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RESPIRATION INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL www.freelivedoctor.com
INTERNAL RESPIRATION <ul><li>CELLULAR METABOLISM </li></ul><ul><li>ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>AEROBIC OXIDATIV...
EXTERNAL RESPIRATION <ul><li>Ventilation or breathing: air moved in and out of lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen and Carbon D...
EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL RESPIRATION HEART TISSUE CELL O 2  + FOOD CO 2  + H 2 O + ATP LUNGS ATMOSPHERE PULMONARY CIRULATION ...
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Nasal Passages </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx <...
Alveoli <ul><li>Small, thin walled,  inflatable sacs at end of bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by jacket of pulmo...
Alveoli and Pulmonary Capillaries www.freelivedoctor.com
RESPIRATION The Mechanics of Breathing www.freelivedoctor.com
PRESSURES AT REST <ul><li>Atmospheric pressure: 760 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li>Intra-alveolar pressure: 760 mm Hg </li></ul><...
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE Mercury Hg VACUUM WEIGHT OF COLUMN OF AIR = FORCE FORCE/AREA = PRESSURE Sea Level 760 mm  www.freelive...
REST PRESSURES 760 MM Hg 756 mmHg Lungs Intrapleural pressure Airways Atmosphere Pleural Sac Thoracic Wall www.freelivedoc...
THE TRANSMURAL PRESSURE GRADIENT INFLATES THE LUNGS <ul><li>Thoracic cavity larger than lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Transmural...
REST PRESSURES 760 MM Hg 756 mmHg Lungs Intrapleural pressure Airways Atmosphere Pleural Sac Thoracic Wall www.freelivedoc...
AIR IS A COMPRESSABLE GAS WHICH OBEYS BOYLE’S LAW <ul><li>P 1 V 1  = P 2 V 2 </li></ul><ul><li>If Volume increases, Pressu...
INSPIRATION <ul><li>Elevation of ribs expands lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Lowering of diaphragm by contraction also expands lu...
INSPIRATION 760 mm Hg 754 mmHg Lungs Intrapleural pressure Airways Atmosphere Pleural Sac Thoracic Wall 759mm Hg www.freel...
EXPIRATION <ul><li>Return of ribs to rest position causes diminishing of lung volume </li></ul><ul><li>Return of diaphragm...
EXPIRATION 760 mm Hg 756 mmHg Lungs Intrapleural pressure Airways Atmosphere Pleural Sac Thoracic Wall 761 mm Hg www.freel...
MUSCLES OF INSPIRATION <ul><li>Sternocleidomastoid </li></ul><ul><li>Scalenus </li></ul><ul><li>External Intercostals </li...
MUSCLES OF EXPIRATION <ul><li>Internal intercostals </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominals </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
AIRWAY RESISTANCE <ul><li>Flow of air depends on the pressure gradient (atmospheric, P a , and intra-alveolar, P i ) and t...
Resistance and Disease <ul><li>Colds </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma: Constriction of small airways, excess mucus, and histamine-...
LUNG VOLUMES <ul><li>Tidal Volume (TV): 500 ml </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV): 3 liters </li></ul><ul>...
LUNG VOLUMES www.freelivedoctor.com
LUNG VOLUMES: RELATIONSHIPS <ul><li>IC = IRV + TV </li></ul><ul><li>FRC = ERV + RV </li></ul><ul><li>VC = IRV + TV + ERV <...
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External&Internal Respiration

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Transcript of "External&Internal Respiration"

  1. 1. RESPIRATION INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. INTERNAL RESPIRATION <ul><li>CELLULAR METABOLISM </li></ul><ul><li>ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>AEROBIC OXIDATIVE METABOLISM IN THE MITOCHONDRIA </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  3. 3. EXTERNAL RESPIRATION <ul><li>Ventilation or breathing: air moved in and out of lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange in the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide transported by blood to and from tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide between tissue and blood </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL RESPIRATION HEART TISSUE CELL O 2 + FOOD CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP LUNGS ATMOSPHERE PULMONARY CIRULATION SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION www.freelivedoctor.com
  5. 5. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>Nasal Passages </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Lung </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  6. 6. Alveoli <ul><li>Small, thin walled, inflatable sacs at end of bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by jacket of pulmonary capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Provide thin barrier and enormous surface area for gas exchange by diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Type II secrete surfactant </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  7. 7. Alveoli and Pulmonary Capillaries www.freelivedoctor.com
  8. 8. RESPIRATION The Mechanics of Breathing www.freelivedoctor.com
  9. 9. PRESSURES AT REST <ul><li>Atmospheric pressure: 760 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li>Intra-alveolar pressure: 760 mm Hg </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapleural pressure: 756 mm Hg </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  10. 10. BAROMETRIC PRESSURE Mercury Hg VACUUM WEIGHT OF COLUMN OF AIR = FORCE FORCE/AREA = PRESSURE Sea Level 760 mm www.freelivedoctor.com
  11. 11. REST PRESSURES 760 MM Hg 756 mmHg Lungs Intrapleural pressure Airways Atmosphere Pleural Sac Thoracic Wall www.freelivedoctor.com
  12. 12. THE TRANSMURAL PRESSURE GRADIENT INFLATES THE LUNGS <ul><li>Thoracic cavity larger than lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Transmural (Across Lung Wall) pressure gradient holds thoracic wall and lungs in close apposition </li></ul><ul><li>This pressure gradient is balanced by the elastic forces in the alveoli producing equilibrium </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  13. 13. REST PRESSURES 760 MM Hg 756 mmHg Lungs Intrapleural pressure Airways Atmosphere Pleural Sac Thoracic Wall www.freelivedoctor.com
  14. 14. AIR IS A COMPRESSABLE GAS WHICH OBEYS BOYLE’S LAW <ul><li>P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 </li></ul><ul><li>If Volume increases, Pressure must decrease </li></ul><ul><li>As lungs expand, pressure inside falls </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  15. 15. INSPIRATION <ul><li>Elevation of ribs expands lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Lowering of diaphragm by contraction also expands lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of lungs causes pressure inside to drop below atmospheric pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Air rushes in to fill the expanded lungs </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  16. 16. INSPIRATION 760 mm Hg 754 mmHg Lungs Intrapleural pressure Airways Atmosphere Pleural Sac Thoracic Wall 759mm Hg www.freelivedoctor.com
  17. 17. EXPIRATION <ul><li>Return of ribs to rest position causes diminishing of lung volume </li></ul><ul><li>Return of diaphragm to rest position also causes diminishing of lung volume </li></ul><ul><li>Diminishing of lung volume causes pressure in lung to raise to a higher value than atmospheric pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows out of the lungs </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  18. 18. EXPIRATION 760 mm Hg 756 mmHg Lungs Intrapleural pressure Airways Atmosphere Pleural Sac Thoracic Wall 761 mm Hg www.freelivedoctor.com
  19. 19. MUSCLES OF INSPIRATION <ul><li>Sternocleidomastoid </li></ul><ul><li>Scalenus </li></ul><ul><li>External Intercostals </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  20. 20. MUSCLES OF EXPIRATION <ul><li>Internal intercostals </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominals </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  21. 21. AIRWAY RESISTANCE <ul><li>Flow of air depends on the pressure gradient (atmospheric, P a , and intra-alveolar, P i ) and the airway resistance, R </li></ul><ul><li>F = (P a - P i )/R </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance depends primarily on the radius of the conducting airways </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic stimulation constricts, while sympathetic dilates </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  22. 22. Resistance and Disease <ul><li>Colds </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma: Constriction of small airways, excess mucus, and histamine-induced edema </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchitis:Long term inflamitory response causing thickened walls and overproduction of mucous </li></ul><ul><li>Emphysema: Collapse of smaller airways and breakdown of alveolar walls </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar surface tension </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  23. 23. LUNG VOLUMES <ul><li>Tidal Volume (TV): 500 ml </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV): 3 liters </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiratory capacity (IC): 3.5 liters </li></ul><ul><li>Expiratory reserve volume (ERV): 1 liter </li></ul><ul><li>Residual volume (RV): 1.2 liters </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): 2.2 l </li></ul><ul><li>Vital Capacity (VC): 4.5 liters </li></ul><ul><li>Total Lung Capacity (TLC): 5.7 liters </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  24. 24. LUNG VOLUMES www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. LUNG VOLUMES: RELATIONSHIPS <ul><li>IC = IRV + TV </li></ul><ul><li>FRC = ERV + RV </li></ul><ul><li>VC = IRV + TV + ERV </li></ul><ul><li>TLC = VC + RV </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
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