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Nutrition,Energybalance&Temperature Regulation
 

Nutrition,Energybalance&Temperature Regulation

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    Nutrition,Energybalance&Temperature Regulation Nutrition,Energybalance&Temperature Regulation Presentation Transcript

    • NUTRITION, ENERGY BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE REGULATION D. C. MIKULECKY PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY AND FACULTY MENTORING PROGRAM
    • ENERGY
      • THE CAPACITY TO DO WORK
      • THE CALORIE IS THE AMMOUNT OF HEAT ENERGY NECESSARY TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE OF 1 GRAM OF WATER 1 DEGREE CENTIGRADE
      • THE NUTRITIONAL CALORIE IS 1000 CALORIES OR THE KILOCALORIE
    • ENERGY BALANCE INPUT - OUTPUT = STORAGE OR DEPLETION OUTPUT = INTERNAL WORK + EXTERNAL WORK INTERNAL WORK ------> HEAT
    • STORAGE AND/OR DEPLETION
      • NUETRAL ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN INPUT AND OUTPUT MATCH
      • POSITIVE ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN INTAKE EXCEEDS OUTPUT - ENERGY IS STORED AS GLYCOGEN OR FAT
      • NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN OUTPUT EXCEEDS INTAKE- ENERGY STORES ARE DEPLETED
    • FOOD AS STORED FUEL
      • 3500 CALORIES = 1 LB OF BODY MASS
    • ENERGY INPUT
      • 50% GOES TO ATP
      • 50% GOES TO HEAT
      • CARBOHYDRATE, FAT AND PROTEIN
    • THE METABOLIC RATE METABOLIC RATE = ENERGY EXPENDITURE PER UNIT TIME (Calories/hour)
    • FACTORS INFLUENCING METABOLIC RATE
      • EXERCISE
      • FOOD INTAKE
      • SHIVERING
      • ANXIETY
    • BASAL METABOLIC RATE
      • BODY’S “IDLING SPEED”
      • DIRECT CALORIMETERY
      • INDIRECT CALORIMETERY
    • CONTROL OF FOOD INTAKE
      • POORLY UNDERSTOOD
      • OBESITY IS TOO MUCH STORED FAT
      • LIPOSTATIC THEORY
      • GI DISTENSION THEORY
      • GLUCOSTATIC THEORY
      • ISCHYMETRIC THEORY
      • CCK SECRETION THEORY
      • PSYCHOSOCIAL INFLUENCES
    • FOOD INTAKE
      • CONTROLED BY HYPOTHALAMUS
      • FEEDING CENTERS
      • SATIETY CENTERS
    • FOOD AS FUEL
      • CARBOHYDRATE 4 CAL/G
      • PROTEIN 4 CAL/G
      • FAT 9 CAL/GRAM
      • ETHANOL 7 CAL/G
    • FOOD AS STORED FUEL
      • 3500 CALORIES = 1 LB OF BODY MASS
    • ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
      • VALINE
      • THREONINE
      • ISOLEUCINE
      • LEUCINE
      • HISTADINE (IN INFANTS)
      • METHIONINE,
      • PHENYLALANINE
      • TRYPTOPHAN
      • LYSINE
    • PROTEIN QUALITY
      • ONLY 20% OF THE RDA NEEDS TO BE COMPLETE PROTEIN (11 GRAMS FOR MALES 9 GRAMS FOR FEMALES …A LITTLE MORE THAN SUPPLIED BY A GLASS OF MILK)
      • MORE DIVERSITY IS THE KEY THOUGH: 60% RDA FROM GRAIN, 35% FROM LEGUMES, 5% FROM GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES
    • PLANTS AND PROTEIN QUALITY
    • PLANTS AS A PROTEIN SOURCE
      • 65% OF THE PER CAPITA SUPPLY WORLD WIDE
      • 32% OF THE PER CAPITA SUPPLY IN THE US
    • PROTEIN SOURCES-EXCEPTIONS
      • SOYBEANS
      • QUINONA
      • SPINACH
      • HAVE THE SAME QUALITY AS MILK
    • INCOMPLETE PROTEINS NEEDED TO MEET REQUIREMENTS
      • 2 2/3 CUPS COOKED WHEAT
      • 3 CUPS COOKED RICE
      • 5 3/4 SLICES BASIC BREAD
      • 3 CUPS DICED POTATOES
      • 1/3 CUP SOY SPREAD
      • 1/2 CUP WHEAT GERM
      • 2 3/4 CUPS RICE WITH 1/3 CUP COOKED PEAS
    • SOME DISEASES LINKED WITH DIET
      • CANCER
      • HEART DISEASE
      • HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
      • OBESITY
      • DIVERTICULITIS
    • FOOD INGREDIENTS AND DISEASE
      • REFINED SUGAR
      • FAT
      • SALT
      • LOW IN FIBER
    • CANCER AND DIET: PHYTOCHEMICALS
      • FOUND ONLY IN PLANTS
      • IMMUNE FUNCTION
      • HORMONE BALANCE
      • DETOXIFICATION
    • CANCER AND DIET N.R.C.RECOMMENDATIONS
      • EAT LESS FAT (30% OR LESS 0F TOTAL CALORIES)
      • EAT FRUITS, VEGITABLES, AND WHOLE-GRAIN CEREAL FOODS EVERY DAY (ESPECIALLY THOSE HIGH IN VITAMINS A AND C)
      • AVOID HIGH DOSE SUPPLIMENTS OF VITAMINS OR OTHER NUTRIENTS
      • ALCOHOL ONLY IN MODERATION
    • SOME WAYS TO CUT DOWN ON FAT
      • EAT MORE VEGETARIAN MEALS
      • EAT MORE FRESH FRUIT OR YOGURT INSTEAD OF DESSERTS
      • USE YOGURT AS DRESSING INSTEAD OF OIL
      • USE FRESH HERBS INSTEAD OF BUTTER (AND INSTEAD OF SALT)
    • TYPES OF VEGETARIAN DIETS
      • VEGAN: NO ANIMAL PRODUCTS (NEED DIETARY SUPPLIMENTS AND VARIED PROTEIN SOURCES)
      • LACTO: +DAIRY PRODUCTS
      • LACTO-OVO: +EGGS
    • FIBER
      • ROUGHLY SPEAKING, EVERYTHING IN PLANT FOODS OUR DIGESTIVE ENZYMES CAN NOT BREAK DOWN
      • NURTURES AEROBIC BACTERIA IN GUT
      • SOLUABLE FIBER REDUCES INSULIN NEED IN DIABETICS
      • CHELATORS-INCREASE NEED FOR MINERALS
    • TYPES OF FIBER
      • PECTINS: IN CELL WALL OF FRUITS, BIND BILE SALTS
      • GUMS: STICKY SUBSTANCES EXUDED BY PLANTS, LOWER CHOLESTEROL UPTAKE AND SLOW SUGAR ABSORPTION
      • CELLULOSE: PLANT CELL WALLS, BULK AND TOXIN ELIMINATION
      • HEMICELLULOSES: PLANT CELL WALLS, BULK
      • LIGNIN: ROOT VEGETABLES, BULK
    • EFFECT ON MICROFLORA
      • LOWER TOTAL ANAEROBIC, IN PARTICULAR, CLOSTRIDIUM
      • DIET CAN ALTER THE METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF THE FLORA
      • MEAT AND UNREFINED SUGAR INCREASES UNWANTED BACTERIA
      • VEGETARIAN DIET LOWERS RISKS OF BOWEL CANCER
    • RECOMMENDED FIBER INTAKE
      • 20 - 25 g/day WITH AN UPPER LIMIT OF 35 g/day
      • FAMILY HISTORY OF DIET-IMPLICATED CANCER 35-40 g/day
      • DIABETICS UP TO 50 g/day
    • SOURCES OF FIBER
      • LEGUMES (ALSO PROTEIN SOURCE)
      • FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
      • WHOLE GRAIN CEREALS AND FLOURS
    • PROPOSED MECHANISMS FOR FIBER CANCER PREVENTION
      • INCREASED FECAL BULK DECREASES CARCINOGEN CONCENTRATION
      • CHANGE IN FLORA
      • SHORTENED TRANSIT TIME DECREASES CONTACT TIME AND TIME FOR SYNTHESIS OF TOXINS
      • CHANGE IN pH
    • CHELATORS LOWER MINERAL ABSORPTION
      • PHYTATES
      • OXALATES
    • TEMPERATURE REGULATION
      • INTERNAL CORE TEMPERATURE IS 100 DEGREES F
      • HEAT BALANCE RESEMBLES ENERGY BALANCE
      • HEAT EXCHANGE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT
    • HEAT BALANCE RESEMBLES ENERGY BALANCE INPUT - OUTPUT = + >>RISE IN TEMPERATURE INPUT - OUTPUT = - >>FALL IN TEMPERATURE INPUT - OUTPUT = 0 >>NO CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE
    • HEAT EXCHANGE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT
      • HEAT ALWAYS MOVES FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE TO LOW
      • RADIATION
      • CONDUCTION
      • CONVECTION
      • EVAPORATION
    • RADIATION
      • THE EMISSION OF HEAT ENERGY BY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, IN THE FORM OF HEAT WAVES
    • CONDUCTION
      • TRANSFER OF HEAT BETWEEN BODIES AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE IN CONTACT WITH EACH OTHER
    • CONVECTION
      • TRANSFER OF HEAT BY AIR CURRENTS
    • EVAPORATION
      • THE TRANSITION FROM LIQUID TO GAS USES HEAT ENERGY
      • UNCONTROLLED: FROM RESPIRATORY TRACT AND SKIN SURFACE
      • CONTROLLED: SWEATING
    • THERMOREGULATION PATHWAYS
      • INPUTS TO HYPOTHALAMUS
      • BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES
      • SHIVERING
      • VASODILATION OR CONSTRICTION OF BLOOD VESSELS IN THE SKIN
      • SWEATING
    • INPUTS TO HYPOTHALAMUS
      • FROM THE SKIN: PERIPHERAL THERMORECEPTORS
      • FROM THE CORE: CENTRAL THERMORECEPTORS
    • BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES
      • MOVE TO A MORE SUITABLE LOCATION (SHADE, INDOORS, ETC.)
      • CHANGE CLOTHING
      • CHANGE ACTIVITY LEVEL
    • SHIVERING
      • RHYTHMIC, OSCILLATING SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS (ABOUT 10-20 PER SECOND)
      • MAY INCREASE INTERNAL HEAT PRODUCTION 2-5 TIMES.
      • CHEMICAL THERMOGENESIS (BROWN FAT)
    • VASODILATION OR CONSTRICTION OF BLOOD VESSELS IN THE SKIN
      • SKIN BLOOD FLOW VARIES FROM 400 ML/MIN TO 2,500 ML/MN
      • VASOCONSTRICTION OR DILATION OF THE BLOOD VESSELS IN THE SKIN IS CONTROLLED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS
    • SWEATING
      • CONTROLED BY SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
      • DEPENDS ON RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF SURROUNDING AIR
    • CENTRAL CONTROL
      • HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS
      • HEAT PRODUCTION
      • HEAT LOSS
      • HEAT CONSERVATION
      • REGULATES CORE TEMPERATURE HOMEOSTATICALLY
    • FEVER
      • FIGHTS INFECTION
      • ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN FROM WBC
      • LOCAL RELEASE OF PROSTAGLANDINS
      • “RESETS THERMOSTAT”
      • SHIVERING
      • SKIN VASOCONSTRICTION