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Bleeding in late pregnancy (antepartum haemorrhage)
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Bleeding in late pregnancy (antepartum haemorrhage)

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  • 1. Bleeding in Late Pregnancy (AntepartumHaemorrhage)
  • 2. Definition
    It is bleeding from the genital tract after the 28th week of pregnancy and before the end of the second stage of labour.
  • 3. Classification
    * Placental site bleeding: (62%)
    * Non-placental site bleeding: (28%)
  • 4. Placental site bleeding:
    Placenta praevia (22%): Bleeding from separation of a placenta wholly or partially implanted in the lower terine segment.
    Abruptioplacentae (30%): Premature separation of a normally implanted placenta.
    Marginal separation(10%)ý: Bleeding from the edge of a normally implanted placenta.
  • 5. Non-placental site bleeding
    Vasapraevia: Bleeding from ruptured foetal vessels.
    Rupture uterus.
    Bloody show.
    Cervical ectopy, polyp or cancer.
    Vaginal varicosity.
  • 6. PLACENTA PRAEVIA
    Definition
    The placenta is partially or totally attached to the lower uterine segment.
    Incidence
    0.5% of pregnancies . It is more common in multiparas and in twin pregnancy due to the large size of the placenta.
  • 7. PLACENTA PRAEVIA>Aetiology
    Low implantation of the blastocyst.
    Development of the chorionic villi in the deciduacapsularis leading to attachment to the lower uterine segment.
    Large placenta as in twin pregnancy.
  • 8. PLACENTA PRAEVIA>Degrees (types)
    > First degree (Type I = P.P. lateralis = low-lying placenta):-
    o The lower edge of the placenta reaches the lower uterine segment but not the internal os.
    > Second degree (Type II= P.P. marginalis):
    o The lower edge of the placenta reaches the margin of the internal os but does not cover it.
    > Third - degree (Type III= P.P. incomplete centralis):
    o The placenta covers the internal os when it is closed or partially dilated but not when it is fully dilated.
    • Fourth - degree (Type IV = P.P. complete centralis):
    o The placenta covers the internal os completely whether the cervix is partially or fully dilated.
  • 9. Mechanism of bleeding
    Progressive stretching of the lower uterine segment normally occurs during the 3rd trimester and labour, but the inelastic placenta cannot stretch with it. This leads to inevitable separation of a part of the placenta with unavoidable bleeding. The closer to term, the greater is the amount of bleeding.
  • 10. Diagnosis
    Symptoms:
    > Causeless, painless and recurrent bright-red vaginal bleeding;
    > It is causeless, but may follow sexual intercourse or
    vaginal examination.
    o It is painless, but may be associated with labour pains .
    o It is recurrent, but may occur once in slight placenta praevialateralis. Fortunately, the first attack usually not severe.