Any organization requires a system of communication in which orders and information can travel from higher to lower levels, and from lower to higher as well.
These requirements are:
The channels of communication,
The system of communication,
To avoid misunderstandings and make certain of correct transmission,
A communication should be authoritative,
It is a joint process,
A leader should base his actions on the following five principles:
Fair evaluation of work,
Sufficient delegation of authority,
Fair treatment for all,
Availability to all employees,
Discussion of employee problems with employees
Any organization, ultimate goal is to select leaders who will create and drive value, whether they come from the legacy company, the acquired organization, or from the outside. Regardless of their past experiences, the new leaders must demonstrate leadership competencies and behaviours that are aligned with the strategy, operating model, and desired culture of the future organization.
Personal history questionnaire
The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies.
French (1946) report that in training foremen to handle interpersonal relations role playing, lecture, conference, reading and discussion.
Short course , seminars
Merit and performance review
Visit to other company
Attendance at technical meeting
What is supervision ?
Supervision means the act of watching over the work or tasks of another who may lack full knowledge of the concept at hand. Supervision does not mean control of another but guidance in a work, professional or personal context.
psychology and psychotherapy supervision refers to the system whereby therapists are expected to arrange another therapist for their own benefit or to discuss their work. It is part of professional good practice
Supervision is formally defined as a relationship between senior and junior member(s) of a profession that (a) is evaluative, (b) extends over time, (c) serves to enhance the skills of the junior person, (d) monitors the quality of the services offered by the junior person, and (e) acts as gate keeping to the profession (Bernard & Goodyear, 1992, 2004)
Directive Supervision : The supervisor’s role is to inform, direct, model, and assess employees competencies.
Collaborative Supervision : The supervisor’s role is to guide the problem-solving process, be an active member of the interaction, and keep the employees focused on their common problems.
Nondirective Supervision : The supervisor’s role is to listen, be nonjudgmental, and provide self-awareness and clarification experiences for employees.
Employee or Group Characteristics
Very low levels of development, expertise, and commitment
Fairly low levels of development, expertise, and commitment
Moderate or mixed levels of development, expertise and commitment
High levels of development, expertise, and commitm ent
Supervision for Successful companies Prerequisites Knowledge Technical Skills Interpersonal Skills Supervision as Developmental Direct Assistance Curriculum Development Professional Development Group Development Action Research Organizational Goals Employee Needs Improved organization Learning Function Tasks Unification Product
The manager’s values.
What is most important to the supervisor?
Personal growth and development
Development of employees
Level of confidence in employees
The more confidence in the employees, the more the supervisor will involve the employees.
Personal leadership strengths
Effective leaders capitalize on their strengths.
Tolerance for ambiguity
When employees are involved, the supervisor cannot always be sure of the outcomes.
Will the supervisor be comfortable will this uncertainty?
Supervisors practice leadership by giving employees directions.
Supervisors should make sure employees understand the directions.
Directions should be stated in specific, clear terms.
Employees should understand the reason for the directions.
The image a person has of himself/herself.
influences how the supervisor behaves.
Someone who believes he or she has the power will act powerful.
Someone who thinks himself or herself as intelligent is apt to make careful decisions.
When supervisors do something well, they should give themselves credit for their success.
A supervisor needs support from many people in the organization to be successful.
They need the support of their employees.
They also need the support of their boss and co-workers.
A supervisor who is liked and respected by employees will inspire them to work harder and better.
Supervisors should be role models for employees by following the rules of the company.
They should also be fair in the treatment of employees and ethical.
A safe supervisory relationship,
Methods addressing a variety of learning styles,
Multiple supervisory roles,
Communication skills enhancing listening, analyzing, and elaboration.
Integrated models, and
Supervisors will be relationship oriented (people oriented) or task oriented depending on:
leader-member relations, or the extent to which the leader has group members’ support and loyalty.
task structure, or whether there is specified procedures to follow in carrying out the task.
position power, or the leader’s formal authority granted by the organization.
Fiedler recommends that a leader determine whether his or her preferred leadership style fits the situation, and, if not, the leader should try to change the characteristics of the situation.
Worthington (1987) reviewed developmental supervision models and noted patterns. Studies revealed the behavior of supervisors changed as supervisees gained experience, and the supervisory relationship also changed. There appeared to be a scientific basis for developmental trends and patterns in supervision
Stoltenberg and Delworth (1987) highlight content of eight growth areas for each supervisee.
8.Treatment goals and plans, and professional ethics
Behavioral supervision views client problems as learning problems; therefore it requires two skills:
( 1) identification of the problem, and
(2) selection of the appropriate learning technique (Leddick & Bernard, 1980).