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Ut P5 (Product Tech.)
Ut P5 (Product Tech.)
Ut P5 (Product Tech.)
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Ut P5 (Product Tech.)

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    • 1. UT Product Technology TWI
    • 2. Product Technology Steel Production Wrought Production Extrusion Forging Rolling Casting Welding Defects Inherent Processing Service Heat Treatment
    • 3. 2 Stage Process
      • Iron ore is reduced into pig iron assisted by other materials.
      • Carbon content of Pig Iron is lowered by reacting with oxygen
      • The molten metal is then cast into Ingots or continuously cast
      • Ingots are rolled into Blooms, Billets or Slabs
      Steel Production
    • 4. 1st Stage
      • Iron ore is reduced into pig iron assisted by other materials.
      • Raw materials Hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) or Magnetite( Fe 3 O 4 ) + Coke Limestone Air
      Steel Production
    • 5. 1st Stage
      • Blast furnace reactions
      Steel Production
      • Fe 2 O 3 + 3CO = 2Fe + 3CO 2
      • Fe 2 O 3 + 3C = 2Fe + 3CO
      • SiO 2 + 2Cao = 2CaOSiO 2
      Lime from limestone combines with impurities (mainly silica) in the ore to form fluid slag
    • 6. Blast Furnace
      • Charge
      • Ore 4000
      • Limestone 800
      • Coke 1800
      • Air 8000
      • 14600
      • Products
      • Pig Iron 2000
      • Slag 1600
      • Dust 200
      • Furnace gas 10800
      • 14600
      Steel Production
    • 7. Blast Furnace Steel Production Product of Blast Furnace - Pig iron (>3% carbon)
    • 8. Steel Production
      • Pig iron converted to steel by blowing molten metal with oxygen or oxygen rich gases
      • Oxygen reacts with excess carbon
      • C + 2 O  CO 2
      • C + O  CO
      • CO + O  CO 2
    • 9. Steel Production
      • Bessemer
      • Open hearth process
      • Basic oxygen process
    • 10. Steel Production
      • Basic oxygen process
      Solid scrap
    • 11. Steel Production
      • Basic oxygen process
      Molten Pig Iron
    • 12. Steel Production
      • Basic oxygen process
      Oxygen lance
    • 13. Steel Production
      • Basic oxygen process
      Steel
    • 14. Steel Production Molten steel poured into large molds (ingots) Ingots are used for further processing Hot top
    • 15. Steel Production Molten steel poured into large molds (ingots) Ingots are used for further processing 2 types of mould - Narrow end up, Wide end up
    • 16. Steel Production
      • Metal solidifies from outside inwards
      • 3 types of crystal formed
      • Chill or fine exui-axed
      • Columnar
      • Large equi-axed
    • 17. Smelting Defects
      • Pipes
      • Shrinkage
      Primary pipe/sink Secondary pipe
    • 18. Smelting Defects
      • Non-metallic inclusions
    • 19. Smelting Defects
      • Segregation of metals
    • 20. Steel Production
      • Alternative to ingots is Continuous casting
      Tundish Mold forming slab Water spray chamber Rollers
    • 21. Steel Production
    • 22. Advantages of Continuous casting
      • Faster : 300 tons of steel in 45 mins compared to 12 hours
      • No piping problems
      • Cheaper : No ingot molds, handling
      Steel Production
    • 23. Product Technology Casting
    • 24. Casting Process
      • Liquid metal is caused to fill a cavity and solidify into a useful shape
      • All materials used in metal manufacture cast at some time
    • 25. Casting Process
      • Stage 1 : A pattern of the finished item slightly over sized
      • Stage 2 : Mould constructed from the pattern
      • Stage 3 : Liquid metal poured through the channels to fill the mould
    • 26. Casting Riser Pouring basin Runner Sprue Core
    • 27. Casting Chaplets Chills
    • 28. Casting
      • Casting involves the solidification from liquid to solid
      • Solidification proceeds from outside to centre
      • Solidification involves shrinkage
    • 29. Grain Growth
    • 30. Casting Methods
      • Sand casting
    • 31. Sand Casting
    • 32. Sand Casting
    • 33. Sand Casting
    • 34. Sand Casting
    • 35. Sand Casting
    • 36. Sand Casting
    • 37. Casting Methods
      • Sand casting
      • Die casting / Injection moulding
    • 38. Die Casting Injection piston Casting cavity Die Fixed platen Moving platen
    • 39. Casting Methods
      • Sand casting
      • Die casting / Injection moulding
      • Investment casting / Lost wax process
    • 40. Investment Casting Wax Pattern
    • 41. Investment Casting Coat with refractory slurry
    • 42. Investment Casting Reinforce with plaster backing (Investment)
    • 43. Investment Casting Oven dry to liquify or vaporise pattern and dry mould
    • 44. Investment Casting Pour metal
    • 45. Investment Casting Remove investment material
    • 46. Choice of Casting Method
      • Dimensional Accuracy
      • Investment casting
      • Die casting
      • Sand casting
      • Cost
      • Sand casting
      • Die casting
      • Investment casting
    • 47. Casting Defects
      • Shrinkage cavities
      • Sinks
      Primary pipe/sink Secondary pipe
    • 48. Casting Defects
      • Blowholes and porosity
      Cross-sectional changes /corners
    • 49. Casting Defects
      • Inclusions
      • Scabs
      • Fins
    • 50. Casting Defects
      • Shrinkage
    • 51. Casting Defects
      • Scabs
    • 52. Casting Defects
      • Scabs- part of mould stuck to the casting
    • 53. Casting Defects
      • Fins
      Gaps
    • 54. Casting Defects
      • Fins- excess metal of casting
      Fin
    • 55. Casting Defects
      • Hot tears
      The larger section cools slower than the smaller section The grain are different between the sections Hot Tears
    • 56. Hot Tears
    • 57.
      • Chills are used for:
      • Directional grain growth
      • Uniform cooling rate
    • 58. Casting Defects
      • Segregation
    • 59. Product Technology Wrought Production Methods
    • 60. Wrought Production
      • Forging
      • Extrusion
      • Rolling
    • 61. Wrought Production
      • Forging
      • Metal confined under pressure to cause plastic flow
      • Extrusion
      • Metal forced through a die under a large load
      • Rolling
      • Thickness reduction through compression
    • 62. Rolling Two-High Reversing Mill Ingots, slabs and billets rolled to produce long length products with uniform cross section PRIMARY ROLLING PROCESS / COGGING
    • 63. Rolling Two-High Reversing Mill PRIMARY ROLLING PROCESS Secondary piping
    • 64. Rolling Three-High Reversing Mill SECONDARY ROLLING PROCESS Lamination
    • 65. Rolling Two-High Reversing Mill PRIMARY ROLLING PROCESS Non-metallic inclusion
    • 66. Rolling Three-High Reversing Mill SECONDARY ROLLING PROCESS Stringers
    • 67. Rolling Two-High Reversing Mill PRIMARY ROLLING PROCESS Segregation of metals
    • 68. Rolling Three-High Reversing Mill SECONDARY ROLLING PROCESS Banding
    • 69. Cold Rolling
      • Initial rolling hot
      • Finishing by cold working
      Cluster mill 4 High mill
    • 70. Rolling
      • Bloom - Square c/s 150x150mm minimum
      • Slab - Rectangular c/s area greater than 14400 mm 2
      • Billet - Square 50x50 up to 120 x 120mm
      • Primary rolling- ingot to blooms and slabs
      • Secondary rolling - blooms and slabs to plates , sheets etc
    • 71. Forging Hammer Anvil Blacksmith
    • 72. Forging
      • 6 basic actions
      • Upsetting
      • Swaging
      • Bending
      • Welding
      • Punching
      • Cutting out
    • 73. Forging Hammer (Tup) Anvil Blacksmith / Open die forging
    • 74. Forging
      • Pressure forging
    • 75. Forging
      • Closed die
    • 76. Extrusion
      • Direct
      • Indirect
      • Impact
      • High loads used to shape ferrous and non-ferrous alloys
      • Items produced are of uniform cross section
    • 77. Direct Extrusion Billet Ram Die
    • 78. Indirect Extrusion Die Extruded item Billet
    • 79. Impact Extrusion Die Blank Punch
    • 80. Extrusion Defects
      • Oxide films (‘Extrusion’ defect)
      • Surface cracks
      • Grain structure variation
    • 81. Impact Extrusion
    • 82. Wrought Production Defects
      • Cracks
      • Laps
      • Seams
      • Stringers
      • Slugs
      • Bursts
      • Laminations
    • 83. Wrought Production Defects
      • Banding
      • Excessive flash
      • Lack of fill
      • Mismatch
      • Internal cracking
      • Mechanical marks
    • 84. Other Wrought Processes
      • Drawing
      • Material is reduced or changed in profile by pulling through a die
      Die Wire or rod Force
    • 85. Other Wrought Processes
      • Drawing
      • Material is reduced or changed in profile by pulling through a die
      Die Tube Force Mandrel
    • 86. Product Technology Welding
    • 87. A Weld : Definitions
      • A union between pieces of metal at faces rendered plastic or liquid by heat,pressure or both.
      • BS 499
      • A continuous defect surrounded by parent material
      • NASA
    • 88. Welds
      • An ideal weld must give a strong bond between materials with the interfaces disappearing
      • To achieve this
      • Smooth,flat or matching surfaces
      • Surfaces shall be free from contaminants
      • Metals shall be free from impurities
      • Metals shall have identical crystalline structures
    • 89. Welding
      • A union between pieces of metal at faces rendered plastic or liquid by heat,pressure or both.
      • BS 499
      • Ultrasonics
      • Electron beam
      • Friction
      • Electric resistance
      • Electric arc
      Possible energy sources
    • 90. Electric Arc Welding Power supply Work piece Electrode Clamp(Earth)
    • 91. Electric Arc Welding
      • Electric discharge produced between cathode and anode by a potential difference (40 to 60 volts)
      • Discharge ionises air and produces -ve electrons and +ve ions
      • Electrons impact upon anode, ions upon cathode
      • Impact of particles converts kinetic energy to heat (7000 o C) and light
      • Amperage controls number of ions and electrons, Voltage controls their velocity
    • 92. Electric Arc Welding
      • Arc Welding Processes
      • Manual metal arc
      • Tungsten Inert Gas
      • Metal Inert Gas
      • Submerged Arc
      Differences between them
      • Methods of shielding the arc
      • Consumable or Non-consumable electrode
      • Degree of automation
    • 93. Zones in Fusion Welds
      • Fusion Zone
    • 94. Zones in Fusion Welds
      • Fusion Zone
      • Heat Affected Zone
    • 95. Zones in Fusion Welds
      • Fusion Zone
      • Heat Affected Zone
      • Parent Material or Base Metal
    • 96. Joint Design Butt Weld
    • 97. Joint Design Butt Weld Lap Joint
    • 98. Joint Design Butt Weld Corner Joint Lap Joint
    • 99. Joint Design Butt Weld Corner Joint Lap Joint Edge Weld
    • 100. Joint Design Butt Weld Corner Joint Lap Joint T Joint Edge Weld
    • 101.  
    • 102. Manual Metal Arc (MMA) Consumable electrode Flux coating Core wire Arc Evolved gas shield Parent metal Slag Weld metal
    • 103. Manual Metal Arc Welding
      • Shielding provided by decomposition of flux covering
      • Electrode consumable
      • Manual process
      • Welder controls
      • Arc length
      • Angle of electrode
      • Speed of travel
      • Amperage settings
    • 104. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Non-consumable tungsten electrode Arc Parent metal Weld metal Gas shield Filler wire Gas nozzle
    • 105. Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Consumable electrode(filler wire) Arc Parent metal Weld metal Gas shield Gas nozzle Reel feed
    • 106. Submerged Arc Consumable electrode Reel feed Flux feed Flux retrieval Parent metal Weld metal Slag
    • 107. Electroslag Filler wire Molten flux Weld metal Water cooled copper shoes
    • 108. Welding Defects
      • 4 Crack Types
      • Solidification cracks
      • Hydrogen induced cracks
      • Lamellar tearing
      • Reheat cracks
      Cracks
    • 109. Welding Defects
      • Classified by Shape
      • Longitudinal
      • Transverse
      • Branched
      • Chevron
      Cracks
      • Classified by Position
      • HAZ
      • Centreline
      • Crater
      • Fusion zone
      • Parent metal
    • 110. Welding Defects
      • Solidification
      • Occurs during weld solidification process
      • Steels with high sulphur content (low ductility at elevated temperature)
      • Requires high tensile stress
      • Occur longitudinally down centre of weld
      • eg Crater cracking
      Cracks
    • 111. Welding Defects
      • Hydrogen Induced
      • Requires susceptible grain structure, stress and hydrogen
      • Hydrogen enters via welding arc
      • Hydrogen source - atmosphere or contamination of preparation or electrode
      • Moisture diffuses out into parent metal on cooling
      • Most likely in HAZ
      Cracks
    • 112. Welding Defects
      • Lamellar Tearing
      • Step like appearance
      • Occurs in parent material or HAZ
      • Only in rolled direction of the parent material
      • Associated with restrained joints subjected to through thickness stresses on corners, tees and fillets
      • Requires high sulphur or non-metallic inclusions
      Cracks
    • 113. Welding Defects
      • Re-Heat Cracking
      • Occurs mainly in HAZ of low alloy steels during post weld heat treatment or service at elevated temperatures
      • Occurs in areas of high stress and existing defects
      • Prevented by toe grinding, elimination of poor profile material selection and controlled post weld heat treatment
      Cracks
    • 114. Welding Defects
      • Incomplete root penetration
      • Causes
      • Too large or small a root gap
      • Arc too long
      • Wrong polarity
      • Electrode too large for joint preparation
      • Incorrect electrode angle
      • Too fast a speed of travel for current
    • 115. Welding Defects
      • Root concavity
      • Causes
      • Root gap too large
      • Insufficient arc energy
      • Excessive back purge (TIG)
    • 116. Welding Defects
      • Lack of fusion
      • Causes
      • Contaminated weld preparation
      • Amperage too low
      • Amperage too high (welder increases speed of travel)
    • 117. Welding Defects
      • Undercut
      • Causes
      • Excessive welding current
      • Welding speed too high
      • Incorrect electrode angle
      • Excessive weave
      • Electrode too large
    • 118. Welding Defects
      • Incompletely Filled Groove
      • Causes
      • Insufficient weld metal deposited
      • Improper welding technique
    • 119. Welding Defects
      • Gas pores / Porosity
      • Causes
      • Excessive moisture in flux or preparation
      • Contaminated preparation
      • Low welding current
      • Arc length too long
      • Damaged electrode flux
      • Removal of gas shield
    • 120. Welding Defects
      • Inclusions - Slag
      • Causes
      • Insufficient cleaning between passes
      • Contaminated weld preparation
      • Welding over irregular profile
      • Incorrect welding speed
      • Arc length too long
    • 121. Welding Defects
      • Inclusions - Tungsten
      • Causes
      • Contamination of weld during TIG welding process
    • 122. Welding Defects
      • Burn Through
      • Causes
      • Excessive amperage during welding of root
      • Excessive root grinding
      • Improper welding technique
    • 123. Welding Defects
      • Arc Strikes
      • Causes
      • Electrode straying onto parent metal
      • Electrode holder with poor insulation
      • Poor contact of earth clamp
      • Spatter
      • Causes
      • Excessive arc energy
      • Excessive arc length
      • Damp electrodes
      • Arc blow
    • 124. Steel Metallurgy
      • Steel- Iron and carbon alloyed with other elements
      • Carbon- Strength, hardness, toughness, ductility
      • Manganese- Strength, hardenability
      • Silicon - Toughness
      • Molybdenum- Creep resistance, temper embrittlement
      • Chromium- Hardness, wear resistance, corrosion
      • Nickel - Ductility, strength, toughness
    • 125. Steel Metallurgy
      • Steel- Iron and carbon alloyed with other elements
      BCC FCC
    • 126. Steel Metallurgy Low Stress Increased Stress Elastic Deformation Plastic Deformation
    • 127. Heat Treatment
      • Softening
      • Hardening
      • Tempering
      • Stress Relief
      • Post heat treatment performed to improve specific metallurgical or mechanical properties or stress relief
      • Controlled by
      • Heating rate
      • Temperature attained
      • Time at the elevated temperature
      • Cooling rate
    • 128. Heat Treatment 900 850 800 750 700 Ar3 Ac1 Ac2 Ac3 Ar1 Ar2 1 2 Minutes to raise temperature by 10 C
    • 129. Iron Carbide Diagram Ac3 Ac1 .2 .4 .6 .8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Carbon % 1000 900 800 700 600
    • 130. Iron Carbide Diagram Ac3 Ac1 .2 .4 .6 .8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Carbon % 1000 900 800 700 600 Austenite Ferrite and Pearlite Pearlite and Cementite Austenite and Fe 3 C Austenite and Ferrite
    • 131. Heat Treatment
      • Hardening
      • Produce hard but brittle material
      • Heat to above transformation range
      • Cool very quickly ( quench ) in oil, water or brine
    • 132. Heat Treatment
      • Stress Relief
      • Relax stresses without significant changes in the metallurgical structure
      • Heat to 550-650 degrees C
      • Hold for 1 hour per 25mm thickness
      • Cool in air
    • 133. Heat Treatment
      • Full Annealing
      • Produces very soft low hardness material for machining or cold work
      • Heat to above 910 degrees C
      • Hold
      • Cool very slowly in furnace
      • Once reached 680 C , cool in air
    • 134. Heat Treatment
      • Sub Critical Annealing
      • Spheroidizing produces soft low hardness material cheaper than full anneal
      • Heat must not rise above 700 degrees C
      • Hold for recrystallisation to occur
      • Cool in air
    • 135. Heat Treatment
      • Normalising
      • Maintains and improves mechanical properties and modifies grain structure
      • Heat to above 910 degrees C
      • Hold
      • Cool in air
    • 136. Nature and Origin of Defects
      • Inherent
      • Processing
      • In Service
    • 137. Heat Induced Defects
      • Heat treatment cracks
      • Grinding cracks
      • Friction induced cracks
    • 138. In Service Cracks
      • Fatigue cracks
      • Stress corrosion cracks
      • Hydrogen induced cracks
      Hydrogen Cyclic stress Fatique crack

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