W O R L D E N E R G Y A S S E S S M E N T O V E R V I E W : 2 0 0 4 U P D A T E 25n energy system is made up of an energy supply sector and energyend-use technologies. The objective of an energy system is to deliverto consumers the benefits that energy use offers. The term energy services isused to describe these benefits,which for households include illumination,cookedfood, comfortable indoor temperatures, refrigeration, telecommunications,education, and transportation. Energy services are also required for virtuallyevery commercial and industrial activity. For instance, heating and coolingare needed for many industrial processes, motive power is needed foragriculture and industry, and electricity is needed for telecommunicationsand electronics. It is the availability of and access to energy services, notmerely energy supply, that is crucial.The energy chain that delivers these services begins with the collectionor extraction of primary energy that, in one or several steps, may be convertedinto energy carriers, or final energy such as electricity or diesel oil that aresuitable for end uses. Energy end-use equipment – stoves, light bulbs, vehicles,machinery, etc. – converts the final energy into useful energy, which (withthe help of additional technologies) provides the desired benefits: the energyservices. An example of an energy chain – beginning with natural gasextracted from a well (primary energy) and ending with produced garmentsas an energy service – is shown in Figure 2.Energy services result from a combination of various technologies,infrastructure (capital), labour (know how), materials, and primary energy.Each of these inputs carries a price tag, and they are partly substitutable forone another. From the consumer’s perspective, the important issues are theeconomic value or utility derived from the services. Consumers are oftenunaware of the upstream activities required to produce energy services.One way to capture the importance of energy services (not merely energyuse or supply as an end in itself) is to show its impact on the human developmentpart IIBasicEnergyFactsA
index (HDI), a composite indicator developed by UNDPto show countries’ relative well being in social as well aseconomic terms. Figure 3 displays the correlationbetween a country’s human development index rankingand per capita energy use, with commercial energy usedas a proxy for energy services. Because the efficiency ofenergy use in countries with the lowest per capita energyuse is much lower than in countries with higher percapita energy use, the relative level of energy services iseven lower in the low per capita energy use countries.Thus Figure 3 shows that an HDI of 0.8 or highercurrently requires a minimum energy use of about1 tonne of oil-equivalent per year per capita (or 42 GJper capita). It is noteworthy that a higher than ten-foldincrease in consumption of energy does not increasethe HDI significantly.In most low-income developing countries, a small,affluent minority uses various forms of commercialenergy in much the same way as most people in theindustrialised world do. However, most people inlow-income developing countries rely on traditional,non-commercial sources of energy using inefficienttechnologies such as unventilated stoves or open fires.Traditional energy sources are generally not reflectedin energy statistics. Analysis based on “per capita”consumption of commercially distributed energyresources is common because the data are much easierto collect. The resulting analysis, however, does notaccurately reflect the world’s energy situation. Thoughless well-documented, non-commercial energy is verysignificant globally, and is used far more widely thancommercial energy in rural areas of many developingcountries, particularly the least developed countries.Per capita use of primary energy in North Americawas 280 gigajoules in 2000, more than eleven times asmuch as used by an average sub-Saharan African (whoused 25 gigajoules that year when both commercial andnon-commercial energy are included).7 In OECD Europeand OECD Pacific – developed countries in thoseregions – per capita energy use was about 142 and 180GJ, respectively. Figure 4 shows per capita commercialand non-commercial energy use in various regions.Table 1 and Figure 5 show 2001 global primaryenergy use, including both commercial and non-commercial sources of energy. Fossil fuels (oil,natural gas, and coal) represent nearly 80 percent ofthe total. Nuclear power contributes approximately7 percent; however, because nuclear power plantshave only one third of thermal efficiency, the finalelectricity generated for consumption is basically thesame as that generated by large hydropower. Largehydropower and “new” renewables (which includesmodern uses of biomass and small hydropower,geothermal, wind, solar, and marine energy) eachcontribute slightly more than 2 percent; the percentagecontribution of “new renewable energy sources” haschanged little in recent years.Part II. Basic Energy FactsW O R L D E N E R G Y A S S E S S M E N T O V E R V I E W : 2 0 0 4 U P D A T E26FIGURE 2. AN EXAMPLE OF THE ENERGY CHAINFROM EXTRACTION TO SATISFACTION OF NEEDSEnergy servicesExtraction and treatmentPrimary energy Natural gasConversion technologies Power plant,cogeneration plantDistribution technologies Electricity gridFinal energy ElectricityUseful energy Motive powerEnd-use technologies 1 Electric motorsEnd-use technologies 2Satisfaction of human needsTextile processingGarmentsEnergy sectorEnergy systemNatural gas wellEnergy services———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————7. In this report, the term commercial energy refers to fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas), nuclear energy, and large-scale hydropower. The termtraditional energy is used to denote locally collected and often unprocessed biomass-based fuels, such as crop residues, wood, and animal dung.Most traditional energy is used non-commercially (i.e.,non-commercialenergy).Although traditional energy sources can be used renewably,the termnew renewables refers to modern biofuels, wind, solar, small-scale hydropower, marine, and geothermal energy.
W O R L D E N E R G Y A S S E S S M E N T O V E R V I E W : 2 0 0 4 U P D A T EPart II. Basic Energy Facts27FIGURE 3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HDI AND PER CAPITA ENERGY USE, 1999/2000Per capita energy consumption (kgoe/capita)0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 130001.00.90.80.126.96.36.199.30.2HDIIcelandUnited StatesFinlandSingaporeBelgiumFranceRussiaSlovak RepublicItalyHungaryArgentinaUkraineGabonBrazilZimbabweNigeriaMozambiqueFIGURE 4. PER CAPITA ENERGY USE (COMMERCIAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL), BY REGION, 2000Sources: IEA, 2002a and 2002b.Notes: Asia excludes Middle East, China, andOECD countries;Middle East and North Africacomprises Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq,Israel,Jordan,Kuwait,Lebanon,Libya,Morocco,Oman,Qatar,Saudi Arabia,Syria,Tunisia,UnitedArab Emirates and Yemen; Latin America andCaribbean excludes Mexico; OECD Pacificcomprises Australia, Japan, Korea, and NewZealand; Former USSR comprises Armenia,Azerbaijan,Belarus,Estonia,Georgia,Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan, Ukraine, andUzbekistan; Non-OECD Europe consists ofAlbania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,Croatia, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Macedonia, Malta,Romania, and Slovenia; OECD NorthAmerica includes Mexico.Gigajoules per capita0 50 100 150 200 250 300253825684613369142180281AsiaChinaSub-Saharan AfricaMiddle East and North AfricaLatin America and CaribbeanFormer USSRNon-OECD EuropeOECD EuropeOECD PacificOECD North America
Part II. Basic Energy FactsW O R L D E N E R G Y A S S E S S M E N T O V E R V I E W : 2 0 0 4 U P D A T E28TABLE 1. WORLD PRIMARY ENERGY USE AND RESERVES, 2001Primaryenergy(exajoules,EJ)33214791945793992929418Primary energy(109 tonnes ofoil equivalent,Gtoe*)7.933.512.162.261.370.230.930.210.690.699.99Percentageof total (%)79.435.121.722.6188.8.131.52.26.96.9100.0Proved reserves(109 tonnes ofoil equivalent,Gtoe*)7781431385665555Staticreserve-productionratio (years)a416425182fStaticresource base–productionratio (years)b~ 200~ 400~ 700~300to>10,000fDynamicresource base–productionratio (years)c125210360SourceFossil fuelsOilNatural gasCoalRenewablesLarge hydroTraditional biomass‘New’renewablesdNuclearNucleareTotalf* 1 toe = 42GJ. a. Based on constant production and static reserves. b. Includes both conventional and unconventional reserves and resources.c.Data refer to the energy use of a business-as-usual scenario—that is, production is dynamic and a function of demand.Thus these ratios are subjectto change under different scenarios. Dynamic resource base – production was calculated based on a 2 percent growth rate per year from 2000 topeak production (oil 6.1 Gtoe, gas 6.3 Gtoe, and coal 8.9 Gtoe), followed by a 2 percent decline per year until the resource base is exhausted.d. Includes modern biomass, small hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, solar energy, and marine energy. Modern biomass accounts for6.0 exajoules; 2.9 exajoules comes from all other renewables.“Modern biomass”refers to biomass produced in a sustainable way and used forelectricity generation, heat production, and transportation (liquid fuels). It includes wood/forest residues from reforestation and/or sustainablemanagement, rural (animal and agricultural) and urban residues (including solid waste and liquid effluents); it does not include traditional uses offuelwood in inefficient and pollutant conversion systems. e.Converted from electricity produced to fuels consumed assuming a 33 percent thermalefficiency of power plants.f. Based on once-through uranium fuel cycles excluding thorium and low-concentration uranium from seawater.Theuranium resource base is theoretically 60 times larger if fast breeder reactors are used.RenewableRenewableRenewableSource: Updated from WEA, 2000, and Table 7.FIGURE 5. WORLD PRIMARY ENERGY USE, BYENERGY SOURCE, 2001 (SHARES OF 10.2 GTOE)Natural gas21.7%Nuclear6.9%Hydro2.3%Traditional biomass9.3%Population: 6.102 billionTotal energy use: 10.2 GtoePer capita energy consumption: 1.67 toeOil35.1%Coal22.6%“Modern”biomass1.4%“New renewable energy sources”2.2%Other renewables0.8%Source: Tables 1 and 6.}FIGURE 6. WORLD ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, BYENERGY SOURCE, 2001 (SHARES OF 15,476 TWH)Gas18.1%Nuclear17.0%Hydro16.5%Note: Global electricity by source (calculated on the basisof TWh generated, not primary energy).Petroleum products7.5%Coal38.3%Combustiblerenewablesand waste1.1%Geothermal, solar, etc.0.6%Other renewablesSmall Hydro1.0%Sources: IEA, 2003c. Small hydro data from International Associationfor Small Hydro (IASH), www.iash.info/worldpotential.htm.}
W O R L D E N E R G Y A S S E S S M E N T O V E R V I E W : 2 0 0 4 U P D A T EPart II. Basic Energy Facts29Figure 6 shows global electricity production, numbersobtained in terawatt hours, i.e., final outputs thatreflect the net energy service provided by all sources.Total sales of energy carriers world-wide in 2001amounted to on the order of US$2 trillion, about 6percent of the world’s gross domestic product.8 Smallshares of these amounts could make an enormousdifference in terms of sustainable development ifdirected to cleaner energy forms. However, this is stillnot the case: at present, subsidies to conventional energyare on the order of $250 billion per year, while sales of“new” renewables are on the order of $20 billion per year.There are great disparities in the way energy isconsumed. Average “per capita” primary energy use inthe world has reached 1.65 toe per year, which isapproximately twenty times greater than minimumhuman energy requirements for survival, i.e., the dailyenergy use of primitive man (2000 kcal).Figure 7 gives a breakdown of primary energy usefor various regions (OECD, Commonwealth ofIndependent States and Eastern Europe, Sub-SaharanAfrica,Middle East and North Africa,Asia-Pacific,LatinAmerica and the Caribbean). The regions show largedifferences in their primary energy mix, reflecting both theavailability of primary energy sources and consumptionpatterns.9 Figure 8 shows electricity production for the———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————8. As estimated by converting 10 Gtoe to barrels of oil at a value of US$30 per barrel.9. According to the International Energy Agency (2003, p. I.9), "Combustible renewables and waste comprises solid biomass, liquid biomass, biogas,industrial wasteandmunicipalwaste.Biomassisdefinedasanyplantmatteruseddirectlyasfuelorconvertedintofuels(e.g.,charcoal)orelectricityand/orheat.Included here arewood, vegetal waste (including wood waste and crops used for energy production), ethanol, animal materials/wastes and sulphite lyes(...) also known as "black liquor (...). Municipal wastes comprises wastes producedby residential, commercial and public service sectors that are collectedby local authorities for disposal in a central location for the production of heat and/or power.Hospital waste is included in this category".The Agency alsoFIGURE 7. PRIMARY ENERGY USE IN VARIOUS REGIONS, BY ENERGY SOURCE, 2001Source: IEA, 2003c.OECDshares of 5.33 GtoeCrude oil40.4%Petroleumproducts0.5%Coal20.8%Combustiblerenewablesand waste3.3%Hydro2.0%Geothermal,solar, etc.0.7%Nuclear11.2%Gas21.3%CIS and Eastern Europeshares of 1.03 GtoeCrude oil24.4%Petroleumproducts5.7%Combustiblerenewables and waste1.4%Coal17.7%Hydro2.1%Geothermal,solar, etc.0.0%Nuclear5.8%Gas42.9%Sub-Saharan Africashares of 0.40 GtoeCrude oil11.8%Petroleumproducts1.1%Combustiblerenewables and waste61.5%Coal20.9%Hydro1.3%Geothermal,solar, etc.0.1%Nuclear0.7%Gas2.5%Middle East and North Africashares of 0.50 GtoeCrude oil51.0%Petroleumproducts19.8%Coal26.7%Combustiblerenewablesand waste0.5%Hydro0.3%Geothermal,solar, etc.0.1%Nuclear0.0%Gas26.7%Asia Pacificshares of 2.31 GtoeNuclear0.8%Petroleumproducts0.9%Combustiblerenewablesand waste1.4%Coal39%Geothermal,solar, etc.0.5%Hydro1.7%Crude oil24.5%Gas7.3%Latin America and the Caribbeanshares of 0.45 GtoePetroleumproducts8.1%Crude oil48.0%Combustiblerenewablesand waste14.7%Coal3.8%Hydro8.3%Geothermal,solar, etc.0.4%Nuclear1.0%Gas15.8%
same regions, again with large variations.Fossil fuels use accounts for 83 percent of the energyconsumed in industrialised countries, 89 percent intransition-economy countries, and appreciably less insome other regions. In contrast, traditional and modernbiomass account for 16 percent of the energy consumedin the developing countries of the Latin America andCaribbean, for 25 percent in developing Asia, and almost60 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa. Yet it representsonly 3 percent of primary energy used in industrialisedcountries, and is negligible in the transition economycountries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.Nuclear energy is also significant in industrialisedcountries (where it is the source of 11 percent of primaryenergy) and transition economy countries (7 percent);however, it makes only a minor contribution in developingcountries (0.4 percent, or even less). Hydropower isunevenly used, providing 72 percent of electricity inLatin America and the Caribbean, and 9 percent inMiddle East and North Africa, regions with scarceresources. Non-hydro renewable energy in electricityproduction is low in all regions.World-wide, traditional energy accounts for nearly10 percent of total primary energy used (Figure 5).However, the distribution is uneven: traditional energyaccounts for less than 3.4 percent of energy use inindustrialised countries but an average of 17.9 percent indeveloping countries In some low-income developingPart II. Basic Energy FactsW O R L D E N E R G Y A S S E S S M E N T O V E R V I E W : 2 0 0 4 U P D A T E30———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————recognises that "Data under this heading are often based on small sample surveys or other incomplete information". The available statistics, do notseparate unsustainable sources of biomass (e.g.,fuelwood from deforestation) from the sustainable (e.g.,biodiesel).Until more comprehensive dataare published for all countries,it could be assumed that all Combustible Renewables and Waste (CRW) from developed countries are renewable; fordeveloping countries, at least, the CRW applied into electricity production (thus a modern process) can also be considered renewable.FIGURE 8. SHARES OF ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION IN VARIOUS REGIONS, BY ENERGY SOURCE, 2001Source: IEA, 2003c.OECD(9490 TWh)Coal37.9%Combustiblerenewablesand waste1.6%Hydro13.0%Geothermal,solar, etc.0.7%Nuclear24.1%Petroleumproducts5.9%Gas16.8%Middle East and North Africa(649 TWh)Combustiblerenewablesand waste0.0%Coal6.9%Geothermal,solar, etc.0.0%Nuclear0.0%Petroleumproducts38.9%Hydro4.8%Gas49.4%Sub-Saharan Africa(306 TWh)Coal66.6%Hydro13.0%Geothermal,solar, etc.0.2%Nuclear3.5%Petroleumproducts4.9%Gas4.3%CIS and Eastern Europe(1473 TWh)Coal23.2%Hydro19.4%Combustiblerenewablesand waste1.6%Combustiblerenewables and waste0.0%Geothermal,solar, etc.0.0%Nuclear24.1%Petroleumproducts4.6%Gas35.2%Latin America and the Caribbean(763 TWh)Coal3.0%Hydro67.7%Combustiblerenewablesand waste1.9%Geothermal,solar, etc.0.3%Nuclear2.8%Petroleumproducts11.3%Gas12.9%Asia Pacific(2795 TWh)Coal63.6%Hydro16.1%Geothermal,solar, etc.0.6%Nuclear2.7%Petroleumproducts6.6%Gas10.2%Combustiblerenewables and waste0.2%
W O R L D E N E R G Y A S S E S S M E N T O V E R V I E W : 2 0 0 4 U P D A T EPart II. Basic Energy Facts31countries, traditional biomass accounts for 80 percentor more of total energy use.There are significant inequities in annual percapita energy use among groups of countries. In2001, industrialised countries used 4.7 tonnes of oilequivalent (toe) per capita, in contrast to developingcountries, which used only 0.8 toe per capita; theworld average was 1.7 toe per capita. The per capitaenergy use in the sub-Saharan region was only 0.6 toe.The rate of growth in energy use also varies acrosscountry groups. Between 1990 and 2001, the averageannual growth rate in primary energy use in industrialisedcountries was 1.5 percent; in developing countries,it was more than twice that amount (3.2 percent,with important variations among different regionsof developing countries). Population growth andrising levels of economic activity drive this rapidincrease (Table 2).From this overview, it is clear that the availabilityand use of energy around the world is extremelyheterogeneous. The varying growth rates in energy usehave helped to reduce the gap in energy servicesbetween industrialised and developing countries andare the result of energy efficiency measures in OECDcountries, the export of energy-intensive activities todeveloping countries, and increased access to energyservices throughout the world. Nevertheless, the situationremains far from equitable. sTABLE 2. PRIMARY ENERGY USE, BY REGION, 2001TPES*(Gtoe)5.331.030.400.502.310.4510.033.66Population(billions)1.140.350.670.313.210.426.104.62toe/capita4.682.980.601.620.721.071.640.79Growth rate1990-2001%/year1.52%-3.26%2.23%4.65%3.18%2.64%1.41%3.19%Region1. OECD (all industrialised countries)2. Commonwealth of Independent States and Eastern Europe3. Sub-Saharan Africa4. Middle East and North Africa5. Asia Pacific (non-OECD) with China6. Latin America and the Caribbean (without Mexico)WorldDeveloping countries (3+4+5+6)* TPES (total primary energy supply) is the indigenous production of energy, plus imports and positive stock changes,minus exports and international marine bunkers.Source: IEA, 2003c.