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Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
Chemicalcomposition Of  The Body
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Chemicalcomposition Of The Body

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  • 1. Chemical Composition of the Body www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 2. Atoms <ul><li>Smallest units of matter that can undergo chemical change. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus (center) contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons (+ charge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrons (no charge) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atomic mass: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sum of protons and neutrons. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 3. Atoms <ul><li>Atomic Number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of protons in an atom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neutral atom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of protons = number of electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isotopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in number of neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same in atomic number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in atomic mass </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 4. Atoms <ul><li>Chemical element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes all of the isotopic forms of a given atom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg: Element Hydrogen: 3 isotopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most common: one proton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deuterium: one proton, one neutron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tritium: one proton, two neutrons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly used in research </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>106 chemical elements </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 5. Elements <ul><li>Four elements important to living organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (N) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen (H) </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 6. Atoms <ul><li>Electrons (outside the nucleus): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- charged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupy orbitals surrounding nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Valence electrons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons in the outer most orbital that participate in chemical reactions (if orbit incomplete). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form chemical bonds. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 7. Orbitals <ul><li>Also called shells or energy levels </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons usually found within a given orbital </li></ul><ul><li>Levels (and max number of electrons) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First shell: 2 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second shell: 8 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third shell: usually 8 electrons </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 8. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 9. Chemical Bonds, Molecules, and Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Chemical bonds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction of valence electrons between 2 or more atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><li># bonds determined by # electrons needed to complete outer orbital. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 10. Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Atoms share their valence electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpolar bonds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons are equally distributed between the two identical atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strongest bond. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 11. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 12. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 13. Covalent Bonds <ul><li>Polar bonds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons are shared between two different atoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons may be pulled more toward more atom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen, nitrogen, phosphate pull electrons towards themselves. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 14. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 15. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>One or more valence electrons from an atom are completely transferred to a second atom. </li></ul><ul><li>First atom loses electrons, + charged (cation). </li></ul><ul><li>Second atom has more electrons, - charged (anion). </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 16. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Cation and anion attract, form ionic compound. </li></ul><ul><li>Weaker than polar bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissociate easily when dissolved in H 2 0. </li></ul><ul><li>NaCl Na + and Cl - </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 17. www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17p 18n 11p 12n 11p 12n 17p 18n + (+) (–) Na Cl + NaCl
  • 18. Na Cl + www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17p 18n 11p 12n
  • 19. Na Cl + www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 3 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17p 18n 11p 12n
  • 20. Na Cl + www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17p 18n 11p 12n
  • 21. Na Cl + www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17p 18n 11p 12n
  • 22. Na Cl + (+) (–) www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 6 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17p 18n 11p 12n
  • 23. NaCl www.freelivedoctor.com Table Salt, an Ionically Bonded Molecule Slide number: 7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 11p 12n (+) 17p 18n (–)
  • 24. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 25. Interaction with water <ul><li>Hydrophilic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of hydration spheres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar covalent bonds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot form hydration spheres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonpolar covalent bonds. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 26. Hydrogen Bond <ul><li>Hydrogen forms a polar bond with another atom, hydrogen has a slight + charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Weak attraction for for a second electronegative atom. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 27. Acids, Bases, and the pH Scale <ul><li>Acid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecule that can release protons (H + ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proton donor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Base: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negatively charged ion that can combine with H + . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proton acceptor. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 28. pH <ul><li>pH = log _1__ [H + ] </li></ul><ul><li>Normal pH blood = 7.35 - 7.45. </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System of molecules and ions that act to prevent changes in [H + ]. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 29. Organic Molecules <ul><li>Molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon has 4 electrons in outer orbital. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon covalently bonds to fill its outer orbital with 8 electrons. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 30. Organic Molecules <ul><li>Organic Chemistry: deals with molecules that contain carbon </li></ul><ul><li>More than 5 million organic compounds have been identified </li></ul><ul><li>The carbon atom can form bonds with a greater number of different elements than any other type of atom </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 31. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 32. Functional Groups <ul><li>Inactive “backbone” to which more reactive atoms are attached. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 33. Classes According to Functional Groups <ul><li>Ketone and aldehyde: carbonyl group </li></ul><ul><li>Organic acid: carboxyl group </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol: hydroxyl group </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 34. Stereoisomers <ul><li>Exactly the same atoms arranged in same sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Differ in spatial orientation of a functional group. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D-isomers: right-handed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L-isomers: left-handed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enzymes of all cells can combine only with the L-amino acids and D-sugars. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 35. Four main classes of Organic molecules <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 36. Lipids <ul><li>GR: Lipos=Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse group of molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Insoluble in polar solvents (H 2 0). </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic (nonpolar) </li></ul><ul><li>Consist primarily of hydrocarbon chains and rings. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 37. Lipids <ul><li>Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>Ketone Bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Prostaglandins </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 38. Hydrocarbons <ul><li>Includes oils and gases </li></ul><ul><li>Carbons can be single bonds (saturated) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbons can be double bonded (unsaturated) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 39. Fatty acids <ul><li>Nonpolar hydrocarbon chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be saturated (are stright) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be unsaturated (bend at the double bond) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be poly unsaturated (multiple bends) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carboxyl group on one end </li></ul><ul><li>Large group </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 40. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 41. Triglycerides <ul><li>Formed by condensation of glycerol and 3 fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ester bond </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fatty acid consists of hydrocarbon chain with carboxylic acid end. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be saturated or unsaturated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fats: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly animal sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly solid at room temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly plant sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly liquid at room temperature </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 42. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 43. Nutritional considerations of triglycerides <ul><li>Also called fat or neutral fat </li></ul><ul><li>Stored in adipose cells </li></ul><ul><li>Total fat intake should be about 30% of total energy intake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fat >10% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saturated fats are implicated in heart disease and stroke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data suggests they promote high blood cholesterol </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 44. Phospholipids <ul><li>A number of categories </li></ul><ul><li>All contain a phosphate group </li></ul><ul><li>Most common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycerol (3 carbons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty Acids on carbon 1 and 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate group attached to carbon (and other polar groups eg.: choline) </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 45. Lecithin www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 46. Phospholipid <ul><li>Are amphipathic: contain both polar and nonpolar domains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contains polar groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tail: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains fatty acids (nonpolar) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 47. Phospholipids <ul><li>Major component of cell membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophylic heads orient to water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic tails orient to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kind of phospholipid varies based on cell or organelle </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 48. Micelle formation www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 49. Ketone Bodies <ul><li>Results from the hydrolysis of triglycerides by adipocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberates free FA into blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FA function as an acid in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most FA used as energy source by some tissues </li></ul><ul><li>If not, converted by liver into Ketone bodies </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 50. Ketone Bodies 4-carbon chunks www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 51. Ketone Bodies <ul><li>Produced in the rapid breakdown of FA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-carbohydrate diets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled Diabetes mellitus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ketosis: Elevated level of FA in blood </li></ul><ul><li>Ketoacidosis: ketosis is high enough to lower blood ph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause coma, death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Filtered by the kidney </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 52. Steroids <ul><li>Nonpolar and insoluble in H 2 0. </li></ul><ul><li>All have cholesterol as precursor. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 53. Prostaglandins <ul><li>Prostaglandins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acid with cyclic hydrocarbon group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derived from arachidonic acid. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 54. Prostaglandins www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 55. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>CH 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>General formula: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C n H 2n O n </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-ose denotes a sugar molecule </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 56. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Supply energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide structural support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Part of plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Monomer: monosaccarides </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 57. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Monosaccharide: the “simple sugars” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentoses (5-carbons): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribose: in RNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose: in DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hexoses (6-carbons):structural isomers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose, fructose and galactose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soluable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcoholic fermentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 58. Glucose <ul><li>Also called : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dextrose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportable in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 59. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 60. Fructose <ul><li>Fruit sugar </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 61. Galactose <ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 62. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Disaccharide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 monosaccharides joined covalently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sucrose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose and fructose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maltose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose and glucose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose and galactose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 63. Disaccharides <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soluable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be fermented </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formation: called condensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires an enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of molecule of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called dehydration synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of a covalent bond </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 64. Formation of Disaccharides www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 65. Hydrolysis <ul><li>Reverse of dehydration synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 0 molecule split. </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 66. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Polysaccharides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many monosaccharides joined covalently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General formula: (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) n </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Devoid of taste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not form solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine +starch+blue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 67. Polysaccarides <ul><li>Kinds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose subunits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>branched </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dextrins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen (animal starch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose subunits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branched </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose subunits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long, unbranched chains </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 68. Proteins <ul><li>General Information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GR: proteios=first rank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~50% of the organic material of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell structures, CTs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functional: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes, hormones, Hb, etc! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 69. Proteins <ul><li>Protein Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large molecules (polymers) composed of amino acid sub-units (monomers). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino Acid structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>amino group (NH 2 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carboxylic acid group (COOH) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radical group (R): functional group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 70. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 71. Proteins <ul><li>20 different standard amino acids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the properties of the functional group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.: </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 72. Proteins <ul><li>Dehydration synthesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino end of one amino acid combines with hydroxyl group of carboxylic end of another amino acid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peptide bond: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bond between two adjacent amino acids. </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 73. Peptide bond www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 74. Proteins <ul><li>Dipeptide: 2 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Tripeptide: 3 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Polypeptide: many amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of amino acids varies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 100 aa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 100aa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great variety! </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 75. Protein structure <ul><li>Four structural levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on amino acid sequence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acid sequence determined by DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on hydrogen bonding between close aa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiery structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3-D shape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only in proteins with 2 or more polypeptide chains </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 76. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 77. Secondary structure (2 o ) <ul><li>Based on the primary structure </li></ul><ul><li>Weak hydrogen bonds form between hydrogen and oxygen of a different amino acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Two main kinds of secondary structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha helix: Bond cause chain to twist in a helix. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta pleated sheet: interactions between lengths of the polypeptide chain </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 78. Secondary structures www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 79. Tertitary structure <ul><li>Polypeptide chains bend and fold. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on interactions with aa in different parts of the polypeptide chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>disulfide bonds: covalent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen bonds: weak </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Produce 3 -dimensional shapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical interaction of each protein produces own characteristic tertiary structure </li></ul><ul><li>Denaturing protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irreversible disruption of tertiary structure </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 80. Bonds responsible for 3 o structure www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 81. Tertiary structure www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 82. Quaternary Structure <ul><li>Number of polypeptide chains covalently linked together. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin, hemoglobin </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 83. Conjugated proteins <ul><li>Protein combined with another type of molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Glycoproteins: carbohydrate with protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membranes, hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipoproteins: Lipid and protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membranes, blood plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemoproteins: iron and protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin, cytochromes </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 84. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Include the macromolecules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA: ribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involved in heredity and genetic regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Are polymers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monomeric subunit:nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonded together in a dehydration synthesis reaction </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 85. Nucleic Acids www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 86. Nucleotides <ul><li>Structure of a nucleotide: 3 subunits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purines: two rings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guanine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrimidines: one ring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cytosine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thymine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uricil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 87. Nucleotide Structure www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 88. Nitrogenous Bases www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 89. DNA <ul><li>Huge molecules with simple structure </li></ul><ul><li>Big time data storage! </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar: Deoxyribose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bases: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purines: G and A </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrimidines: C and T </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form double-stranded helix </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 90. DNA <ul><li>Nucleotide strands: 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar-phosphate backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bases stick out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bases bond to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Base pairing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A – T </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G – C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called law of complementary base pairing </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 91. Nitrogenous Bases www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 92. DNA www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 93. RNA <ul><li>Means by which DNA directs cellular activities </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pentose sugar: ribose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bases: uracil (not thymine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single stranded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three main types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messenger RNA (mRNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer RNA (tRNA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 94. DNA vs RNA www.freelivedoctor.com

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