Cell Respiration &Metabolism
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  • 1. Fat Metabolism I’m not fat, I’ve just got a lot of potential energy! www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 2. Digestion, Mobilization, and Transport www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 3. Emulsification
    • Fats are not water soluble
    • Made into bile salts that are
    • Absorbed as micelles in small intestines
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 4. Chylomicron Carriers
    • proteins that carry fats
    • stored in adipose tissue
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 5. Role of Hormones
    • Can mobilize from adipose
    • Release as Fatty acids
    • Epinephrene and glucagon release cAMP
      • make fatty acids and glycerol
      • mobilizes fat
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 6. Animation of Process www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 7. Activation and Transported to Mitochondria
    • FA + CA --> ATP = FA-CoA + AMP + Ppi
    • Driven by breakup of Ppi
    • Acyl CoA Synthetase
    • -32.5 kJ
    • Transported through inner mito membrane via carnitine
      • uses specific acyl carnitine transporter
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 8. Carnitine www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 9. Formation of acyl carnitine
    • Can get transported across inner mitochondrial membrane
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  • 10. Animation of Process www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 11. Beta Oxidation
    • Breakdown of fats into
      • Acetyl coenzyme A --> Kreb Cycle
      • FADH 2 --> Oxidative Phosphorylation
      • NADH--> Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • Breaks off two carbons at a time to acetyl CoA
      • Remaining goes another round
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 12. Reactions Diagram www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 13. Reactions of Beta Oxidation Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase
      • Puts in a ß double bond
        • Oxidizes C-C bond to double bond
      • Produces FADH 2
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 14. Reactions of Beta oxidation Enoyl CoA Hydratase
    • adds water
      • forms ß-hydroxy product
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 15. Reactions of Beta Oxidation ß-hydroxylacyl-CoA dehydrogenase
    • oxidizes secondary alcohol to ketone
      • Oxygen-containing group
      • Produces NADH
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 16. Reactions of Beta Oxidation Acyl-CoA acetyltransferase (thiolase)
    • Uses another CoA
    • Produces Acetyl CoA
    • Acyl CoA can go another round
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 17. Overall Per Beta Oxidation cycle
    • 1 FADH 2 …………………………1.5 ATP
    • 1 NADH………………………….2.5 ATP
    • 1 Acetyl CoA to Krebs
      • 3 NADH X 2.5 ATP / NADH………7.5 ATP
      • 1 FADH 2 …………………………….1.5 ATP
      • 1 GTP……………………………….. 1.0 ATP
            • Total = 14.0 ATP
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 18. Beta Oxidation on 16 C fatty Acid www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 19. Beta Oxidation on 16 C fatty Acid
    • 7 rounds of Beta oxidation (bottom numbers)
    • Form 8 acetyl Co A (top numbers)
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 20. Beta Oxidation on 16 C fatty Acid totals
    • 7 rounds of beta oxidation
      • 7 rounds X FADH 2 X 1.5 ATP = 10.5 ATP
      • round FADH 2
      • 7 rounds X NADH X 2.5 ATP = 17.5 ATP
      • round NADH
      • 8 acetyl CoA
      • 8 Krebs
      • 8 Krebs X 3 NADH X 2.5 ATP = 60 ATP
      • Krebs NADH
      • 8 Krebs X FADH 2 X 1.5 ATP = 12 ATP
      • Krebs FADH 2
      • 8 Krebs X GTP X 1 ATP = 8 ATP
      • Krebs GTP
      • 1 ATP used to activate = - 1 ATP
      • Total 107 ATP
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 21. Unsaturated Fat Metabolism
    • special enzymes needed to convert cis bonds in fatty acids to trans bonds
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 22. Regulation of Fat Metabolism
    • Transport is rate-limiting
    • Regulation of carnitine acyl transferase
      • off by fat synth products
      • high NADH
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 23. Ketone Bodies
    • Starvation causes accumulation of acetyl CoA
      • not enough carbohydrates to keep Kreb’s Cycle going
      • acetyl CoA forms acetoacetate, b-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone.
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 24. Diabetes and Ketone Bodies
    • When there is not enough insulin in the blood and it must break down fat for its energy.
    • Ketones build up in the blood and then spill over into the urine so that the body can get rid of them. Acetone can be exhaled through the lungs. This gives the breath a fruity odor. Ketones that build up in the body for a long time lead to serious illness and coma. (Diabetic ketoacidosis)
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • 25. Comparison of Fat Metabolism per gram and CHO per gram
    • Fats provide about 9 kilocalories per gram and carbohydrates provide about 4 kilocalories per gram.
    • Using nutritional units, that is 9 Calories/gram for fats and 4 Calories/gram for carbohydrates.
    • CHO provide energy more quickly
    • Fats are good fuel for endurance events, but not sprints
    www.freelivedoctor.com