Famous for Jewellery, Blue Pottery, clothing, handicrafts, paintings etc.
Located in north-western part of India, Jaipur was founded by king Sawai Jai Singh in 1727 AD.
Being a lover of astronomy, mathematics and astrophysics, Jai Singh sought advice from Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, a Brahmin scholar of Bengal, to design the city on the basis of Vastu Shastra (Indian Architectural theory) principles.
The society during the that period was divided into four main castes- Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras and king was the supreme ruler.
- Walled City Area Plan of Jaipur City
Observatory , JantarMantarwas declared as “World Heritage Site” New Master Plan -City started expanding outside walled area. 1927 2010 1947 Indian Independence- Jaipur was declared as the capital of newly formed state Rajasthan Pink Color given to major street facades 1799 Construction of Palace of Wind ( HawaMahal) 1867 Foundation of Jaipur city by king Jai Singh- Shifting capital of Kachchawa dynasty from Amber to Jaipur 1727 1734 Construction of major streets and the palace building.
Planning of the city- Vastu Shastra principles in Jaipur Selection of the site According to Vastu Shastra, a more flatter site is preferred for the development of a new city /town. As security was of prime concern in the olden days, it was favorable if the site had some natural boundaries( hills or lakes). Amber fort set on high hill Valley formed by Ban Ganga river in east 2. Conceptual Planning of the city- The planning of the city was based on the nine square Pitha Mandala described in the Mansara text. The central square of the Mandala, Brahmasthana , was dedicated to the king’s palace and the other squares were designed for the people according to their caste and profession . Pitha Mandala Painted Map of Jaipur 18th century
Evolution of Nine Squares on the Site Following the concept of Vastu Shatra, the design of the city of Jaipur was placed on the site to align with the natural topography. This caused the axis of Jaipur city to slightly deviate (15degrees) from the cardinal axis. The ninth square of the mandala was shifted to adjust with the topography on the northwestern side. The central square in addition to the royal palace and the observatory, also accommodating royal gardens ,administrative offices, required a larger area and hence merged with the square on the north Establishing the city’s axes on the site at 15 degree from the cardinal direction. Developing the site as Mandala Conjectural reconstruction of the site Accommodating the eastern and western arrangements.
Structural Components of the City The main components of the city that define its structure are the palace block, seven sectors, street network (main, secondary and tertiary street), three chaupars(public squares) and the fortified wall with monumental gates serving as entrance to the city.
Fortified Wall and Gates The outer form is defined by the city walls …the alteration of the Shastric base actually fulfills the reiterated Shastric idea of The wall on an average is 20’ high and 10’ thick. Its is pierced by seven gates( a model number according to Vastu Shastra). The Chandpol on the west and the Surajpol on the east marks the ends of main east west route through the city. On the north side, protecting the road to Amber, is the Jorawar Singh Gate. At intervals along the Southern front are four gates, AjmeriGate,Naya Gate, Sanganeri Gate and GhatDarwaza. Southern side was originally protected by a ditch immediately in front of the wall. (which was filled in 1950s). All city gates were closed in the night due to security reasons, practice which continued till 1942. Sense of place-gates/walls
City Structure- Sectors and Neighborhoods The seven sectors of the city were further divided into neighborhoods comprising of group of “havelis” (residential units). Each sector was divided into squares or rectangles and housed around four hundred neighborhoods. A neighborhood would usually be occupied a group of families pursuing a similar trade or profession. A typical sector in Jaipur was 800m x 800m in size, ideal for a pedestrian city. This meant the people who lived in the sector were only 400m away from the commercial activities along the major roads (equivalent to a 5 minute walk).
Sector defined by primary street with strong defined edge.
Social Structure Neighborhoods are defined by secondary streets. The size of the neighborhood depends on the social and economic condition of the inhabitants and varies in each block. The density reflects the resident population and varies from a thin fabric with large individual plots in sectors occupied by higher class people to a dense and compact fabric generated by small plot sixe in sectors occupied by Shudras and artisans. The density is lesser in the South east sector occupied by Kshatriyas and traders and increases in the sector towards the west which is occupied by artisans and craftsmen.
The city’s structure can be described as a grid-iron, based on the orthogonal clustering of nine squares. The major east-west road and three north-west roads divide city seven distinct sectors. One sector that contains the palace precincts, including administrative offices and the observatory, is twice the size of original sector.
The southern sector(opposite the palace complex) is divided to make an additional axis. This sector was allotted to Vaishyas(merchants, traders , goldsmiths, artisans) and was thus inhabited by higher class people. This social structure was reflected in the density and the division of neighborhood which consisted of large plots with lesser density.
This sector has many beautiful old havelis of the merchants .
Analysis of a Neighborhood Individual neighborhoods within the grid of sub sector roads were between 160x160m and 110x110m in size in different sectors depending on the rank of the people inhabiting in that area. Each of these neighborhoods could accommodate 40-50 residential lots. Sizes of plots and building heights in neighborhoods The building height is dependent on the caste of the people in the sector . The table below shows the proportions measurments defined for differen castes according to the Community spaces in a neighborhood ? ?
Sector- Vishweshwarji:- This sector was occupied by Vaishyas in the olden times. The size of the plots and the height of houses are thus according to the proportion
Analysis of a residential Unit - Haveli As stated in Vastu Shastra the design of the
Palace Block Guidelines for palace complex design in Vastu Shastra
Nine Squares- Distribution according to Vastu Shastra Pitha Mandala Plan showing
2. Planning of Sectors: The seven public sector in the city were further conceptually divided according to Prastara plan in Vastu purusha mandala. Sector: Hierarchy is generated through the inhabitants and division of the blocks in terms of sectors. The blocks form the basis of residential units and specialization occurs in form of inhabiting community. The landuse within the sector is uniform with streets forming the market edge. There is no separate block for institution , commercial or open spaces. Thee amenities are integrated within the structure of each block and follow the organization principle. There is no specialized land use or hierarchy other than markets located at the edge of each block . Community amenities are located within the available open spaces and don't influence the structure of the block.