1 Zoonoses Intro Dunne

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  • Pictures of DaVinci horses from www2.truman.edu/ ~capter/jins343/vinc.htm Wing picture taken from www.geocities.com/ CollegePark/8265/gall4.htm
  • Many definitions of zoonosis, for the class the WHO definition will be used. Historically zoonoses only referred to animal disease; however, the current use for disease and infections transmitted between animals and man. The term commonly is used to refer to the more specific and scientific terms of zooanthroponoses and anthropozoonoses
  • Also does not include disease where invertebrates are part of the transmission cycle such as malaria.
  • 60-80% of all disease are zoonotic and 75% of all emerging diseases are zoonotic. 60% of US household have at least one pet and of those with pets 60% have more than 1.( Results of the AVMA survey on companion animal ownership in US pet-owning households. J. Karl Wise, PhD, CAE, Director; Brent L. Heathcott, CAE, Assistant Director; Martin L. Gonzalez, MS, Research Analyst.)
  • drawn picture from www.inhs.uiuc.edu/dnr/ fur/addition/addskunk.html
  • This is the natural transmission cycle from Mosquitos to Bird and birds to mosquitos. With “spill over” or incidental host being humans and other animals. This last year WNV has had other mechanisms of transmission including infection of mosquitoes by other vertebrates besides birds. In the past there has been transmission of WNV by tick but there has been no indication of this in the US yet.
  • 1 Zoonoses Intro Dunne

    1. 1. Epidemiology and Control of Zoonotic Infections www.freelivedoctor.com
    2. 2. <ul><li>1 – Zoonosis Intro & TSE </li></ul><ul><li>2 – Rabies </li></ul><ul><li>3 – Classic Zoonoses </li></ul><ul><li>4 – Bioterrorism </li></ul><ul><li>5 – Vector-borne Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>6 – Parasitic Zoonoses </li></ul><ul><li>7 – Emerging Zoonoses </li></ul><ul><li>8 – Foodborne Illnesses </li></ul>
    3. 3. Epidemiology and Control of Zoonotic Infections www.freelivedoctor.com
    4. 4. <ul><li>Part I: Introduction to Zoonoses </li></ul><ul><li>Part II: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies </li></ul>
    5. 5. Intro to Zoonoses <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Etiologies </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission Routes </li></ul><ul><li>Life Cycles </li></ul>
    6. 6. Zoonoses <ul><li>From the Greek: </li></ul><ul><li>Zoon: Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Noson: Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases and infections which are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans </li></ul><ul><li>- WHO 1959 </li></ul>
    7. 7. Zoonoses <ul><li>Does NOT include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish and reptile toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergies to vertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diseases in which animal-derived food serves as a vehicle (e.g. hepatitis A contaminated deli meat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentally transmitted diseases </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Zoonoses <ul><li>> 250 zoonotic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>60% of US Household have ≥1 pet </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple pets in the home </li></ul><ul><li>Human-animal bond </li></ul><ul><li>Exotic species as pets </li></ul>
    9. 9. Zoonoses: Common Diseases <ul><li>Frequency – (CDC, 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella 39,919 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyme disease 18,991 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile (CNS) 2,862 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trichinosis 4 </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Zoonoses <ul><li>Spectrum of Disease Severity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death = rabies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe illness = plague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic illness = Q-fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild illness = psittacosis </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Zoonoses: Importance <ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoonotic disease are expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GI illness due to Salmonella or Campylobacter – lost productivity, medical costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Import/Export </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BSE – restriction on cattle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avian Influenza – restriction on chicken </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel/Globalization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased transit time - SARS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remote area accessibility </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Zoonoses: Importance <ul><li>Surveillance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals are sentinels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention and Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal = key component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complications (e.g. Lyme disease) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unknown reservoirs (e.g. Ebola) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Zoonoses: Etiologic Classification <ul><li>Viral </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul><ul><li>Mycotic </li></ul>
    14. 14. Zoonoses: Viral Examples * indicates covered in lectures Colorado tick fever Japanese encephalitis Ebola Monkeypox* Equine encephalitides (WEE, EEE, VEE) Nipah* Hantaviruses Rabies* Hendra* Rift Valley fever Herpesvirus B West Nile virus* Influenza Yellow fever
    15. 15. Zoonoses: Bacterial Examples * indicates covered in lectures Anthrax* Plague* Brucellosis* Psittacosis* Campylobacteriosis* Q fever* Cat-scratch disease* Relapsing fevers Leptospirosis* Salmonellosis* Listeriosis* Tularemia* Lyme disease* Yersiniosis
    16. 16. Zoonoses: Parasitic Examples * indicates covered in lectures PROTOZOAL HELMINTHIC Trypanosomiasis Baylisascariasis* Babesiosis Cysticercosis Cryptosporidiosis* Hydatidosis Leishmaniasis Schistosome dermatitis Giardiasis* Trichinosis* Toxoplasmosis* Visceral larva migrans and toxocariasis*
    17. 17. Zoonoses: Mycotic Examples <ul><li>Aspergillosis </li></ul><ul><li>Blastomycosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptococcosis* </li></ul><ul><li>Dermatophytosis* </li></ul><ul><li>Histoplasmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Sporotrichosis </li></ul>* indicates covered in lectures
    18. 18. Zoonoses: Animal Species <ul><li>Dogs & Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roundworm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ringworm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyme Disease (dogs only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cat Scratch Disease (cats only) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.coli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brucellosis </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Zoonoses: Animal Species <ul><li>Birds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psittacosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cryptococcus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reptiles, Fish, & Amphibians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycobacterium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wild Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hantavirus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tularemia </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Routes of Transmission <ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Droplet or Aerosol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foodborne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water-borne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fomite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vector-borne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Zoonoses - Life Cycle <ul><li>ORTHOZOONOSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be perpetuated in nature by a single vertebrate species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. rabies, brucellosis, anthrax </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Zoonosis: Rabies Life Cycle Virus inoculation (bite) Salivary gland excretion
    23. 23. Zoonoses - Maintenance Cycle <ul><li>CYCLOZOONOSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires more than one vertebrate species but no invertebrate host </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are cestodiases (tapeworm diseases) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taenia saginata and T. solium require man to be one of vertebrate hosts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others, such as hydatidosis, man is accidentally involved </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Life Cycle:                                                                                     www.freelivedoctor.com
    25. 25. Zoonoses - Life Cycle <ul><li>METAZOONOSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require both vertebrates and invertebrates to complete transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All arboviral infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some bacterial diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plague, many rickettsia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some parasitic diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Zoonoses: Metazoonoses <ul><li>Invertebrate Host: Mosquitoes </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrate Host: Birds </li></ul><ul><li>Incidental Hosts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HUMANS, horses, amphibians, other mammals </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Risk Factors <ul><li>Companion Animal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dogs & roundworm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rats & Rat Bite Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occupational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal control workers & rabies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife biologists & hantavirus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foodborne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw meat & E.coli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpasteurized dairy & Listeria </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Risk Factors <ul><li>Recreational Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camping & Lyme disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farm Settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheep & Q-fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle & Cryptosporidium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maylasia & Nipha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia & Hendra </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Reportable Diseases of Animals <ul><li>By veterinarian or other individual </li></ul><ul><li>Reported to CA Department of Health Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reportable to the CA Department of Food and Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthrax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brucellosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glanders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listeriosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rabies in livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And more… </li></ul></ul>

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