Lipids www.freelivedoctor.com
Lipids <ul><li>Biomolecules soluble in organic solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional </li></u...
Types of Lipids <ul><li>Glycerol-based </li></ul><ul><li>Sphingolipids </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Eicosa...
Storage Lipids <ul><li>http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/lipids.html#triglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids  </li>...
Glycerol based fats <ul><li>Glycerol on the left </li></ul><ul><li>Esterifies to 3 fatty acids </li></ul>www.freelivedocto...
Triacylglyerides <ul><li>Glycerol in blue </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids in red </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation produces 3 w...
Lipids in Membranes:  <ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolipds: Sugar group attach...
Phosphoacylglycerols <ul><li>Glycerol esterified to 2 fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Third position is phosphate </li></ul...
Phosphoacylglycerols www.freelivedoctor.com
Derivatives of Phosphoacylglycerols (PAG)   www.freelivedoctor.com X- structure Name PAG name H hydrogen Phosphatidic acid...
Phosphatidyl choline with fatty acids as oleate and palmitate www.freelivedoctor.com
Sphingolipids <ul><li>Sphingosine instead of glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Derivatized at ester C1 </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty ac...
Sphingosine www.freelivedoctor.com
Sphingolipids www.freelivedoctor.com X name H ceramide monosaccharide cerebroside carbohydrate ganglioside sphingomyelin
Sphingophospholipid with choline and the fatty acid as linolenic www.freelivedoctor.com
Cholesterol www.freelivedoctor.com
Role of Cholesterol <ul><li>Keeps the lipids in membrane from aggregrating: Keeps the membrane intact as a bilayer  </li><...
Good vs. Bad Cholesterol <ul><li>Related to lipoproteins (protein + lipid complexes) </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary excess fat ...
LDL <ul><li>Too much LDL can circulate in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Build up in arteries; lead to heart attack </li></ul...
HDL  <ul><li>Another lipoprotein that converts cholesterol into a lipoprotein that returns to the liver ; Removes choleste...
Ratio of LDL to HDL <ul><li>LDL cholesterol of less than 100 mg/dL is the optimal level. Less than 130 mg/dL is near optim...
Steroid hormones www.freelivedoctor.com
www.freelivedoctor.com
www.freelivedoctor.com
Eicosanoids <ul><li>Prostaglandins: different types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some stimulate contraction of smooth muscle duri...
Eicosanoids/Leukotrienes www.freelivedoctor.com
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Lipids

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Lipids

  1. 1. Lipids www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. Lipids <ul><li>Biomolecules soluble in organic solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulatory </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  3. 3. Types of Lipids <ul><li>Glycerol-based </li></ul><ul><li>Sphingolipids </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Eicosanoids/leukotrienes </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. Storage Lipids <ul><li>http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/lipids.html#triglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See chart on website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated and Unsaturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship to melting point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Triacylglycerides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycerol + 3 fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waxes </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  5. 5. Glycerol based fats <ul><li>Glycerol on the left </li></ul><ul><li>Esterifies to 3 fatty acids </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  6. 6. Triacylglyerides <ul><li>Glycerol in blue </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids in red </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation produces 3 water molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Very nonpolar…excludes water </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  7. 7. Lipids in Membranes: <ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolipds: Sugar group attached </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins: either integral or peripheral </li></ul><ul><li>Sphingolipids </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  8. 8. Phosphoacylglycerols <ul><li>Glycerol esterified to 2 fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Third position is phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Other end of phosphate can combine with other molecules to form various derivatives </li></ul><ul><li>amphipathic </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  9. 9. Phosphoacylglycerols www.freelivedoctor.com
  10. 10. Derivatives of Phosphoacylglycerols (PAG) www.freelivedoctor.com X- structure Name PAG name H hydrogen Phosphatidic acid serine Phosphatidyl serine choline Phosphatidyl choline (lecithin) ethanolamine Phosphatidyl ethanolamie inositol Phosphatidyl inositol
  11. 11. Phosphatidyl choline with fatty acids as oleate and palmitate www.freelivedoctor.com
  12. 12. Sphingolipids <ul><li>Sphingosine instead of glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Derivatized at ester C1 </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids added at amine </li></ul><ul><li>Different types are found in plasma membrane and myelin sheaths </li></ul><ul><li>Gangliosides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cell to cell interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>antigenic </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  13. 13. Sphingosine www.freelivedoctor.com
  14. 14. Sphingolipids www.freelivedoctor.com X name H ceramide monosaccharide cerebroside carbohydrate ganglioside sphingomyelin
  15. 15. Sphingophospholipid with choline and the fatty acid as linolenic www.freelivedoctor.com
  16. 16. Cholesterol www.freelivedoctor.com
  17. 17. Role of Cholesterol <ul><li>Keeps the lipids in membrane from aggregrating: Keeps the membrane intact as a bilayer </li></ul><ul><li>Precursor to Bile Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as detergentsto dissolve dietary fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats can be broken better by enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precursor to steroid hormones that regulate gene expression </li></ul><ul><li>Precursor to Vitamin D </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  18. 18. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol <ul><li>Related to lipoproteins (protein + lipid complexes) </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary excess fat is packaged into VLDL </li></ul><ul><li>Fat cells (adipose cells) take these up convert to fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Some VLDL is converted to LDL </li></ul><ul><li>LDL is very rich in Cholesterol </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  19. 19. LDL <ul><li>Too much LDL can circulate in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Build up in arteries; lead to heart attack </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  20. 20. HDL <ul><li>Another lipoprotein that converts cholesterol into a lipoprotein that returns to the liver ; Removes cholesterol out of the bloodstream; </li></ul><ul><li>believed to prevent heart attacks </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  21. 21. Ratio of LDL to HDL <ul><li>LDL cholesterol of less than 100 mg/dL is the optimal level. Less than 130 mg/dL is near optimal for most people. </li></ul><ul><li>A high LDL level (more than 160 mg/dL or 130 mg/dL or above if you have two or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease) reflects an increased risk of heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Low HDL cholesterol levels [less than 40 mg/dL] is thought to increase the risk for heart disease. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  22. 22. Steroid hormones www.freelivedoctor.com
  23. 23. www.freelivedoctor.com
  24. 24. www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. Eicosanoids <ul><li>Prostaglandins: different types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some stimulate contraction of smooth muscle during menstruation and labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others produce fever and inflammation and pain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thromboxanes: act in the formation of blood clot </li></ul><ul><li>Leukotrienes: induces contraction of the muscle lining the lungs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overproduction leads to asthma </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  26. 26. Eicosanoids/Leukotrienes www.freelivedoctor.com

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