THYROID GLAND DISORDERS www.freelivedoctor.com
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>GENERAL ASPECTS OF THYROID GLAND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomy: weight range from 12 to 30...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><ul><li>THYROID GLAND REGULATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  “ negative Feed-back” axis </li>...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Thyroid hormones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T4: (Thyroxine) is made exclusively in thyroid  gl...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Thyroid hormones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T3: (Triiodothyronine) main source is peripheral d...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>PHYSIOLOGY EFFECTS OF THYROID HORMONES </li></ul><ul><li>THEY ARE NOT ESSENTIAL FOR LIFE, ...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects every single cell in the body </li>...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>MECHANISMS OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act by binding to Nuclear recep...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CALORIGENESIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GRO...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CALORIGENESIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GROWTH & MATURATION RATE </li></ul></ul><ul>...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>- FAT & PROTEIN METABOLISM </li></ul><ul><ul><ul...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ELECTROLYTE BALANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>DIVIDED INTO: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THYROTOXICOSIS (Hyperthyroidism) </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>LABORATORY EVALUATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TSH normal, practically excludes abnormality <...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>TSH High usually means Hypothyroidism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rare causes: </li></ul></ul><u...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROTOXICOSIS:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is defined as the state of thyroid hormone excesss ...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Abnormalities of Thyroid Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyrotoxicosis  </li></ul></ul><ul...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Causes of Thyrotoxicosis : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Hyperthyroidism </li></ul></ul><u...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Causes of Thyrotoxicosis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyrotoxicosis without hyperthyroidism </l...
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THYROTOXICOSIS <ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul></u...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Differential diagnosis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Panic attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psy...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing thyroid hormone synthesis: </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Treatment:  Special considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyrotoxic crisis or Thyroid sto...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>HYPOTHYROIDISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autoimmune (Ha...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Hashimoto´s Thyroiditis or Goitrous thyroiditis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean anual incidence...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence: 1 in 3000 to 4000 newborns </li></...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>HYPOTHYROIDISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pituitary gl...
HYPOTHYROIDISM <ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiredness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>SPECIAL TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Myxedema coma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>SPECIAL TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly patients </li></ul><ul><li>Coro...
THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID GLAND NEOPLASIAS </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the focus of this lecture </li></ul>www....
<ul><li>THYROID </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperthyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>Thyrotoxicosis (most common cause) </li></ul><ul><li>a...
<ul><li>Clinical </li></ul><ul><li>a)  hypermetabolic state </li></ul><ul><li>i)   skin     warm, soft and flushed </li><...
vii)   Ocular     wide, staring gaze and    lid lag -  SNS overstimulation of levator    palpebrae superiosis -  ptosis  ...
ii)  febrile,    HR (out of proportion to    febrile response) iii)  is a medical emergency -  death from cardiac arrhyth...
d)  Diagnosis   i)  measurement of serum TSH (  ) in 1 O -  in 2 O     TSH may be – or   -  “TRH stimulation test” excl...
Thyrotoxicosis results in an increase in metabolic rate. This may result in:  Smooth, moist, warm skin  Flushing  of face ...
<ul><li>Hypothyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>any defect causing    thyroid hormone </li></ul><ul><li>production </li></ul><ul...
ii)  most are due to Hashimoto    thyroiditis (later) d)  drugs i)  to    thyroid secretion ii)  non thyroid conditions (...
f)  thyroid hormone resistance i)  receptor mutations g)  2 O  hypothyroidism i)  TSH deficiency ii)  any of causes of hyp...
<ul><li>Cretinism </li></ul><ul><li>a)  hypothyroidism developing in        infancy/early childhood </li></ul><ul><li>i)  ...
b)  clinical: i)  impaired skeletal development ii)  impaired CNS development   -  inadequate maternal thyroid    hormone ...
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<ul><li>Myxedema (i.e., Gull disease) </li></ul><ul><li>a)  hypothyroidism developing in older      child/adult </li></ul>...
vii)  skin pale, cool (   blood flow) viii)  edema, puffy face, coarse hair ix)  broadening of facial features x)  enlarg...
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www.freelivedoctor.com
<ul><li>Thyroiditis </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation of thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>a)  acute illness with thyroid pain </li><...
v)  genetic component -  patients with Turner syndrome    have    circulating antithyroid Ab vi)  Clinical:  1)  progress...
b)  Subacute (granulomatous) thyroiditis   [“aka De Quervain thyroiditis”] i)  occurs less often than Hashimoto ii)  30-50...
ix)  inflammation and hyperthyroidism    are transient -  followed by transient period of      asymptomatic hypothyroidism...
d)  Riedel thyroiditis i)  fibrosis of thyroid and neighboring    structures ii)  presents as hard and fixed thyroid   whi...
<ul><li>Graves disease </li></ul><ul><li>Most common cause of  endogenous </li></ul><ul><li>hyperthyroidism </li></ul><ul>...
Thyrotoxicosis results in an increase in metabolic rate. This may result in:  Smooth, moist, warm skin  Flushing  of face ...
<ul><li>peak incidence 20-40 </li></ul><ul><li>female preponderance (7:1 ) </li></ul><ul><li>familial link </li></ul><ul><...
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<ul><li>d)  Clinical: </li></ul><ul><li>i)     T 3  and T 4 </li></ul><ul><li>ii)     TSH </li></ul><ul><li>Goiter </li>...
<ul><li>ii)  hyperplasia and hypertrophy    compensates for hormone    deficiency (via TSH) </li></ul><ul><li>-  result is...
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c)  two types: i)  endemic ii)  sporadic d)   endemic goiter  (<10% population) i)  geographic area deficient in iodine ii...
<ul><li>e)   Sporadic goiter </li></ul><ul><li>i)  less frequent than endemic </li></ul><ul><li>ii)  female preponderance ...
<ul><li>e)   small % of patients may develop a    hyperfunctioning thyroid (nodule)      resulting in a  “toxic multinodul...
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www.freelivedoctor.com
<ul><li>Thyroid Neoplasms </li></ul><ul><li>Adenomas </li></ul><ul><li>discrete solitary masses </li></ul><ul><li>derived ...
<ul><li>Pathogenesis: </li></ul><ul><li>a)  toxic adenoma </li></ul><ul><li>i)  TSH receptor pathway is important    signa...
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<ul><li>e)  do not recur nor metastasize  </li></ul><ul><li>other benign tumors </li></ul><ul><li>a ) cysts </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Thyroid Cancer typically appears as a &quot;cold nodule&quot;. That is to say, it appears as a white area or defec...
<ul><li>Thyroid Carcinomas </li></ul><ul><li>relatively uncommon in USA </li></ul><ul><li>most appear in adults </li></ul>...
<ul><li>genetic and environmental factors implicated </li></ul><ul><li>a)  genetic factors seen in both familial and    no...
i)  in past, radiation of head and    neck in children for a variety of    problems has led to ~ 10%    developing thyroid...
<ul><li>Papillary Carcinoma a)  most common of thyroid carcinoma b)  any age c)  vast majority of carcinoma associated    ...
<ul><li>Follicular Carcinoma a)  second most common form of thyroid    carcinoma b)     incidence in areas of dietary iod...
<ul><li>Medullary Carcinoma a)  secrete calcitonin from “C” cells i)  calcitonin important diagnostic      measurement as ...
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Diseases of thyroid gland

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Diseases of thyroid gland

  1. 1. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>GENERAL ASPECTS OF THYROID GLAND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomy: weight range from 12 to 30g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located in the neck, anterior to the traquea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces: T4 & T3 (active hormone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation: “negative Feed-back” axis </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  3. 3. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><ul><li>THYROID GLAND REGULATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> “ negative Feed-back” axis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(TRH positive effect) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(TSH, positive effect) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T3 & T4 </li></ul></ul></ul>(negative effect) www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Thyroid hormones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T4: (Thyroxine) is made exclusively in thyroid gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of T4 to T3 ; 5::1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potency of T4 to T3; 1::10 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T4 is the most important source of T3 by peripheral tissue deiodination “ T4 to T3 “ </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  5. 5. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Thyroid hormones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T3: (Triiodothyronine) main source is peripheral deiodination: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio of T3 to T4 ; 1::5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potency of T3 to T4; 10::1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T3 is the most important because more than 90% of the thyroid hormones physiological effects are due to the binding of T3 to Thyroid receptors in peripheral tissues. </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  6. 6. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>PHYSIOLOGY EFFECTS OF THYROID HORMONES </li></ul><ul><li>THEY ARE NOT ESSENTIAL FOR LIFE, BUT ARE EXTREMELY HELPFUL </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  7. 7. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects every single cell in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modulates: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen consumption </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth rate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maturation and cell differentiation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turnover of Vitamins, Hormones, Proteins, Fat, CHO </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  8. 8. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>MECHANISMS OF THYROID HORMONE ACTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act by binding to Nuclear receptors, termed Thyroid Hormone Receptors (TRs), Increasing synthesis of proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At mitochondrial level increases number and activity to increasing ATP production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At Cell membrane increases ions and substrates transmembrane flux </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  9. 9. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CALORIGENESIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GROWTH & MATURATION RATE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C.N.S. DEVELOPMENT & FUNCTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHO, FAT & PROTEIN METABOLISM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MUSCLE METABOLISM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ELECTROLYTE BALANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VITAMIN METABOLISM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENDOCRINE SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PREGNANCY </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  10. 10. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CALORIGENESIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHO METABOLISM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose absorption of the GI tract </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose consumption by peripheral tissues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose uptake by the cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gluconeogenesis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin secretion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  11. 11. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GROWTH & MATURATION RATE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C.N.S. DEVELOPMENT & FUNTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ ESSENTIAL” in the newborn to prevent development of “CRETINISMS” & to a normal “IQ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modulation of brain cerebration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mood modulation </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  12. 12. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>- FAT & PROTEIN METABOLISM </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase lipolysis and lipid mobilization with: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triglicerides </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free fatty acids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MUSCLE METABOLISM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modulates; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strength & velocity of contraction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  13. 13. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ELECTROLYTE BALANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low Thyroid hormones could induce hyponatremia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VITAMIN METABOLISM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modulates vitamin consumption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could induce anemia </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  14. 14. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperthyroidism, increases: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate & myocardial strenght </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac output </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral resistances (Vasodilatation) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen consumption </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arterial pressure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism, reduces: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate & myocardial strenght </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac output </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral resistances (Vasodilatation) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen consumption </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arterial pressure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  15. 15. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID HORMONE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modulate bowel movements and absorption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENDOCRINE SYSTEM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modulates pituitary axis, affecting GH, ACTH, FSH, LH, so-on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PREGNANCY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modulates growth rate and affects lactation </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  16. 16. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>DIVIDED INTO: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THYROTOXICOSIS (Hyperthyroidism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overproduction of thyroid hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HYPOTHYROIDISM (Gland destruction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underproduction of thyroid hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beningn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malignant </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  17. 17. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>LABORATORY EVALUATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TSH normal, practically excludes abnormality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If TSH is abnormal, next step: Total & Free T4 & T3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TSI (Thyroid Stimulating Ig) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TPO (Thyroid Peroxidase Ab) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antimitochondrial Ab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serum Tg (Thyroglobulin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioiodine uptake & Thyroid scaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FNA, Fine-needle aspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid ultrasound </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  18. 18. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>TSH High usually means Hypothyroidism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rare causes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TSH-secreting pituitary tumor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid hormone resistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assay artifact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>TSH low usually indicates Thyrotoxicosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First trimester of pregnancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After treatment of hyperthyroidism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some medications (Esteroids-dopamine) </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  19. 19. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROTOXICOSIS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is defined as the state of thyroid hormone excesss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HYPERTHYROIDISM: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the result of excessive thyroid gland function </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  20. 20. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Abnormalities of Thyroid Hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyrotoxicosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Without Hyperthyroidism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exogenous or factitious </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  21. 21. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Causes of Thyrotoxicosis : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Hyperthyroidism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grave´s disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic Multinodular Goiter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic adenoma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functioning thyroid carcinoma metastases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activating mutation of TSH receptor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Struma ovary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs: Iodine excess </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  22. 22. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Causes of Thyrotoxicosis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyrotoxicosis without hyperthyroidism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subacute thyroiditis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silent thyroiditis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other causes of thyroid destruction: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amiodarone, radiation, infarction of an adenoma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exogenous/Factitia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Hyperthyroidism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chorionic Gonadotropin-secreting tumor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gestational thyrotoxicosis </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  23. 23. www.freelivedoctor.com
  24. 24. THYROTOXICOSIS <ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dysphoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat intolerance & sweating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palpitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue & weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight loss with increased appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyuria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tachycardia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrial fibrillation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tremor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goiter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm, moist skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness, myopathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lid retraction or lag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gynecomastia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Exophtalmus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Pretibial myxedema </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Differential diagnosis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Panic attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pheochromocytoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoglycemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occult malignancy </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  26. 26. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing thyroid hormone synthesis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antithyroid drugs (Methimazole, Propylthyouracil) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radioiodine ( 131 I) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subtotal thyroidectomy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing Thyroid hormone effects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Propranolol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucocorticoids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Propylthyouracil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucocorticoids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iodide (Large oral or IV dosage) (Wolf-Chaikoff effect) </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  27. 27. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Treatment: Special considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyrotoxic crisis or Thyroid storm: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It´s a life-threatening exacervation of thyrotoxicosis, acompanied by fever, delirium, seizures, coma, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality rate reachs 30% even with treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It´s usually precipitated by acute illness, such as: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stroke, infection,trauma, diabeic ketoacidosis, surgery, radioiodine treatment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Propylthyouracil IV or Nasogastric tube </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radioiodine ( 131 I) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Propranolol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucocorticoids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iodide (Large oral or IV dosage) (Wolf-Chaikoff effect) </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  28. 28. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>HYPOTHYROIDISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autoimmune (Hashimoto´s) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iatrogenic Surgery or 131 I </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs: amiodarone, lithium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congenital (1 in 3000 to 4000) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine defficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infiltrative disorders </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  29. 29. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>Hashimoto´s Thyroiditis or Goitrous thyroiditis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean anual incidence: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women 4:1000 Men 1:1000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk factors; TPO antibodies (90%) Japanese, previous history, high I intake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average age: 60 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently associated to other autoimmune disorders such as: AR, SLE, Sjogren´s so-on. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment: Levothyroxine </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  30. 30. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence: 1 in 3000 to 4000 newborns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause: Dysgenesis 85% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dx: Blood screning (TSH &/or T4) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplemental Tx. With Levothyroxine is “essential” for a normal C.N.S. Development and prevention of mental retardation </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  31. 31. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>HYPOTHYROIDISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pituitary gland destruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated TSH deficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bexarotene treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamic disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rare, familial tendency </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  32. 32. HYPOTHYROIDISM <ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiredness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry skin Sexual dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty concentrating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bradycardia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry coarse skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puffy face, hands and feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffuse alopecia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral edema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delayed tendon reflex relaxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carpal tunel syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serous cavity effusions. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  33. 33. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>SPECIAL TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Myxedema coma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced level of consciousness, seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotension/shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothermia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyponatremia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually in elderly hypothyroid pts. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually precipitated by intercurrent illnesses that impairs ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>It´s an Emergency with a high mortality rate </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: Lyotironine(T3) or T4, Hydrocortisone, external warming, IV fluids </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  34. 34. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>SPECIAL TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly patients </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary Artery Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Poor adrenal gland reserve </li></ul><ul><li>Childrens </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency surgery (Non thyroid related) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  35. 35. THYROID GLAND DISORDERS <ul><li>THYROID GLAND NEOPLASIAS </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the focus of this lecture </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  36. 36. <ul><li>THYROID </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperthyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>Thyrotoxicosis (most common cause) </li></ul><ul><li>a)  T 3 and T 4 </li></ul><ul><li>3 most common causes: </li></ul><ul><li>a) diffuse hyperplasia </li></ul><ul><li>i) Graves disease (~ 85% of cases) </li></ul><ul><li>b) hyperfunctional multinodular goiter </li></ul><ul><li>c) multifunctional adenoma of thyroid </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  37. 37. <ul><li>Clinical </li></ul><ul><li>a) hypermetabolic state </li></ul><ul><li>i) skin  warm, soft and flushed </li></ul><ul><li>ii) heat intolerant </li></ul><ul><li>iii) sweating </li></ul><ul><li>iv) weight loss (despite  appetite) </li></ul><ul><li>v) cardiac  earliest S & S   HR, </li></ul><ul><li> contractility, CO, cardiomegaly, </li></ul><ul><li> arrhythmias ( A fib in older patients) </li></ul><ul><li>vi) neuromuscular  overactivity of SNS causes tremors, anxiety, inability to concentrate, muscle weakness with  muscle mass (thyroid myopathy) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  38. 38. vii) Ocular  wide, staring gaze and lid lag - SNS overstimulation of levator palpebrae superiosis - ptosis - true thyroid opthalmopathy seen only in Graves disease viii) GI  SNS  hypermotility, malabsorption and diarrhea ix) Skeletal system  bone resorption, osteoporosis b) thyroid storm i) abrupt onset of severe hyperthyroidism (Graves &  SNS) www.freelivedoctor.com
  39. 39. ii) febrile,  HR (out of proportion to febrile response) iii) is a medical emergency - death from cardiac arrhythmias c) apathetic hyperthyroidism i) seen in elderly ii) age and other comorbidities blunt effects of excess thyroid hormone excess - diagnosis during work up for unexplained weight loss or worsening CV disease www.freelivedoctor.com
  40. 40. d) Diagnosis i) measurement of serum TSH (  ) in 1 O - in 2 O  TSH may be – or  - “TRH stimulation test” excludes secondary hyperthyroidism ii)  T 4 (sometimes  T 3 ) - in some cases, T 4 may be  - T 3 may therefore be useful www.freelivedoctor.com
  41. 41. Thyrotoxicosis results in an increase in metabolic rate. This may result in: Smooth, moist, warm skin Flushing of face and hands Overgrown nails (acropachy, clubbing), which may lift off the nail bed ( onycholysis ) Fine soft thinned scalp hair Generalized itching ( pruritus ) Urticaria Increased skin pigmentation “ Pretibial myxedema” www.freelivedoctor.com
  42. 42. <ul><li>Hypothyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>any defect causing  thyroid hormone </li></ul><ul><li>production </li></ul><ul><li>a) anywhere in hypothalamic-pituitary- </li></ul><ul><li>thyroid axis </li></ul><ul><li>b) 1 o are most common cause </li></ul><ul><li>i) “thyroprivic” (loss of parenchyma) </li></ul><ul><li>ii) “goitrous” (due to  TSH) </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>a) large surgical resection </li></ul><ul><li>b) ablation (radiation) of hyperthyroidism ! </li></ul><ul><li>c) autoimmune </li></ul><ul><li>i) most common cause of goitrous hypothyroidism </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  43. 43. ii) most are due to Hashimoto thyroiditis (later) d) drugs i) to  thyroid secretion ii) non thyroid conditions (lithium,  -aminosalicylic acid) e) inborn errors of thyroid metabolism i) uncommon ii) any step of thyroid hormone synthesis may be involved - e.g., “Pendred syndrome” failure of binding iodine in thyroglobulin www.freelivedoctor.com
  44. 44. f) thyroid hormone resistance i) receptor mutations g) 2 O hypothyroidism i) TSH deficiency ii) any of causes of hypopituitarism (frequently  tumor). Other causes include: postpartum pituitary necrosis, trauma, nonpituitary tumors h) 3 O (central) hypothyroidism i) anything that interfere with hypothalamic-portal system ii) inadequate TRH delivery www.freelivedoctor.com
  45. 45. <ul><li>Cretinism </li></ul><ul><li>a) hypothyroidism developing in infancy/early childhood </li></ul><ul><li>i) severe mental retardation </li></ul><ul><li>ii) occurs in iodine deficient areas of world (i.e., Himalayas, inland China, Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>iii) may also be sporadic, owing to enzyme deficiencies   thyroid hormone synthesis </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  46. 46. b) clinical: i) impaired skeletal development ii) impaired CNS development - inadequate maternal thyroid hormone prior to fetal thyroid gland formation  SEVERE mental retardation - normal brain development if maternal thyroid deficiency occurs after fetal thyroid gland development www.freelivedoctor.com
  47. 47. www.freelivedoctor.com
  48. 48. <ul><li>Myxedema (i.e., Gull disease) </li></ul><ul><li>a) hypothyroidism developing in older child/adult </li></ul><ul><li>b) slowing of physical and mental activity </li></ul><ul><li>i) generalized fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>ii) apathy </li></ul><ul><li>iii) cold-intolerant </li></ul><ul><li>iv) overweight </li></ul><ul><li>v)  CO </li></ul><ul><li>- shortness of breath </li></ul><ul><li>-  exercise capacity </li></ul><ul><li>vi)  SNS activity </li></ul><ul><li>- constipation </li></ul><ul><li>-  sweating </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  49. 49. vii) skin pale, cool (  blood flow) viii) edema, puffy face, coarse hair ix) broadening of facial features x) enlarged tongue xi) deepening of voice c) clinical: i) TSH level most sensitive screening test -  in 1 O (due to loss of feedback inhibition of TRH release) - normal or not elevated in 2 O or 3 O hypothyroidism - T 4  in all forms of hypothyroidism www.freelivedoctor.com
  50. 50. www.freelivedoctor.com
  51. 51. www.freelivedoctor.com
  52. 52. <ul><li>Thyroiditis </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation of thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>a) acute illness with thyroid pain </li></ul><ul><li>b) may not significantly affect thyroid function </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Hashimoto thyroiditis (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis) </li></ul><ul><li>i) gradual thyroid failure due to autoimmune destruction of thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>ii) 45-65 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>iii) 10:1 female predominance </li></ul><ul><li>iv) major cause of non endemic goiter </li></ul><ul><li> in children </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  53. 53. v) genetic component - patients with Turner syndrome have  circulating antithyroid Ab vi) Clinical: 1) progressive depletion of thyroid epithelial cells 2) replaced with mononuclear cells and fibrosis 3) comes to clinical attention as painless enlargement of thyroid with some degree of hypothyroidism 4) hypothyroidism progresses slowly 5) can be preceeded by “hashitoxicosis” 6) patients at risk in developing other autoimmune diseases 7) no CA risk www.freelivedoctor.com
  54. 54. b) Subacute (granulomatous) thyroiditis [“aka De Quervain thyroiditis”] i) occurs less often than Hashimoto ii) 30-50 yrs iii) female preponderance 5:1 iv) caused by viral infection v) history of upper respiratory infection just prior to onset of thyroiditis vi) seasonal incidence (summer peak) vii) acute or gradual viii) painful presentation, radiating to jaw, throat, ears: especially when swallowing !! www.freelivedoctor.com
  55. 55. ix) inflammation and hyperthyroidism are transient - followed by transient period of asymptomatic hypothyroidism x) self limited disease c) subacute lymphocytic (painless) thyroiditis i) uncommon ii) hyperthyroid presentation - may present with any of signs of hyperthyroidism (no opthalmopathy, as in Graves disease) www.freelivedoctor.com
  56. 56. d) Riedel thyroiditis i) fibrosis of thyroid and neighboring structures ii) presents as hard and fixed thyroid which clinically is similar to CA e) Palpation thyroiditis i) vigorous clinical palpation ii) thyroid function not affected iii) usually an incidental finding. www.freelivedoctor.com
  57. 57. <ul><li>Graves disease </li></ul><ul><li>Most common cause of endogenous </li></ul><ul><li>hyperthyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>a) hyperthyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>i) diffuse enlargement of thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>ii) lymphocytic infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>b) infiltrative ophthalmopathy </li></ul><ul><li>i) with resultant exophthalmos </li></ul><ul><li>c) localized infiltrative dermopathy </li></ul><ul><li>i) “pretibial myxedema” </li></ul><ul><li>- present in minority of cases ! </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  58. 58. Thyrotoxicosis results in an increase in metabolic rate. This may result in: Smooth, moist, warm skin Flushing of face and hands Overgrown nails (acropachy, clubbing), which may lift off the nail bed ( onycholysis ) Fine soft thinned scalp hair Generalised itching ( pruritus ) Urticaria Increased skin pigmentation “ Pretibial myxedema” www.freelivedoctor.com
  59. 59. <ul><li>peak incidence 20-40 </li></ul><ul><li>female preponderance (7:1 ) </li></ul><ul><li>familial link </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogenesis: </li></ul><ul><li>a) autoimmune disorder </li></ul><ul><li>b) Ab against TSH receptor is central to disease process </li></ul><ul><li>c) retro-orbital connective tissue and ocular muscles are increased </li></ul><ul><li>i) inflammatory edema </li></ul><ul><li>ii) T-cell infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>iii) fatty infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>iv) ECM accumulation </li></ul><ul><li>v) these cause eye to bulge outward </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  60. 60. www.freelivedoctor.com
  61. 61. www.freelivedoctor.com
  62. 62. <ul><li>d) Clinical: </li></ul><ul><li>i)  T 3 and T 4 </li></ul><ul><li>ii)  TSH </li></ul><ul><li>Goiter </li></ul><ul><li>Diffuse and multinodular </li></ul><ul><li>enlargement of the thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>a) most common manifestation of thyroid disease </li></ul><ul><li>b) most often caused by dietary iodine deficiency (i.e., impaired synthesis of thyroid hormone) </li></ul><ul><li>i) compensatory rise in TSH </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  63. 63. <ul><li>ii) hyperplasia and hypertrophy compensates for hormone deficiency (via TSH) </li></ul><ul><li>- result is euthyroid state </li></ul><ul><li>iii) if response is inadequate  goitrous hypothyroid </li></ul><ul><li>- enlargement is proportional to degree and duration of thyroid hormone deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Diffuse nontoxic goiter </li></ul><ul><li>a) diffuse goiter without nodules </li></ul><ul><li>b) thyroid follicles filled with colloid </li></ul><ul><li>i) “colloid goiter” </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  64. 64. www.freelivedoctor.com
  65. 65. www.freelivedoctor.com
  66. 66. c) two types: i) endemic ii) sporadic d) endemic goiter (<10% population) i) geographic area deficient in iodine ii) mountainous areas of world - Alps, Himalayas, Andes. iii)  TSH iv) can result from ingestion of certain “goitrogens” - cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, turnips, cassava - excessive calcium www.freelivedoctor.com
  67. 67. <ul><li>e) Sporadic goiter </li></ul><ul><li>i) less frequent than endemic </li></ul><ul><li>ii) female preponderance </li></ul><ul><li>iii) peak incidence near puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Multinodular goiter </li></ul><ul><li>a) recurrent hyperplasia/hypertrophy </li></ul><ul><li>b) all simple nontoxic goiters evolve into multinodular goiters </li></ul><ul><li>c) produce the most extreme thyroid enlargements </li></ul><ul><li>i) often mistaken for neoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>d) asymmetrically enlarged thyroid </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  68. 68. <ul><li>e) small % of patients may develop a hyperfunctioning thyroid (nodule) resulting in a “toxic multinodular goiter” </li></ul><ul><li>i) Plummer syndrome is example </li></ul><ul><li>- without dermopathy nor ophthalmopathy (as in Graves) </li></ul><ul><li>all goiters may cause “Mass Effects” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) dysphagia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) compression of large vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) airway obstruction </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  69. 69. www.freelivedoctor.com
  70. 70. www.freelivedoctor.com
  71. 71. <ul><li>Thyroid Neoplasms </li></ul><ul><li>Adenomas </li></ul><ul><li>discrete solitary masses </li></ul><ul><li>derived from follicular epithelium (i.e., </li></ul><ul><li>“ follicular adenomas”) </li></ul><ul><li>a) difficult to differentiate from a dominant nodule of follicular hyperplasia </li></ul><ul><li>b) NOT predecessors of malignancy </li></ul><ul><li>c) mostly nonfunctional </li></ul><ul><li>i) small % produce hormones (thyrotoxicosis) </li></ul><ul><li>ii) hormones independent of TSH </li></ul><ul><li> (thyroid “autonomy”). Similar </li></ul><ul><li> to multinodular toxic goiter </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  72. 72. <ul><li>Pathogenesis: </li></ul><ul><li>a) toxic adenoma </li></ul><ul><li>i) TSH receptor pathway is important signaling for hormone production </li></ul><ul><li>- overproduction of cAMP </li></ul><ul><li>ii) “hot” nodules   iodine uptake </li></ul><ul><li>b) usually present as unilateral painless mass </li></ul><ul><li>c) take up less radioactive iodine compared to normal thyroid parenchymal cells </li></ul><ul><li>i) “cold” nodules </li></ul><ul><li>ii ) ~10% of cold nodules  malignant </li></ul><ul><li>iii) “hot” nodules rarely  malignant </li></ul><ul><li>d) biopsy is “gold” standard for diagnosis </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  73. 73. www.freelivedoctor.com
  74. 74. <ul><li>e) do not recur nor metastasize </li></ul><ul><li>other benign tumors </li></ul><ul><li>a ) cysts </li></ul><ul><li>i) usually represent cystic degeneration of thyroid follicular adenoma </li></ul><ul><li>b) lipomas </li></ul><ul><li>c) hemangiomas </li></ul><ul><li>d) dermoid cysts </li></ul><ul><li>e) teratomas (mainly in infants) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  75. 75. <ul><li>Thyroid Cancer typically appears as a &quot;cold nodule&quot;. That is to say, it appears as a white area or defect in an otherwise black thyroid. A &quot;cold&quot; area is NOT necessarily cancer. Indeed, most &quot;cold nodules&quot; are benign! Ultrasound, perhaps followed by biopsy, often plays an important role in differentiation </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  76. 76. <ul><li>Thyroid Carcinomas </li></ul><ul><li>relatively uncommon in USA </li></ul><ul><li>most appear in adults </li></ul><ul><li>a) papillary CA may present in childhood </li></ul><ul><li>female predominance (early and middle </li></ul><ul><li>adult) </li></ul><ul><li>a) childhood and late adulthood have equal </li></ul><ul><li> gender distribution </li></ul><ul><li>most CA are well differentiated : </li></ul><ul><li>a) papillary CA (~80% of cases) </li></ul><ul><li>b) follicular CA ( ~15% of cases) </li></ul><ul><li>c) medullary CA (~5% of cases) </li></ul><ul><li>d) anaplastic CA (< 5% of cases) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  77. 77. <ul><li>genetic and environmental factors implicated </li></ul><ul><li>a) genetic factors seen in both familial and nonfamilial (sporadic) forms of CA </li></ul><ul><li>i) familial medullary CA  most inherited of thyroid CA </li></ul><ul><li>ii) papillary and follicular familial CA are very rare !! </li></ul><ul><li>b) exposure to ionizing radiation during first 2 decades of life is one of the most important factors predisposing one to thyroid cancer </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  78. 78. i) in past, radiation of head and neck in children for a variety of problems has led to ~ 10% developing thyroid carcinoma ii) atomic bomb survivors as well as those survivors following Chernobyl incident have  thyroid carcinoma - type is papillary carcinoma c) pre-existing thyroid disease i) multi-nodular goiter have  predisposition to develop carcinoma due to areas of  iodine - type is follicular carcinoma www.freelivedoctor.com
  79. 79. <ul><li>Papillary Carcinoma a) most common of thyroid carcinoma b) any age c) vast majority of carcinoma associated with ionizing radiation exposure d) solitary or multi-focal nodules e) are non-functional tumors i) painless masses ii) within thyroid or metastasis to cervical lymph nodes </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  80. 80. <ul><li>Follicular Carcinoma a) second most common form of thyroid carcinoma b)  incidence in areas of dietary iodine deficiency c) do not arise from pre-existing adenomas d) present most often as solitary nodules with no iodine uptake (“cold nodules”) e) metastasize via blood to lungs, bone and liver f) unlike papillary carcinoma, regional nodal involvement is uncommon </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  81. 81. <ul><li>Medullary Carcinoma a) secrete calcitonin from “C” cells i) calcitonin important diagnostic measurement as well as a follow-up following treatment b) may arise as solitary nodule or multiple lesions c) ”C” cell hyperplasia </li></ul><ul><li>Anaplastic Carcinoma a) most aggressive thyroid neoplasms b) predominantly in elderly patients i) areas with endemic goiter c) death in < 1 year ( compromise of neck) d) distant metastasis is common </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
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