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Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
Cell Anatomy
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Cell Anatomy

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  • 1
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  • 7 Cell shape Positioning of organelles Intracellular “railroad track” Link to EC and other cells Movement
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  • 5 Tay-Sachs disease is a fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance called ganglioside GM2 accumulate in the nerve cells in the brain. Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first few months of life. Then, as nerve cells become distended with fatty material, a relentless deterioration of mental and physical abilities occurs. The child becomes blind, deaf, and unable to swallow. Muscles begin to atrophy and paralysis sets in. A much rarer form of the disorder which occurs in patients in their twenties and early thirties is characterized by unsteadiness of gait and progressive neurological deterioration. Patients with Tay-Sachs have a "cherry-red" spot in the back of their eyes. The condition is caused by insufficient activity of an enzyme called hexosaminidase A that catalyzes the biodegradation of acidic fatty materials known as gangliosides. Gangliosides are made and biodegraded rapidly in early life as the brain develops. Patients and carriers of Tay-Sachs disease can be identified by a simple blood test that measures hexosaminidase A activity. Both parents must be carriers in order to have an affected child. When both parents are found to carry a genetic mutation in hexosaminidase A, there is a 25 percent chance with each pregnancy that the child will be affected with Tay-Sachs disease. Prenatal monitoring of pregnancies is available if desired.
  • The Luxol fast blue stain highlights the large swollen neurons in Tay-Sachs disease.
  • 6 Peroxisomes seem to be to be self-replicating. They don’t come off the Golgi apparatus as secretory vesicles as originally thought.
  • 11 12
  • CAM = cell adhesion molecule Cadherins are Calcium dependant cell adhesion molecules. They play an important role in embryonic morphogenesis and the formation of solid tissues.
  • 16 19
  • Transcript

    • 1. Background Basics: Units of measure Hydrophobic/philic molecules Proteins Compound molecules pH DNA and RNA CELL ANATOMY www.freelivedoctor.com
    • 2. Key Concepts <ul><li>Cell anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue types </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue remodeling </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    • 3. Compartments <ul><li>Major Body Cavities (thorax, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid Compartments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intracellular Fluid (ICF) or cytosol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracellular fluid ECF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between Cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circulatory System (plasma) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Intracellular compartments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membranous organelles </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    • 4. Biological Membranes <ul><li>Two definitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body’s borders, e.g., </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peritoneal membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phospholipid bilayer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins and cholesterol interspersed </li></ul></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctor.com
    • 5. Cell differentiation <ul><li>Mechanism: differential gene activation allows creation of specialized cells </li></ul>From 1 zygote to 200 different types of cells
    • 6. Special Structural Features of Cell Membranes <ul><li>Microvilli </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Stereocilia </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella </li></ul>Function?
    • 7. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Cytosol: </li></ul><ul><li>= semigelatinous intracellular fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Medium for suspension of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ions, nutrients, wastes, enzymes etc.……. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organelles perform </li></ul><ul><li>specialized tasks. </li></ul>Membranous organelles Non-membranous organelles
    • 8. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Cell to cell links </li></ul><ul><li>Protein fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfilaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microtubules </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. Centrosomes and Centrioles <ul><li>1 centrosome contains 2 centrioles </li></ul><ul><li>Centrosomes organize microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Centrioles: bundles of microtubules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull chromosomes, form core in cilia </li></ul></ul>
    • 10. <ul><li>Contain motor proteins </li></ul><ul><li>2:9 microtubule pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia move fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella move sperm cells </li></ul>Cilia and Flagella
    • 11. <ul><li>Function: Transfer of messages from DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed to ER or free in cytoplasm </li></ul>
    • 12. Membranous Organelles <ul><li>Special compartments for special functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate harmful substances from other cell areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate function from other cell areas </li></ul></ul>Mitochondrion = powerhouse of cell. Energy (ATP) production Has own DNA, self-replicating
    • 13. RER & SER RER: Protein synthesis, strage, modification & transport vesicles SER: Synthesis and conversion of FA, steroids, lipids In muscle: Ca 2+ storage
    • 14. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Modification (labeling) of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging into secretory (to ECF) or storage vesicles </li></ul>“ Post office” of cell
    • 15. Protein Secretion
    • 16. Lysosomes <ul><li>Digestion (~ 50 </li></ul><ul><li>enzymes) of </li></ul><ul><li>bacteria and old </li></ul><ul><li>organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes only </li></ul><ul><li>active at pH of </li></ul><ul><li>100 – 1,000 x </li></ul><ul><li>< cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>  pH = ? </li></ul>Also used to dissolve Ca-carbonate of bone and for self destruction of damaged cells Disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and Tay-Sachs disease
    • 17. Tay Sachs disease
    • 18. Peroxi- somes <ul><li>Major function: Degradation of long chain FAs </li></ul><ul><li>Generate hydrogen peroxide  contain catalase </li></ul>Smaller than Lysosomes - Different set of enzymes
    • 19. Nucleus <ul><li>Control Center </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope with nuclear pore complexes for diffusion and active transport </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin (DNA and proteins) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA forms genes </li></ul><ul><li>One or more nucleoli </li></ul>
    • 20. Cell to Cell Junctions <ul><li>Utilize CAMs (Cell Adhering Molecules) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tight Junctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchoring Junctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desmosomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gap Junctions </li></ul></ul>
    • 21. Gap Junctions <ul><li>Cylindrical proteins form channels </li></ul><ul><li>Can open and close </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical synapses </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid transfer of signals in cardiac & smooth muscle </li></ul>
    • 22. Tight junctions <ul><li>Complete barrier (brick wall) </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion of adjacent cell membranes via claudin and occludin </li></ul><ul><li>Found in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BBB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GI tract, kidneys </li></ul></ul>Tight vs. leaky epithelium
    • 23. Movement of substances across tight and leaky epithelia
    • 24. Anchoring Junctions <ul><li>Anchoring junctions (CAMs: cadherins) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desmosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adherens junctions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell matrix attachments (CAMs: integrins) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemidesmosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot desmosomes or focal adhesions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell to cell or cell to CT matrix </li></ul>
    • 25. Histology <ul><li>Structure and function of all four basic tissue types : remember from Anatomy or review on your own (starting p. 72 with epithelia) </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of organ ? Example: skin (see p 83) </li></ul>
    • 26. The Four Tissue Types <ul><li>Epithelia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection, exchange, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracellular Matrix (ground substance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes adipose, blood, lymph </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth, cardiac, skeletal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurons and neuroglia </li></ul></ul>
    • 27. Stem Cells <ul><li>Review concept of stem cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Totipotent – earliest cells in zygote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pluripotent – starting specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multipotent – more specialized (bone marrow) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal stem cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasticity of adult stem cells </li></ul></ul>
    • 28. Tissue Remodeling <ul><li>Tissue remodeling throughout a person’s life </li></ul><ul><li>Apoptosis = Programmed cell death (suicide) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell breaks up into membrane bound blebs which will be phagocytosed by other cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Necrosis = traumatic cell death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of O 2 , trauma, toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells rupture  tissue damage & inflammation </li></ul></ul>
    • 29. Running Problem: The Pap Smear
    • 30. Cervical cells. Uniform in size and shape  normal

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