2  A  Yeast
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2 A Yeast

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2  A  Yeast 2 A Yeast Presentation Transcript

  • Yeasts Round to oval, single cells which reproduce by budding www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Yeasts
    • SELECTED GENERA
    • Candida
    • Cryptococcus
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  • Candidiasis
    • Candida albicans
    • Non-albicans species
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  • Ecological Niche Candida albicans Endogenous (mouth, gut, vagina) www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Infections with Candida usually occur when there is some alteration in:
    • Cellular immunity
    • (Immunocompromised)
    • Normal Flora
    • (Prolonged antibiotics)
    • Physiology
    • (Cardiac surgery, catheter)
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  • CANDIDIASIS
    • Skin
    • Vaginitis
    • Urinary tract
    • Mucous membranes
    • Septicemia
    • Endocarditis
    • Pneumonia
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  • CANDIDIASIS The fourth most common nosocomial bloodstream infection. www.freelivedoctor.com
  • GEOGRAPHIC OCCURENCE WORLDWIDE www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Clinical Specimens Candida
    • Sputum
    • Scrapings from lesions
    • Blood smears
    • Vaginal discharge
    • Urine
    • Feces
    • Nail clippings
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  • SEROLOGY
    • There have been several antibody detection test, but none are significant.
    • Beta-Glucan measurement is now showing promise
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Therapy
    • Nystatin
      • Vaginitis
      • Cutaneous
    • Fluconazole *
    • Itraconazole
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Cryptococcosis Cryptococcus neoformans www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Cryptococcosis
    • A sub-acute or chronic infection which may affect the lungs or skin but most commonly manifests as a meningitis
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  • Typical clinical course
    • Inhalation
    • Mild pneumonia
    • Vision, lethargy, headache
    • Delirium, nuchal rigidity, coma
    • Over a period of months
    • Death if not treated
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  • Cryptococcus neoformans
    • Spherical
    • 5-10 microns
    • Narrow- base
    • Surrounded by polysaccharide capsule
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  • Cryptococcus neoformans
    • Virulence factors
    • Anti-phagocytic polysaccharide capsule
    • Antioxidant melanin
    • Ability to grow at 37 C
    www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Ecological Niche Cryptococcus neoformans
    • Pigeon droppings
    • Chicken droppings
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  • Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from environmental sites in South Carolina www.freelivedoctor.com Number Examined Number Positive Percent Positive SITES 79 51 65 SAMPLES 299 137 45
  • Cryptococcus portal of entry
    • Inhalation
    • inoculation
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  • Specimen of choice Cerebrospinal fluid www.freelivedoctor.com
  • Clinical Specimens Cryptococcosis
    • CSF
    • Sputum
    • Pus
    • Biopsy material
    • urine
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  • Serological Tests Cryptococcosis
    • Indirect fluorescent antibody
    • Tube Agglutination
    • Latex Agglutination
    • (measures antigen)
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  • Drugs of Choice Cryptococcosis
    • Amphotericin B plus 5-Flucytosine
    • OR
    • Amphotericin B plus Fluconazole
    www.freelivedoctor.com