PROTEIN SOURCE <ul><li>65% OF THE PER CAPITA SUPPLY WORLD WIDE </li></ul><ul><li>32% OF THE PER CAPITA SUPPLY IN THE US </li></ul>
  18. 18. PROTEIN SOURCES-EXCEPTIONS <ul><li>SOYBEANS </li></ul><ul><li>QUINONA </li></ul><ul><li>SPINACH </li></ul><ul><li>HAVE THE SAME QUALITY AS MILK </li></ul>
  19. 19. INCOMPLETE PROTEINS NEEDED TO MEET REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>2 2/3 CUPS COOKED WHEAT </li></ul><ul><li>3 CUPS COOKED RICE </li></ul><ul><li>5 3/4 SLICES BASIC BREAD </li></ul><ul><li>3 CUPS DICED POTATOES </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 CUP SOY SPREAD </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 CUP WHEAT GERM </li></ul><ul><li>2 3/4 CUPS RICE WITH 1/3 CUP COOKED PEAS </li></ul>
  20. 20. SOME DISEASES LINKED WITH DIET <ul><li>CANCER </li></ul><ul><li>HEART DISEASE </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE </li></ul><ul><li>OBESITY </li></ul><ul><li>DIVERTICULITIS </li></ul>
  21. 21. FOOD INGREDIENTS AND DISEASE <ul><li>REFINED SUGAR </li></ul><ul><li>FAT </li></ul><ul><li>SALT </li></ul><ul><li>LOW IN FIBER </li></ul>
  22. 22. CANCER AND DIET: PHYTOCHEMICALS <ul><li>FOUND ONLY IN PLANTS </li></ul><ul><li>IMMUNE FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>HORMONE BALANCE </li></ul><ul><li>DETOXIFICATION </li></ul>
  23. 23. CANCER AND DIET N.R.C.RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>EAT LESS FAT (30% OR LESS 0F TOTAL CALORIES) </li></ul><ul><li>EAT FRUITS, VEGITABLES, AND WHOLE-GRAIN CEREAL FOODS EVERY DAY (ESPECIALLY THOSE HIGH IN VITAMINS A AND C) </li></ul><ul><li>AVOID HIGH DOSE SUPPLIMENTS OF VITAMINS OR OTHER NUTRIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>ALCOHOL ONLY IN MODERATION </li></ul>
  24. 24. SOME WAYS TO CUT DOWN ON FAT <ul><li>EAT MORE VEGETARIAN MEALS </li></ul><ul><li>EAT MORE FRESH FRUIT OR YOGURT INSTEAD OF DESSERTS </li></ul><ul><li>USE YOGURT AS DRESSING INSTEAD OF OIL </li></ul><ul><li>USE FRESH HERBS INSTEAD OF BUTTER (AND INSTEAD OF SALT) </li></ul>
  25. 25. TYPES OF VEGETARIAN DIETS <ul><li>VEGAN: NO ANIMAL PRODUCTS (NEED DIETARY SUPPLIMENTS AND VARIED PROTEIN SOURCES) </li></ul><ul><li>LACTO: +DAIRY PRODUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>LACTO-OVO: +EGGS </li></ul>
  26. 26. FIBER <ul><li>ROUGHLY SPEAKING, EVERYTHING IN PLANT FOODS OUR DIGESTIVE ENZYMES CAN NOT BREAK DOWN </li></ul><ul><li>NURTURES AEROBIC BACTERIA IN GUT </li></ul><ul><li>SOLUABLE FIBER REDUCES INSULIN NEED IN DIABETICS </li></ul><ul><li>CHELATORS-INCREASE NEED FOR MINERALS </li></ul>
  27. 27. TYPES OF FIBER <ul><li>PECTINS: IN CELL WALL OF FRUITS, BIND BILE SALTS </li></ul><ul><li>GUMS: STICKY SUBSTANCES EXUDED BY PLANTS, LOWER CHOLESTEROL UPTAKE AND SLOW SUGAR ABSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>CELLULOSE: PLANT CELL WALLS, BULK AND TOXIN ELIMINATION </li></ul><ul><li>HEMICELLULOSES: PLANT CELL WALLS, BULK </li></ul><ul><li>LIGNIN: ROOT VEGETABLES, BULK </li></ul>
  28. 28. EFFECT ON MICROFLORA <ul><li>LOWER TOTAL ANAEROBIC, IN PARTICULAR, CLOSTRIDIUM </li></ul><ul><li>DIET CAN ALTER THE METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF THE FLORA </li></ul><ul><li>MEAT AND UNREFINED SUGAR INCREASES UNWANTED BACTERIA </li></ul><ul><li>VEGETARIAN DIET LOWERS RISKS OF BOWEL CANCER </li></ul>
  29. 29. RECOMMENDED FIBER INTAKE <ul><li>20 - 25 g/day WITH AN UPPER LIMIT OF 35 g/day </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY HISTORY OF DIET-IMPLICATED CANCER 35-40 g/day </li></ul><ul><li>DIABETICS UP TO 50 g/day </li></ul>
  30. 30. SOURCES OF FIBER <ul><li>LEGUMES (ALSO PROTEIN SOURCE) </li></ul><ul><li>FRUITS AND VEGETABLES </li></ul><ul><li>WHOLE GRAIN CEREALS AND FLOURS </li></ul>
  31. 31. PROPOSED MECHANISMS FOR FIBER CANCER PREVENTION <ul><li>INCREASED FECAL BULK DECREASES CARCINOGEN CONCENTRATION </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGE IN FLORA </li></ul><ul><li>SHORTENED TRANSIT TIME DECREASES CONTACT TIME AND TIME FOR SYNTHESIS OF TOXINS </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGE IN pH </li></ul>
  32. 32. CHELATORS LOWER MINERAL ABSORPTION <ul><li>PHYTATES </li></ul><ul><li>OXALATES </li></ul>
  33. 33. TEMPERATURE REGULATION <ul><li>INTERNAL CORE TEMPERATURE IS 100 DEGREES F </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT BALANCE RESEMBLES ENERGY BALANCE </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT EXCHANGE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT </li></ul>
  34. 34. HEAT BALANCE RESEMBLES ENERGY BALANCE INPUT - OUTPUT = + >>RISE IN TEMPERATURE INPUT - OUTPUT = - >>FALL IN TEMPERATURE INPUT - OUTPUT = 0 >>NO CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE
  35. 35. HEAT EXCHANGE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>HEAT ALWAYS MOVES FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE TO LOW </li></ul><ul><li>RADIATION </li></ul><ul><li>CONDUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>CONVECTION </li></ul><ul><li>EVAPORATION </li></ul>
  36. 36. RADIATION <ul><li>THE EMISSION OF HEAT ENERGY BY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, IN THE FORM OF HEAT WAVES </li></ul>
  37. 37. CONDUCTION <ul><li>TRANSFER OF HEAT BETWEEN BODIES AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE IN CONTACT WITH EACH OTHER </li></ul>
  38. 38. CONVECTION <ul><li>TRANSFER OF HEAT BY AIR CURRENTS </li></ul>
  39. 39. EVAPORATION <ul><li>THE TRANSITION FROM LIQUID TO GAS USES HEAT ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>UNCONTROLLED: FROM RESPIRATORY TRACT AND SKIN SURFACE </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROLLED: SWEATING </li></ul>
  40. 40. THERMOREGULATION PATHWAYS <ul><li>INPUTS TO HYPOTHALAMUS </li></ul><ul><li>BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES </li></ul><ul><li>SHIVERING </li></ul><ul><li>VASODILATION OR CONSTRICTION OF BLOOD VESSELS IN THE SKIN </li></ul><ul><li>SWEATING </li></ul>
  41. 41. INPUTS TO HYPOTHALAMUS <ul><li>FROM THE SKIN: PERIPHERAL THERMORECEPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>FROM THE CORE: CENTRAL THERMORECEPTORS </li></ul>
  42. 42. BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES <ul><li>MOVE TO A MORE SUITABLE LOCATION (SHADE, INDOORS, ETC.) </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGE CLOTHING </li></ul><ul><li>CHANGE ACTIVITY LEVEL </li></ul>
  43. 43. SHIVERING <ul><li>RHYTHMIC, OSCILLATING SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS (ABOUT 10-20 PER SECOND) </li></ul><ul><li>MAY INCREASE INTERNAL HEAT PRODUCTION 2-5 TIMES. </li></ul><ul><li>CHEMICAL THERMOGENESIS (BROWN FAT) </li></ul>
  44. 44. VASODILATION OR CONSTRICTION OF BLOOD VESSELS IN THE SKIN <ul><li>SKIN BLOOD FLOW VARIES FROM 400 ML/MIN TO 2,500 ML/MN </li></ul><ul><li>VASOCONSTRICTION OR DILATION OF THE BLOOD VESSELS IN THE SKIN IS CONTROLLED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS </li></ul>
  45. 45. SWEATING <ul><li>CONTROLED BY SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>DEPENDS ON RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF SURROUNDING AIR </li></ul>
  46. 46. CENTRAL CONTROL <ul><li>HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT LOSS </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT CONSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>REGULATES CORE TEMPERATURE HOMEOSTATICALLY </li></ul>
  47. 47. FEVER <ul><li>FIGHTS INFECTION </li></ul><ul><li>ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN FROM WBC </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL RELEASE OF PROSTAGLANDINS </li></ul><ul><li>“RESETS THERMOSTAT” </li></ul><ul><li>SHIVERING </li></ul><ul><li>SKIN VASOCONSTRICTION </li></ul>

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