Endocrine System
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Endocrine System

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  • effect that RHs and IHs released from the hypothalamus go immediately without dilution to their target.

Endocrine System Endocrine System Presentation Transcript

  • Endocrine System Overview
    • Chemical classification of hormones
    • Gland may be entire organ or interspersed bits of tissue
    • Ductless glands produce hormones
    • Target tissues are identified by receptors
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Hypothalamus
    • Control Center for internal environment
    • Regulates nervous and endocrine systems via 3 mechanisms:
      • ANS centers exert nervous control on adrenal medulla
      • ADH and Oxytocin production
      • Regulatory hormone production (RH and IH) controls pituitary gland directly and all other endocrine glands indirectly
    Fig 19-3 www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Pituitary Gland (= Hypophysis)
    • Structure:
      • Infundibulum - connection to hypothalamus
      • In the sella turcica
      • Two parts with an embryonic double origin
    • Posterior Pituitary = neurohypophysis Storage shed for ADH and Oxytocin (produced in ?)
    • Anterior Pituitary = adenohypophysis production of 7 peptide hormones, see fig 19.5
    • Histology
    Fig 19-4 www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Hypophyseal Portal System
    • Portal systems: two capillary networks in serial arrangement Advantage?
    • Named after their destination: . . .
    • Portal veins: blood vessels that link two capillary networks
    Fig 19-6 www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Thyroid Gland
    • Anterior surface of trachea just inferior of thyroid cartilage (or Adam’s apple)
    • Two lobes connected by isthmus
    • Microscopic thyroid follicles produce thyroid hormone
    • C Cells - produce calcitonin (  Ca 2+ )
    Fig 19-7 www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Thyroid Gland Function
    • Thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)  speed up metabolic rate
    • Calcitonin  lowers blood Ca 2+ levels
    • Thyroid pathologies: Hyper- and Hypothyroidism
    Goiter Exophthalmus www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Slowing of mind and body www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Four Parathyroid Glands
    • Parathyroid hormone (PTH; sometimes also called parathormone)
    • Function: antagonist to Calcitonin
    Fig 19-9 4 tiny glands embedded in the back of the thyroid (superior and inferior) www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Thymus Gland
    • Inside thoracic cavity immediately posterior to sternum above the heart
    • Most active in infancy and childhood - Largest just before puberty
    • Thymosin - enhances lymphocyte production and competence. (important for immune system)
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  • Adrenal or Suprarenal Gland
    • Cortex: corticosteroid production aldosterone, cortisol, sexhormone
    • Medulla: modified sympathetic ganglion produces adrenaline and noradrenaline ( parallels sympathetic division of ANS)
    • Histology
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Pancreas
    • Part of endocrine and digestive systems. (99% exocrine)
    • Pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans
      •  cells: glucagon (  blood sugar levels by stimulating liver to convert glycogen to glucose)
      •  cells: insulin (  blood sugar levels by causing the cells to take up glucose for use by the mitochondria)
      •  cells: somatostatin
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