Chemical Composition of the Body www.freelivedoctor.com
Atoms <ul><li>Smallest units of matter that can undergo chemical change. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus (center) contains: </li...
Atoms <ul><li>Atomic Number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of protons in an atom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neutral atom </li></...
Atoms <ul><li>Chemical element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes all of the isotopic forms of a given atom </li></ul></ul><ul...
Elements <ul><li>Four elements important to living organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N...
Atoms <ul><li>Electrons (outside the nucleus): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- charged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupy orbitals ...
Orbitals <ul><li>Also called shells or energy levels </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons usually found within a given orbital </li...
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Chemical Bonds, Molecules, and Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Chemical bonds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction of valence electr...
Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Atoms share their valence electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpolar bonds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electr...
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Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Polar bonds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons are shared between two different atoms. </li></ul></ul...
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Ionic Bonds <ul><li>One or more valence electrons from an atom are completely transferred to a second atom. </li></ul><ul>...
Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Cation and anion attract, form ionic compound. </li></ul><ul><li>Weaker than polar bonds. </li></ul><u...
www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc...
Na Cl + www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Compan...
Na Cl + www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 3 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Compan...
Na Cl + www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Compan...
Na Cl + www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Compan...
Na Cl + (+) (–) www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hil...
NaCl www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies...
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Interaction with water <ul><li>Hydrophilic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of hydration spheres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Hydrogen Bond <ul><li>Hydrogen forms a polar bond with another atom, hydrogen has a slight + charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Wea...
Acids, Bases, and the pH Scale <ul><li>Acid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecule that can release protons (H + ). </li></ul></u...
pH <ul><li>pH = log  _1__     [H + ] </li></ul><ul><li>Normal pH blood = 7.35 - 7.45. </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer: </li></ul>...
Organic Molecules <ul><li>Molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon has 4 electrons in outer or...
Organic Molecules <ul><li>Organic Chemistry:  deals with molecules that contain carbon </li></ul><ul><li>More than 5 milli...
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Functional Groups <ul><li>Inactive “backbone” to which more reactive atoms are attached. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
Classes According to Functional Groups <ul><li>Ketone and aldehyde: carbonyl group </li></ul><ul><li>Organic acid: carboxy...
Stereoisomers <ul><li>Exactly the same atoms arranged in same sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Differ in spatial orientation of...
Four main classes of Organic molecules <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul...
Lipids <ul><li>GR: Lipos=Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse group of molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Insoluble in polar solvents (...
Lipids <ul><li>Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>Ketone Bodies ...
Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Includes oils and gases </li></ul><ul><li>Carbons can be single bonds (saturated) </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Fatty acids <ul><li>Nonpolar hydrocarbon chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be saturated (are stright) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
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Triglycerides <ul><li>Formed by condensation of glycerol and 3 fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ester bond </li></ul></u...
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Nutritional considerations of triglycerides <ul><li>Also called fat or neutral fat </li></ul><ul><li>Stored in adipose cel...
Phospholipids <ul><li>A number of categories </li></ul><ul><li>All contain a phosphate group </li></ul><ul><li>Most common...
Lecithin www.freelivedoctor.com
Phospholipid <ul><li>Are amphipathic: contain both polar and nonpolar domains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head: </li></ul></ul><...
Phospholipids <ul><li>Major component of cell membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophylic heads orient to water </li></ul>...
Micelle formation www.freelivedoctor.com
Ketone Bodies <ul><li>Results from the hydrolysis of triglycerides by adipocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberates free FA i...
Ketone Bodies 4-carbon chunks  www.freelivedoctor.com
Ketone Bodies <ul><li>Produced in the rapid breakdown of FA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-carbohydrate diets </li></ul></ul><u...
Steroids <ul><li>Nonpolar and insoluble in H 2 0. </li></ul><ul><li>All have cholesterol as precursor. </li></ul>www.freel...
Prostaglandins <ul><li>Prostaglandins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acid with cyclic hydrocarbon group. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Prostaglandins www.freelivedoctor.com
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>CH 2 0 </li></ul><ul><...
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Supply energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex carbohydrates </li></...
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Monosaccharide: the “simple sugars” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentoses (5-carbons): </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Glucose <ul><li>Also called : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dextrose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportable in the blood </li></...
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Fructose <ul><li>Fruit sugar </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
Galactose <ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Disaccharide:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 monosaccharides joined covalently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Disaccharides <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soluable </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Formation of Disaccharides www.freelivedoctor.com
Hydrolysis <ul><li>Reverse of dehydration synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 0 molecul...
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Polysaccharides:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many monosaccharides joined covalently. </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Polysaccarides <ul><li>Kinds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose subunits </li></ul></ul>...
Proteins <ul><li>General Information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GR: proteios=first rank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~50% of the...
Proteins <ul><li>Protein Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large molecules (polymers) composed of amino acid sub-units (mono...
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Proteins <ul><li>20 different standard amino acids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the properties of the functional group ...
Proteins <ul><li>Dehydration synthesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino end of one amino acid combines with hydroxyl group of ...
Peptide bond www.freelivedoctor.com
Proteins <ul><li>Dipeptide: 2 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Tripeptide: 3 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Polypeptide: many ...
Protein structure <ul><li>Four structural levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ba...
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Secondary structure (2 o ) <ul><li>Based on the primary structure </li></ul><ul><li>Weak hydrogen bonds form between hydro...
Secondary structures www.freelivedoctor.com
Tertitary structure <ul><li>Polypeptide chains bend and fold. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on interactions with aa in diffe...
Bonds responsible for 3 o  structure www.freelivedoctor.com
Tertiary structure www.freelivedoctor.com
Quaternary Structure <ul><li>Number of polypeptide chains covalently linked together. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin, hemoglobi...
Conjugated proteins <ul><li>Protein combined with another type of molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Glycoproteins: carbohydrate w...
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Include the macromolecules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Nucleic Acids www.freelivedoctor.com
Nucleotides <ul><li>Structure of a nucleotide: 3 subunits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P...
Nucleotide Structure www.freelivedoctor.com
Nitrogenous Bases www.freelivedoctor.com
DNA <ul><li>Huge molecules with simple structure </li></ul><ul><li>Big time data storage! </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li...
DNA <ul><li>Nucleotide strands: 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar-phosphate backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bases stick ou...
Nitrogenous Bases www.freelivedoctor.com
DNA www.freelivedoctor.com
RNA <ul><li>Means by which DNA directs cellular activities </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar...
DNA vs RNA www.freelivedoctor.com
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Chemicalcomposition Of The Body

  1. 1. Chemical Composition of the Body www.freelivedoctor.com
  2. 2. Atoms <ul><li>Smallest units of matter that can undergo chemical change. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus (center) contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons (+ charge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrons (no charge) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atomic mass: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sum of protons and neutrons. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  3. 3. Atoms <ul><li>Atomic Number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of protons in an atom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neutral atom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of protons = number of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isotopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in number of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same in atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in atomic mass </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  4. 4. Atoms <ul><li>Chemical element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes all of the isotopic forms of a given atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg: Element Hydrogen: 3 isotopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most common: one proton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deuterium: one proton, one neutron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tritium: one proton, two neutrons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly used in research </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>106 chemical elements </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  5. 5. Elements <ul><li>Four elements important to living organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (N) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen (H) </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  6. 6. Atoms <ul><li>Electrons (outside the nucleus): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- charged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupy orbitals surrounding nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Valence electrons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons in the outer most orbital that participate in chemical reactions (if orbit incomplete). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form chemical bonds. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  7. 7. Orbitals <ul><li>Also called shells or energy levels </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons usually found within a given orbital </li></ul><ul><li>Levels (and max number of electrons) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First shell: 2 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second shell: 8 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third shell: usually 8 electrons </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  8. 8. www.freelivedoctor.com
  9. 9. Chemical Bonds, Molecules, and Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Chemical bonds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction of valence electrons between 2 or more atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><li># bonds determined by # electrons needed to complete outer orbital. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  10. 10. Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Atoms share their valence electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpolar bonds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons are equally distributed between the two identical atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strongest bond. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  11. 11. www.freelivedoctor.com
  12. 12. www.freelivedoctor.com
  13. 13. Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Polar bonds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons are shared between two different atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons may be pulled more toward more atom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen, nitrogen, phosphate pull electrons towards themselves. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  14. 14. www.freelivedoctor.com
  15. 15. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>One or more valence electrons from an atom are completely transferred to a second atom. </li></ul><ul><li>First atom loses electrons, + charged (cation). </li></ul><ul><li>Second atom has more electrons, - charged (anion). </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  16. 16. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Cation and anion attract, form ionic compound. </li></ul><ul><li>Weaker than polar bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissociate easily when dissolved in H 2 0. </li></ul><ul><li>NaCl Na + and Cl - </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  17. 17. www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17p 18n 11p 12n 11p 12n 17p 18n + (+) (–) Na Cl + NaCl
  18. 18. Na Cl + www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17p 18n 11p 12n
  19. 19. Na Cl + www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 3 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17p 18n 11p 12n
  20. 20. Na Cl + www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17p 18n 11p 12n
  21. 21. Na Cl + www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17p 18n 11p 12n
  22. 22. Na Cl + (+) (–) www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17p 18n 11p 12n
  23. 23. NaCl www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 11p 12n (+) 17p 18n (–)
  24. 24. www.freelivedoctor.com
  25. 25. Interaction with water <ul><li>Hydrophilic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of hydration spheres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar covalent bonds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot form hydration spheres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonpolar covalent bonds. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  26. 26. Hydrogen Bond <ul><li>Hydrogen forms a polar bond with another atom, hydrogen has a slight + charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Weak attraction for for a second electronegative atom. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  27. 27. Acids, Bases, and the pH Scale <ul><li>Acid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecule that can release protons (H + ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proton donor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Base: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negatively charged ion that can combine with H + . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proton acceptor. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  28. 28. pH <ul><li>pH = log _1__ [H + ] </li></ul><ul><li>Normal pH blood = 7.35 - 7.45. </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System of molecules and ions that act to prevent changes in [H + ]. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  29. 29. Organic Molecules <ul><li>Molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon has 4 electrons in outer orbital. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon covalently bonds to fill its outer orbital with 8 electrons. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  30. 30. Organic Molecules <ul><li>Organic Chemistry: deals with molecules that contain carbon </li></ul><ul><li>More than 5 million organic compounds have been identified </li></ul><ul><li>The carbon atom can form bonds with a greater number of different elements than any other type of atom </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  31. 31. www.freelivedoctor.com
  32. 32. Functional Groups <ul><li>Inactive “backbone” to which more reactive atoms are attached. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  33. 33. Classes According to Functional Groups <ul><li>Ketone and aldehyde: carbonyl group </li></ul><ul><li>Organic acid: carboxyl group </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol: hydroxyl group </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  34. 34. Stereoisomers <ul><li>Exactly the same atoms arranged in same sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Differ in spatial orientation of a functional group. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D-isomers: right-handed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L-isomers: left-handed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enzymes of all cells can combine only with the L-amino acids and D-sugars. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  35. 35. Four main classes of Organic molecules <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  36. 36. Lipids <ul><li>GR: Lipos=Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse group of molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Insoluble in polar solvents (H 2 0). </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic (nonpolar) </li></ul><ul><li>Consist primarily of hydrocarbon chains and rings. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  37. 37. Lipids <ul><li>Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>Ketone Bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Prostaglandins </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  38. 38. Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Includes oils and gases </li></ul><ul><li>Carbons can be single bonds (saturated) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbons can be double bonded (unsaturated) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  39. 39. Fatty acids <ul><li>Nonpolar hydrocarbon chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be saturated (are stright) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be unsaturated (bend at the double bond) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be poly unsaturated (multiple bends) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carboxyl group on one end </li></ul><ul><li>Large group </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  40. 40. www.freelivedoctor.com
  41. 41. Triglycerides <ul><li>Formed by condensation of glycerol and 3 fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ester bond </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fatty acid consists of hydrocarbon chain with carboxylic acid end. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be saturated or unsaturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fats: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly animal sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly solid at room temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly plant sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly liquid at room temperature </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  42. 42. www.freelivedoctor.com
  43. 43. Nutritional considerations of triglycerides <ul><li>Also called fat or neutral fat </li></ul><ul><li>Stored in adipose cells </li></ul><ul><li>Total fat intake should be about 30% of total energy intake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fat >10% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saturated fats are implicated in heart disease and stroke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data suggests they promote high blood cholesterol </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  44. 44. Phospholipids <ul><li>A number of categories </li></ul><ul><li>All contain a phosphate group </li></ul><ul><li>Most common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycerol (3 carbons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty Acids on carbon 1 and 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate group attached to carbon (and other polar groups eg.: choline) </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  45. 45. Lecithin www.freelivedoctor.com
  46. 46. Phospholipid <ul><li>Are amphipathic: contain both polar and nonpolar domains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contains polar groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tail: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains fatty acids (nonpolar) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  47. 47. Phospholipids <ul><li>Major component of cell membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophylic heads orient to water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic tails orient to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kind of phospholipid varies based on cell or organelle </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  48. 48. Micelle formation www.freelivedoctor.com
  49. 49. Ketone Bodies <ul><li>Results from the hydrolysis of triglycerides by adipocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberates free FA into blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FA function as an acid in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most FA used as energy source by some tissues </li></ul><ul><li>If not, converted by liver into Ketone bodies </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  50. 50. Ketone Bodies 4-carbon chunks www.freelivedoctor.com
  51. 51. Ketone Bodies <ul><li>Produced in the rapid breakdown of FA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-carbohydrate diets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled Diabetes mellitus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ketosis: Elevated level of FA in blood </li></ul><ul><li>Ketoacidosis: ketosis is high enough to lower blood ph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause coma, death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Filtered by the kidney </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  52. 52. Steroids <ul><li>Nonpolar and insoluble in H 2 0. </li></ul><ul><li>All have cholesterol as precursor. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  53. 53. Prostaglandins <ul><li>Prostaglandins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acid with cyclic hydrocarbon group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from arachidonic acid. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  54. 54. Prostaglandins www.freelivedoctor.com
  55. 55. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>CH 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>General formula: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C n H 2n O n </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-ose denotes a sugar molecule </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  56. 56. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Supply energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide structural support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Part of plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Monomer: monosaccarides </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  57. 57. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Monosaccharide: the “simple sugars” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentoses (5-carbons): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribose: in RNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose: in DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hexoses (6-carbons):structural isomers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose, fructose and galactose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soluable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcoholic fermentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  58. 58. Glucose <ul><li>Also called : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dextrose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportable in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  59. 59. www.freelivedoctor.com
  60. 60. Fructose <ul><li>Fruit sugar </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  61. 61. Galactose <ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  62. 62. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Disaccharide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 monosaccharides joined covalently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sucrose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose and fructose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maltose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose and glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose and galactose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  63. 63. Disaccharides <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soluable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be fermented </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formation: called condensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires an enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of molecule of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called dehydration synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of a covalent bond </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  64. 64. Formation of Disaccharides www.freelivedoctor.com
  65. 65. Hydrolysis <ul><li>Reverse of dehydration synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 0 molecule split. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  66. 66. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Polysaccharides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many monosaccharides joined covalently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General formula: (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) n </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Devoid of taste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not form solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine +starch+blue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  67. 67. Polysaccarides <ul><li>Kinds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose subunits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>branched </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dextrins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen (animal starch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose subunits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branched </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose subunits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long, unbranched chains </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  68. 68. Proteins <ul><li>General Information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GR: proteios=first rank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~50% of the organic material of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell structures, CTs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functional: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes, hormones, Hb, etc! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  69. 69. Proteins <ul><li>Protein Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large molecules (polymers) composed of amino acid sub-units (monomers). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino Acid structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>amino group (NH 2 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carboxylic acid group (COOH) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radical group (R): functional group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  70. 70. www.freelivedoctor.com
  71. 71. Proteins <ul><li>20 different standard amino acids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the properties of the functional group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.: </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  72. 72. Proteins <ul><li>Dehydration synthesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino end of one amino acid combines with hydroxyl group of carboxylic end of another amino acid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peptide bond: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bond between two adjacent amino acids. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  73. 73. Peptide bond www.freelivedoctor.com
  74. 74. Proteins <ul><li>Dipeptide: 2 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Tripeptide: 3 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Polypeptide: many amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of amino acids varies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 100 aa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 100aa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great variety! </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  75. 75. Protein structure <ul><li>Four structural levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on amino acid sequence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acid sequence determined by DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on hydrogen bonding between close aa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiery structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3-D shape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only in proteins with 2 or more polypeptide chains </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  76. 76. www.freelivedoctor.com
  77. 77. Secondary structure (2 o ) <ul><li>Based on the primary structure </li></ul><ul><li>Weak hydrogen bonds form between hydrogen and oxygen of a different amino acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Two main kinds of secondary structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha helix: Bond cause chain to twist in a helix. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta pleated sheet: interactions between lengths of the polypeptide chain </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  78. 78. Secondary structures www.freelivedoctor.com
  79. 79. Tertitary structure <ul><li>Polypeptide chains bend and fold. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on interactions with aa in different parts of the polypeptide chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>disulfide bonds: covalent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bonds: weak </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Produce 3 -dimensional shapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical interaction of each protein produces own characteristic tertiary structure </li></ul><ul><li>Denaturing protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irreversible disruption of tertiary structure </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  80. 80. Bonds responsible for 3 o structure www.freelivedoctor.com
  81. 81. Tertiary structure www.freelivedoctor.com
  82. 82. Quaternary Structure <ul><li>Number of polypeptide chains covalently linked together. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin, hemoglobin </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  83. 83. Conjugated proteins <ul><li>Protein combined with another type of molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Glycoproteins: carbohydrate with protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membranes, hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipoproteins: Lipid and protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membranes, blood plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemoproteins: iron and protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin, cytochromes </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  84. 84. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Include the macromolecules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA: ribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involved in heredity and genetic regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Are polymers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monomeric subunit:nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonded together in a dehydration synthesis reaction </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  85. 85. Nucleic Acids www.freelivedoctor.com
  86. 86. Nucleotides <ul><li>Structure of a nucleotide: 3 subunits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purines: two rings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guanine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrimidines: one ring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cytosine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thymine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uricil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  87. 87. Nucleotide Structure www.freelivedoctor.com
  88. 88. Nitrogenous Bases www.freelivedoctor.com
  89. 89. DNA <ul><li>Huge molecules with simple structure </li></ul><ul><li>Big time data storage! </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar: Deoxyribose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bases: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purines: G and A </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrimidines: C and T </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form double-stranded helix </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  90. 90. DNA <ul><li>Nucleotide strands: 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar-phosphate backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bases stick out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bases bond to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Base pairing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A – T </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G – C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called law of complementary base pairing </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  91. 91. Nitrogenous Bases www.freelivedoctor.com
  92. 92. DNA www.freelivedoctor.com
  93. 93. RNA <ul><li>Means by which DNA directs cellular activities </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar: ribose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bases: uracil (not thymine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single stranded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three main types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messenger RNA (mRNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer RNA (tRNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  94. 94. DNA vs RNA www.freelivedoctor.com

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