Membrane Transport&Membrane Potential

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  • 1. Membranes and Transport (Keeping the in in and the out out) www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 2. Lipid Aggregation
    • Like dissolves like
    • Polar part interacts with water
      • Head groups
        • Cholines, phosphates, serines etc
    • Nonpolar parts stay away from water
      • Fatty acid tails
      • Form micelles or bilayers
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 3. Lipid Structures In water www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 4. Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell Membranes www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 5. Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell Membranes
    • Membrane mostly lipid
      • PC, PS, PE etc
      • Also glycolipids
        • Cerebrosides and gangliosides
    • Protein scattered throughout
      • Integral
      • Peripheral
      • Specifics depend on membrane
    • Proteins in a lipid ocean
    • 2D diffusion
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 6. Membranes Assymetrical
    • Lipids
      • Inner v outer leaf
      • Large barrier to transfer between leaves
      • In general smaller on inner leaf
        • Inner leaf less roomy
      • Gangliosides on outer
    • Proteins
      • Different in different leaves
      • Different roles
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 7. Transport across the membrane
    • Moving particles
      • Diffusion
        • Simple
        • Facilitated
      • Active Transport
      • Endocytosis
      • Receptor mediated endocytosis
    • Moving information
      • Signal transduction
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 8. Diffusion
    • With concentration gradient
      • Swimming downstream
        • Simple
          • Molecules moving with gradient
          • Osmosis
          • Uniport
          • Symport
          • antiport
        • Facilitated
          • Uses carrier
          • Carnitine example
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 9. Active Transport
    • Requires Energy in the form of ATP
    • Against concentration gradient
    • Example: Na + /K + pump
    • Enzyme is Na+-K+-ATPase
    • 3 Na + ions move in 2 K + ions move out
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 10. Active Transport www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 11. Sodium Potassium Pump
    • Maintains an electrical gradient that is the basis for excitability in nerve and muscle cells. Where is the cell more negative? Inside or out? Inside! This is important for propogation of signals in neurons
    • Export of sodium from the cell provides the driving force for several facilitated
    • transporters, which import glucose, amino acids and other nutrients into the cell.
    • Creates an osmostic gradient that drives absorption of water. Examples are found in small intestine and in the kidney.
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 12. Voltage Gated Channels
    • some electrical event triggers the voltage-gated channels to open
    • Changes in cell voltages such as a signal moving down a neuron
    • the Na+ V-gated channel opens immediately
    • Na+ ions flood into the cell (along their concentration gradient)
    • the K + channel opens AND the Na+ V-gated channel inactivates
    • K+ ions flood out of the cell (along their concentration gradient)
    • the Na+/K+ pump uses ATP to try to restore the concentration gradients
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 13. Voltage Gated channel www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 14. Endocytosis
    • No, its not a disease!
    • Use pinching and blebbing
      • Compartmentalization maintained
      • Fate once inside depends on what endocytosed
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 15. Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
    • Very specific
    • First step is binding event
    • Clathrin pits
      • Binding of receptor to ligand causes cytoplasmic change so receptor binds to clathrates
      • Causes clathrates to polymerize
      • Causes pinching in of vesicle
    • Fate depends on what brought in
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 16. Receptor Mediated Endocytosis www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 17. Clathrin Pits www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 18. Receptor - Mediated Signal Transduction
    • Binding event on receptor on outside of cell causes information to pass into cell
      • Hormone: Endocrine system responds to messages sent by nervous system and synthesizes chemical messengers
    off on www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 19. Signaling molecules may trigger
    • an immediate change in the metabolism of the cell (e.g., increased glycogenolysis when a liver cell detects adrenaline )
    • an immediate change in the electrical charge across the plasma membrane (e.g., the source of action potentials )
    • a change in the gene expression — transcription — within the nucleus. (These responses take more time.)
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 20. Second messengers
    • Often binding event (hormone on receptor) causes the formation of another molecule on the inside of the cell called secondary messengers
      • cAMP
      • Inositol
      • Ca 2+
    • Release causes cascade of events on inside
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 21. Hormones and G-Proteins www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 22. cAMP as a secondary messenger
    • Hormone binding on outside
    • Receptor is membrane bound
    • G-proteins relay hormonal signal to other proteins by Phosphorylase Cascade
    • Adenylate cyclase is activated: converts ATP to cAMP
    • Release of c-AMP
      • Activates cAMP dependent proteins in cell interior such as protein kinases
      • Target enzyme either increases or decreases activity
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 23. Phosphorylase Cascade www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 24. Physiological Effects Communicated by cAMP www.freelivedoctor.com Epinephrine Skeletal muscle Glycogen degradation Adipose tissue Triacylglycerol degradation Heart Increased heart rate Intestine Fluid secretion Smooth muscle Relaxation: (Ca 2+ ) Glucagon Liver Glycogen degradation Blood platelets Inhibition of secretion Adipose Decreased triacylglycerol degradation
  • 25. What is a popular habit-forming molecule and how does it affect cAMP? (hint…every morning!) www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 26. Caffeine
    • cAMP is regulated by the action of an enzyme: cAMP phosphodiesterase
    • Caffeine inhibits this enzyme and so cAMP remains active and its stimulatory effects too.
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 27. Ca 2+ as a secondary messenger
    • Influences
      • Rates of lipids and glycogen degradation
      • Release of chemical transmitter in nerve cells
      • Muscle contraction
      • Beating of cilia and flagella
    • Involves binding protein called calmodulin
      • Ca 2+ binds to Calmodulin causing conformational change
      • Active calmodulin binds to target enzyme
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 28. Phosphatidylinisitol 4,5 biphosphate (IP 3 ) as a secondary messenger
    • G-proteins are activated by binding enzyme
    • Protein activates phospholipase C
    • The enzyme hydrolyzes phosphatidylinisitol 4,5 bisphosphate to IP 3
    • IP 3 binds to Ca channel in ER causing Ca 2+ to be released into cytosol.
    www.freelivedoctor.com