Diseases of female genital system

32,091 views

Published on

2 Comments
29 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
32,091
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
108
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3,118
Comments
2
Likes
29
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Bartholin glands in women are analogous to Cowper’s (bulbourethral) glands in men. They are also called greater vestibular glands. Inflamation or obstruction to the ducts of these glands can cause cyst formation.
  • The GREATER vestibular glands are located on the LOWER (posterior) wall of the vagina. The vestibular glands (NOT greater vestibular) are located on the UPPER (anterior) wall of the vagina.
  • This type of “lichenoid” disorder has HYPER-plastic epidermis, NOT atrophic. The “hyperplasia” is felt to be related to “itching” or mechanical epidermal irritation.
  • Yep, HPV again! (usually types 6 and 11)
  • VIN, CIN, PIN, VIN. (why a double “V”? (Vulvar,Vaginal too), all represent PRE-cancerous changes, vulva, cervix, prostate, vagina, respectively.
  • Very LOW grade VIN looks almost like normal skin, very HIGH grade VIN is regarded as carcinoma-in-situ, i.e., cancer, but hasn’t infiltrated yet. Identify the areas of VIN on this picture. Factures such as loss of maturation pattern, nuclear aberrations such as enlargement, hyperchromasia, pleomorphism, mitoses differentiate LOW fro HIGH.
  • INFILTRATING squamous cell carcinoma. Any doubt?
  • Any doubt? INFILTRATING squamous cell carcinoma!
  • Radical vulvectomy specimen? How do you know this is malignant melanoma? Where is the pigment? Would you order a S-100 and HMB-45 immunostain?
  • Atresia, double vagina, double uterus.
  • Bacteria, Candida, Trichomonas are the common causes of vaginitis
  • Note the trich’s flagella
  • Yep, you guessed it. Caused by HPV again.
  • Squamous metaplasia of cervical glands. Can you understand how this might be difficult to differentiate from infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma?
  • Cancer or metaplasia? Ans: Cancer Why?
  • Colposcopist’s view. Where is the squamocolumnar junction?
  • What is this?
  • What is this?
  • This is precisely the squamous metaplastic process? Where else might squamous metaplasia occur and why?
  • What is your diagnosis?
  • Note that the journey from noemal epithelium to carcinoma is a GRADUAL one, often many years too.
  • Which one is worse? Which one is more convincingly HPV? Why? (Ans: Koilocytosis)
  • Would you expect microinfiltration to originate from a carcinoma-in-situ appearing epithelium? Ans: YES
  • Normal, CIN-I, CIN-II, CIN-III. Which is which?
  • PRE-ovulatory = proliferative endometrium. POSAT-ovulatory = secretory endometrium.
  • What is the difference between adenomyosis and endometriosis? Is adenomyosis also called endometriosis “interna”? Ans: YES
  • Endometriosis, rectal.
  • “ Chocolate” refers to the consistency of the hemorrhage, nothing more.
  • Endometrial “polyp”, colposcopist’s view and gross specimen.
  • Endometrial “polyp”, microscopic view. Because endometrial polyps are really excesses of estrogen targeted tissue, i.e., endometrium, are they related to estrogen excesses? Ans : YES Are they related to hyperplastic endometrium? Ans: YES Can they be confused with hyperplastic endometrium on a D&C specimen? Ans: YES
  • Just as NUCLEOLI differentiate benign from malignant prostate glands, what dofferentiate benign from malignant smooth muscle tumors? Ans: MITOSES per high power fields. NOT pleomorphism, NOT hyperchromasia, NOT nuclear size, ………………………………… ..But MITOSES!!!
  • Associated with: HYPERESTROGENISM OBESITY DIABETES HYPERTENSION INFERTILITY Obviously, Endometrial hyperplasia (EIN), endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia
  • INVASIVENESS is KEY feature to differentiate endometrial hyperplasia from endometrial carcinoma.
  • What are the usual glandular features of adenocarcinoma vs. “benign” glands?
  • These are merely adjectives, HOWEVER, some types are better than others, prognostically. HOWEVER, grading and staging are of utmost importance, independent of whatever of these “adjectives” you use.
  • Primary germ cells, male or female, first arise in the yolk sac and migrate to the genital ridge, which is in close proximity to the mesonephros. Eventually, retroperitoneal testes migrate through the inguinal canal to the scrotum, covered by peritoneum. Ovaries stay in the pelvis, and are covered by serosa, and are therefore intraperitoneal, by POSTERIOR to the fallopian tubes.
  • The CORTEX is the site of developing follicles. The MEDULLA is relatively free of developing follicles, and rich in connective tissue (stroma) and blood vessels.
  • Major internal female genitalia structures, landmarks, and interrelationships. In which ligament does the ovarian artery lie? Through which structure does the round ligament travel.
  • Major internal female genitalia structures, landmarks, and interrelationships.
  • GREAT whole mount to demonstrate overall cortex vs. medullary differentiation.
  • OOCYTE PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLE (simple squamous covering) PRIMARY FOLLICLE (cuboidal epithelial covering)
  • Zona pellucida, arrow, becomes “atretic” follicle. Is this a primary follicle? Ans: YES Why?
  • Secondary = Graffian = Antral follicle Where is the antrum?
  • Find the cumulus oophorus, liquor folliculi, and corona radiata
  • Granulosa and theca INTERNA cells make estrogen.
  • LUTEAL cells, under LUTEINIZING hormone and FSH too, make progesterone. LUTEUM means YELLOW. Why? Why is ANYTHING bright yellow? A corpus luteum of pregnancy is considerably larger than a regular, NON-pregnancy, corpus luteum.
  • Corpus albicans. ALBA means WHITE. Why is it white?
  • Most common PRE-menopausal cyst
  • Any EXTREMELY yellow cyst of a premenopausal ovary, is regarded as luteal in origin. Very common PRE-menopausal cyst
  • Although the cortical area of the normal ovary contains cysts, i.e., various stages of follicular development, true PCOD (PolyCystic Ovarian Disease, or Stein-Leventhall) ovaries are BIGGER (2x) than normal premenopaosal ovaries and have “true” cysts, NON-ovulatory, NOT just stages of follicular development. Is a “cyst” a “tumor” (i.e. swelling) in the classical sense of the word, like a bump on the head. Is a cyst usually a true neoplasm?
  • Always think of true ovarian tumors as following the normal anatomy/histology in these FOUR groups---mullerian, germ, sex-cord, metastatic. In contrast to the testicle, the ovary DOES occasionally get metastases.
  • Gross, microscopic, physiologic, behavioral classification factors for ovarian tumors.
  • The HUGEST tumors ever reported in human beings (50-100 lbs.?) are frequently benign mucinous ovarian tumors.
  • Q: What other adjective can we give to this tumor? Ans: Papillary
  • Close up of papillae
  • Why is this serous and NOT mucinous?
  • PSAMMOMA bodies
  • Less common M ü llerian carcinomas
  • Whether the teratomatous elements are “mature” or “immature” determine, greatly, the behavior of the teratoma, i.e., benign or malignant.
  • IMMATURE looking neural tissue. This is much more likely to behave badly (i.e., malignant) than a mature one. Often, you might see retinal tissue
  • Female dysgerminomas are IDENTICAL in appearance to male seminomas, i.e., germ cells + lymphocytes
  • Schiller-Duvall Body, just like in the testis yolk sac tumor!
  • EXACTLY the same as a malignant HCG producing testicular choriocarcinoma or a malignant HCG producing placental choriocarcinoma
  • “ Sex cord” = “stroma” MANY are functional, i.e., associated with hyper estrogenism (or androgenism)
  • Call-Exner bodies are virtually diagnostic of granulosa cell tumors. Q: Do they remind you of “rosettes”? Ans: YES
  • Q: Would a “thecoma” derived from theca INTERNA be more likely to be functional than a thecoma derived from theca EXTERNA? Ans: YES Why? Note the “theca” has both a vesicular and spindlt cell appearance. The juicy vesicular cells, theca interna, and tumors derived from them, can secrete estrogen. The spindly theca externa cells, usually do not, and may look simply like fibromas.
  • Many thecomas look white and fibrous, That is why the term fibrothecoma is often used? Is a fibrothecoma or fibroma less likely to be functional than a thecoma? Ans: YES Why?
  • Accessory placental lobe. An extreme lobe might be called a BI-partite placenta.
  • In a circumvallate placenta the amnionic, i.e., amniotic, membranes “thicken” or “double back”
  • And don’t forget placenta “abruptio” or premature separation of placenta with hemorrhage (i.e., hematoma)
  • Twin zygosity (mon- or di-) is related to the number of CHORIONS, NOT amnions or umbilical cords!
  • Toxemia of pregnancy occurs in an amazing 6% of all pregnancies. Toxemia is also called PRE-eclampsia. When PRE-eclampsia is particularly severe and associated with more serious systemic effects such as DIC or convulsions, it is called ECLAMPSIA.
  • What does TORCH stand for?
  • Syncytial cells are FUSED, CYTO-trophoblastic cells are deeper stem cells. Is this chorionic villus mature or IM-mature? Ans: mature Why? Ans: It has blood vessels in its core.
  • In COMPLETE moles, ALL the villi are swollen. They turn into choriocarcinomas 2% of the time. In PARTIAL moles, only some are. They NEVER turn into choriocarcinomas.
  • NOTE trophoblast looks NORMAL, i.e., NON-invasive and NON-proliferative, and NON atypical.
  • Choriocarcinoma. Note invasive trophoblast.
  • Choriocarcinoma. Note extreme pleomorphism of trophoblastic cells.
  • Diseases of female genital system

    1. 1. Female Reproductive System www.freelivedoctor.com
    2. 2. TOPICS <ul><ul><li>Vulva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervix, uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body, uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placenta </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    3. 3. VULVA <ul><li>Synonymous with EXTERNAL genitalia </li></ul><ul><li>Everything ANTERIOR to the INTROITUS </li></ul><ul><li>Usual classification of Degen., Inflam., Neopl. </li></ul><ul><li>Common Diseases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BARTHOLIN Cyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulvar Vestibulitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deg./Inflam. Epithelial: LICHEN diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BENIGN tumors: Condyloma(ta) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MALIGNANT tumors: VIN, SCC </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    4. 4. Result from Inflammation/Obstruction of the Bartholin glands (i.e., greater vestibular glands) Often result in abscesses Surgical removal is curative when local procedures are inadequate or often recurrent NEVER become malignant www.freelivedoctor.com
    5. 5. VULVAR VESTIBULITIS, assoc. w. vulvodynia www.freelivedoctor.com
    6. 6. “ LICHEN” DISORDERS LICHEN Sclerosis (atrophic skin) LICHEN Simplex Chronicus (hypertrophic skin) Common features of FIBROSIS and INFLAMMATION www.freelivedoctor.com
    7. 7. Mucosal Atrophy Fibrosis (sclerosis) Inflammation www.freelivedoctor.com
    8. 8. LICHEN SIMPLEX CHRONICUS www.freelivedoctor.com
    9. 9. The types of lichen lesions which show HYPER -plastic mucosal changes are often regarded as being potentially malignant www.freelivedoctor.com
    10. 10. CONDYLOMA(TA) www.freelivedoctor.com
    11. 11. VIN, SCC <ul><li>VIN=changes leading to SCC-in-situ, look like “plaques” </li></ul><ul><li>BEYOND VIN = INFILTRATIONLike condylomas, HIGHLY linked to HPV </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    12. 12. VIN www.freelivedoctor.com
    13. 13. www.freelivedoctor.com
    14. 14. www.freelivedoctor.com
    15. 15. MALIGNANT MELANOMA www.freelivedoctor.com
    16. 16. VAGINA <ul><li>CONGENITAL: Parallel Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>INFLAMMATORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PRE-menopausal: STD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POST-menopausal: ATROPHY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BENIGN: Hidradenoma, Condyloma </li></ul><ul><li>MALIGNANT: VIN, INFILTRATING SCC </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    17. 17. CONGENITAL <ul><li>Imperforate hymen (hematocolpos) </li></ul><ul><li>Atresia </li></ul><ul><li>Absence (agenesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Septate </li></ul><ul><li>Double (didelphys) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    18. 18. Atresia, Double vagina, Double uterus. www.freelivedoctor.com
    19. 19. VAGINITIS <ul><li>90%  </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial Vaginitis is the most common cause of vaginitis, accounting for 50% of vaginitis cases. As previously mentioned, BV is caused by an overgrowth of organisms such as Gardnerella vaginalis (gram-variable coccobacillus), Mobiluncus species, Mycoplasma hominis , and Peptostreptococcus species. Risk factors include pregnancy, intrauterine device (IUD) use, and frequent douching. </li></ul><ul><li>Candida species ( C albicans, C tropicalis, and C glabrata ) are airborne fungi that are natural inhabitants of the vagina in as many as 50% of women, and vaginal candidiasis is the second most common cause of vaginitis. Risk factors include oral contraceptive use, IUD use, young age at first intercourse, increased frequency of intercourse, receptive cunnilingus, diabetes, HIV or other immunocompromised states, chronic antibiotic use, and pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>T. vaginalis infection, the third most common cause of vaginitis, is caused by trichomonads. These organisms are flagellated protozoans. Trichomonads primarily infect vaginal epithelium, and they less commonly infect the endocervix, urethra, and Bartholin and Skene glands. Trichomonads are transmitted sexually and can be identified in as many as 80% of male partners of infected women. Risk factors include tobacco use, unprotected intercourse with multiple sexual partners, and the use of an IUD. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    20. 20. www.freelivedoctor.com
    21. 21. VAGINAL NEOPLASIA <ul><li>VIN </li></ul><ul><li>INFILTRATING SCC </li></ul><ul><li>ADENOSIS (D.E.S.)  </li></ul><ul><li>ADENOCARCINOMA (Di-Ethyl-Stilbestrol) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    22. 22. VIN www.freelivedoctor.com
    23. 23. SCC www.freelivedoctor.com
    24. 24. www.freelivedoctor.com
    25. 25. www.freelivedoctor.com
    26. 26. CHILDHOOD EMBYRONAL RHABDOMYOSARCOMA www.freelivedoctor.com
    27. 27. CERVIX <ul><li>NORMAL </li></ul><ul><li>METAPLASIA </li></ul><ul><li>INFLAMMATION </li></ul><ul><li>POLYPS </li></ul><ul><li>DYSPLASIA </li></ul><ul><li>CIN </li></ul><ul><li>INFILTRATING SCC </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    28. 28. www.freelivedoctor.com
    29. 29. www.freelivedoctor.com
    30. 30. www.freelivedoctor.com
    31. 31. www.freelivedoctor.com
    32. 32. www.freelivedoctor.com
    33. 33. www.freelivedoctor.com
    34. 34. www.freelivedoctor.com
    35. 35. DYSPLASIA / CIN / SIL www.freelivedoctor.com
    36. 36. www.freelivedoctor.com
    37. 37. INFILTRATION www.freelivedoctor.com
    38. 38. How have we “CURED” Cervical Carcinoma? www.freelivedoctor.com
    39. 39. ENDOMETRIUM <ul><li>FUNCTIONAL HISTOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>D.U.B. (Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding) </li></ul><ul><li>INFLAMMATION </li></ul><ul><li>ADENOMYOSIS/ENDOMETRIOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>POLYPS/HYPERPLASIA </li></ul><ul><li>ADENOCARCINOMA and/or STROMAL </li></ul><ul><li>LEIOMYOMYOMAS, -SARCOMAS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MITOSES differentiate benign from malignant </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    40. 40. www.freelivedoctor.com
    41. 41. MITOSES (Glandular and Stromal) = PRE -ovulatory VACUOLES/SECRETION = POST -ovulatory www.freelivedoctor.com
    42. 42. DYSFUNCTIONAL UTERINE BLEEDING (DUB) <ul><li>Anovulatory Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate Luteal Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Contraceptives </li></ul><ul><li>Menopause </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Menopause </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    43. 43. ENDOMETRITIS <ul><li>PID </li></ul><ul><li>Post-partum Sepsis </li></ul><ul><li>BCP’s </li></ul><ul><li>TB </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    44. 44. ADENOMYOSIS <ul><li>Defined as normal endometrial glands deep within the myometrium </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    45. 45. www.freelivedoctor.com
    46. 46. ENDOMETRIOSIS Defined as normal endometrial glands OUTSIDE the confines of the myometrium Reverse menstruation vs. Embryologic “rest” theories EXTREMELY common cause of cyclical abdominal/pelvic pain Broad Ligament, Ovary (“chocolate cysts”), Peritoneum, Bowel, Umbilicus www.freelivedoctor.com
    47. 47. www.freelivedoctor.com
    48. 48. “ CHOCOLATE” CYST www.freelivedoctor.com
    49. 49. www.freelivedoctor.com
    50. 50. www.freelivedoctor.com
    51. 51. www.freelivedoctor.com
    52. 52. www.freelivedoctor.com
    53. 53. www.freelivedoctor.com
    54. 54. Adenocarcinoma of the Endometrium = Carcinoma of the Uterus www.freelivedoctor.com
    55. 55. www.freelivedoctor.com
    56. 56. www.freelivedoctor.com
    57. 57. ADENOCARCINOMA of the ENDOMETRIUM <ul><li>Papillary, Polypoid </li></ul><ul><li>Clear Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Adeno-Squamous </li></ul><ul><li>Mucinous </li></ul><ul><li>Serous </li></ul><ul><li>Preceded by hyperplasia (EIN), dysplasia </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogenic, DES effects </li></ul><ul><li>Ass. w.: obesity, diabetes, hypertension, infertility </li></ul><ul><li>Stromal “sarcomatous” conditions can co-exist, i.e., “adenosarcoma” </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    58. 58. GRADING and STAGING <ul><li>GRADING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1, 2, 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well, Moderate, Poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STAGING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(I) Corpus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(II) Corpus + Cervix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(III) Beyond uterus, but inside true pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(IV) Outside true pelvis or involving bladder or rectal mucosa </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    59. 59. Fallopian Tubes <ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Cysts </li></ul><ul><li>Neoplasms </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    60. 60. SALPINGITIS/PID GC and CHLAMYDIA PYOSALPINX PERITONITIS TUBO-OVARIAN ADHESIONS STERILITY INFERTILITY www.freelivedoctor.com
    61. 61. Peritubal CYSTS <ul><li>Endometriosis </li></ul><ul><li>Hydatid Cysts of Morgagni (Mullerian rests) Para-, Peri- tubal) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    62. 62. TUBAL NEOPLASMS <ul><li>Adenocarcinomas </li></ul><ul><li>Leiomyomas </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    63. 63. DISEASES of OVARIES PREGNANCY PLACENTA www.freelivedoctor.com
    64. 64. DISEASES of OVARIES <ul><li>DEGENERATIVE? </li></ul><ul><li>INFLAMMATORY? </li></ul><ul><li>CYSTS </li></ul><ul><li>TUMORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M ü llerian (“Germinal”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germ Cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex Cord/Stromal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metastatic </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    65. 65. DISEASES of PREGNANCY <ul><li>EARLY Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>LATE Pregnancy </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    66. 66. DISEASES of PLACENTA <ul><li>. BENIGN tumors (MOLES) </li></ul><ul><li>. MALIGNANT tumors (CHORIOCARCINOMA) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    67. 67. GENITAL RIDGE 6 WEEKS www.freelivedoctor.com
    68. 68. www.freelivedoctor.com
    69. 69. www.freelivedoctor.com
    70. 70. Everything you can see or feel is lined by serosa (i.e., mesothelial cells, visceral and parietal www.freelivedoctor.com
    71. 71. www.freelivedoctor.com
    72. 72. www.freelivedoctor.com
    73. 73. TERMS <ul><li>“ Germinal” Epithelium (Mesothelium) </li></ul><ul><li>Ovum (Oocyte) </li></ul><ul><li>Tunica Albuginea </li></ul><ul><li>Primordial Follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Mature “Graffian” follicle (antral or secondary) </li></ul><ul><li>Granulosa cells (  Estrogen) </li></ul><ul><li>Thecal cells (  Estrogen) </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus luteum (  Progesterone) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Atretic” follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus Albicans </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stroma” </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    74. 74. www.freelivedoctor.com
    75. 75. www.freelivedoctor.com
    76. 76. www.freelivedoctor.com
    77. 77. www.freelivedoctor.com
    78. 78. B=GRANULOSA D=THECA INTERNA E=THECA EXTERNA www.freelivedoctor.com
    79. 79. www.freelivedoctor.com
    80. 80. www.freelivedoctor.com
    81. 81. ESTROGEN <ul><li>Controlled by FSH and LH </li></ul><ul><li>Develop, Lactate Breast Lobules </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferate Endometrial Glands </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cardioprotective” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bone Mass” protective </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    82. 82. PROGESTERONE <ul><li>Controlled by FSH and LH </li></ul><ul><li>SECRETE Endometrial Glands </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLANTATION of the blastocyst </li></ul><ul><li>Lactation </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    83. 83. DISEASES of OVARIES <ul><li>CYSTS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follicular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luteal </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    84. 84. FOLLICULAR CYST MOST COMMON www.freelivedoctor.com
    85. 85. CORPUS LUTEUM CYST www.freelivedoctor.com
    86. 86. P OLY- C ystic O varian D isease ( Stein-Leventhal syndrome) 5% Prevalence Anovulation Oligomenorrhea Obesity Hirsutism www.freelivedoctor.com
    87. 87. Polycystic Ovaries www.freelivedoctor.com
    88. 88. OVARIAN TUMORS <ul><li>M Ü LLERIAN (MAJORITY) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serous (Benign, Borderline, Malignant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucinous (Benign, Borderline, Malignant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endometroid (Benign, Borderline, Malignant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenosarcoma (Carcinoma AND Sarcoma) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesodermal Mixed (MULTIPHASIC Sarcoma) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear Cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brenner (almost always benign) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional (almost always look like Brenner) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germ Cell </li></ul><ul><li>SEX-CORD/STROMAL </li></ul><ul><li>METASTATIC </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    89. 89. OVARIAN TUMORS <ul><li>Solid vs. Cystic </li></ul><ul><li>Functional vs. NON-functional </li></ul><ul><li>Benign vs. Malignant </li></ul><ul><li>First clinical presentation may be ascites </li></ul><ul><li>Malignant ascites in a woman is ovarian cancer until proven otherwise </li></ul><ul><li>CA-125 is THE important tumor marker in ovarian cancer, especially as a follow up. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    90. 90. SEROUS, BENIGN www.freelivedoctor.com
    91. 91. MUCINOUS, BENIGN www.freelivedoctor.com
    92. 92. www.freelivedoctor.com Q: What other adjective can we give to this tumor? Ans: Papillary
    93. 93. www.freelivedoctor.com Close up of papillae
    94. 94. www.freelivedoctor.com
    95. 95. PSAMMOMA bodies are dried up papillae of papillary adenocarcinomas, usually in the thyroid, but in ANY papillary adenocarcinoma www.freelivedoctor.com
    96. 96. www.freelivedoctor.com
    97. 97. OTHER M Ü LLERIAN <ul><li>ENDOMETRIOD, malignant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(looks like endometrium) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CLEAR CELL, malignant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(clear cells, reminiscent of renal clear cell ca.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CYSTADENOFIBROMA, benign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(BENIGN “FIBROUS” COMPONENT) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BRENNER TUMOR, benign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(transitional cell nests) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CARCINOMA with SARCOMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(adenosarcoma, mixed M ü llerian) </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    98. 98. “ GERM CELL” Tumors <ul><li>Teratomas (usually benign in ovary), i.e., “mature” cystic teratoma or dermoid cyst </li></ul><ul><li>“ Immature” teratomas are regarded as malignant </li></ul><ul><li>Dysgerminoma (look exactly like the testicular seminoma), malignant </li></ul><ul><li>Endodermal Sinus (Yolk Sac), malignant, Just like testicular </li></ul><ul><li>Choriocarcinoma, malignant, just like testicular </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    99. 99. www.freelivedoctor.com Dermoid “cyst” = BENIGN CYSTIC TERATOMA
    100. 100. www.freelivedoctor.com
    101. 101. www.freelivedoctor.com Whether the teratomatous elements are “mature” or “immature” determine, greatly, the behavior of the teratoma, i.e., benign or malignant.
    102. 102. www.freelivedoctor.com IMMATURE looking neural tissue. This is much more likely to behave badly (i.e., malignant) than a mature one. Often, you might see retinal tissue
    103. 103. Dysgerminoma : Female :: Seminoma : Male www.freelivedoctor.com
    104. 104. ENDODERMAL SINUS TUMOR, aka YOLK SAC TUMOR www.freelivedoctor.com
    105. 105. CHORIOCARCINOMA,Just like testis or placenta www.freelivedoctor.com
    106. 106. SEX-CORD/STROMAL TUMORS <ul><li>Chiefly benign and NON-cystic, i.e., “solid”, often functional (hyper-estrogen-ism) </li></ul><ul><li>Granulosa-Theca </li></ul><ul><li>Fibroma-Theca </li></ul><ul><li>Sertoli-Leydig (Androblastoma ) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    107. 107. CALL-EXNER BODIES www.freelivedoctor.com
    108. 108. B=GRANULOSA D=THECA INTERNA E=THECA EXTERNA www.freelivedoctor.com
    109. 109. www.freelivedoctor.com Many thecomas look white and fibrous, That is why the term fibrothecoma is often used? Is a fibrothecoma or fibroma less likely to be functional than a thecoma? Ans: YES Why?
    110. 110. DISEASES of PREGNANCY <ul><li>EARLY Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>LATE Pregnancy </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    111. 111. EARLY PREGNANCY <ul><li>SPONTANEOUS ABORTION </li></ul><ul><li>ECTOPIC PREGNANCY </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    112. 112. Spontaneous Abortion <ul><li>15% - 35% </li></ul><ul><li>Fetal Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually Genetic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maternal Causes (placental, uterus infections or trauma) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxo, Mycoplasma, Listeria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trauma </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    113. 113. Ectopic Pregnancy <ul><li>Chiefly TUBAL, but ovarian or abdominal rare </li></ul><ul><li>1% OF NORMAL WOMEN </li></ul><ul><li>35%-50% OF WOMEN with previous SALPINGITIS/PID </li></ul><ul><li>+ HCG, Abdominal pain, 1 st trimester, ultrasound </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    114. 114. www.freelivedoctor.com
    115. 115. LATE PREGNANCY <ul><li>PLACENTAL ANOMALIES </li></ul><ul><li>TWIN PLACENTAS </li></ul><ul><li>PLACENTAL INFLAMMATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>TOXEMIA (ECLAMPSIA/PRE-ECLAMPSIA) </li></ul><ul><li>INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    116. 116. PLACENTAL ANOMALIES <ul><li>Accessory Lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Bipartite Placenta </li></ul><ul><li>Circumvallate Placenta </li></ul><ul><li>Placenta Accreta, chorion going DIRECTLY to the myometrium </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    117. 117. www.freelivedoctor.com
    118. 118. www.freelivedoctor.com
    119. 119. www.freelivedoctor.com
    120. 120. CIRCUMVALLATE www.freelivedoctor.com
    121. 121. PLACENTA ACCRETA NO DECIDUA BETWEEN VILLI AND MYOMETRIUM www.freelivedoctor.com
    122. 122. MRI of Placenta PREVIA, or LOW-LYING placenta, usually anatomically normal, but just lies LOWER than it should . www.freelivedoctor.com
    123. 123. MONOCHORIONIC = MONOZYGOTIC www.freelivedoctor.com
    124. 124. TOXEMIA of PREGNANCY (PRE-eclampsia ) <ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Proteinuria </li></ul><ul><li>Edema </li></ul><ul><li>Related to Placental Ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>Risk for DIC, convulsions (eclampsia ) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    125. 125. I ntrauterine G rowth R etardation <ul><li>Fetal causes: Genetic, malformations </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal Causes, vascular diseases, toxemia, infections, placental diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Placenta size (350-700g) ~ Fetal size (7.5lb) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    126. 126. Placental Infections <ul><li>Villitis vs. chorionamnionitis vs. funisitis </li></ul><ul><li>ASCENDING vs. hematogenous </li></ul><ul><li>ASCENDING are usually bacterial, and chorionamnionitis </li></ul><ul><li>Hematogenous are often TORCH, and villitis </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    127. 127. Placental Neoplasms, i.e. gestational trophoblastic disease <ul><li>Benign: MOLES (Hydatidiform moles) </li></ul><ul><li>Malignant: CHORIOCARCINOMA </li></ul><ul><li>BOTH are associated with increased or persistent levels of the placental hormone HCG </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    128. 128. www.freelivedoctor.com
    129. 129. Hydatidiform Mole <ul><li>1/1000 in USA </li></ul><ul><li>1% in Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Also called NON-invasive mole in its most common benign variant, but can also be “invasive” </li></ul><ul><li>Complete (2% chorioCA incidence) or partial (0% incidence) </li></ul><ul><li>Grapelike clusters, i.e., swollen villi </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    130. 130. www.freelivedoctor.com
    131. 131. The MAIN thing differentiating benign from malignant from worrisome trophoblastic neoplasms is INVASIVENESS of the trophoblast www.freelivedoctor.com
    132. 132. www.freelivedoctor.com
    133. 133. www.freelivedoctor.com

    ×