IS NEW NEPAL HEADING TOWARDS PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC?
(MAOIST GOVERNMENT’S COMMON MINIMUM PROGRAM (CMP)
A GENERAL POLITICO-SECURITY SITUATION ANALYSIS REPORT
Raj K PANDEY, MBS, MA
GPO BOX: 19862, Jawalakhel, Lalitpur
firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
On August 21, 2008, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), CPN (UML) and Madhesi
Janadhikar Forum (MJF) agreed on the Common Minimum Program (CMP), Code of
Conduct (CoC), Modus Operandi of the Government (MOG) and the formation of a
Political Coordination Committee (PCC). The documents were signed by Prime Minister
and President of the CPN (Maoist) Puspa Kamal Dahal (Prachanda), UML General
Secretary Jhala Nath Khanal, and Forum chair Upendra Yadav. The 50-point CMP is
divided into: (i) Nationalism, (ii) Federal Democratic Republic, (iii) Peace and Security,
(iv)Relief and Reconstruction (v) Socio-Economic Transformation. The CMP excerpts are:
(i) Nationalism concerning to unity and promotion
Nepal’s sovereignty, national unity, independence and integrity shall be preserved, giving
national importance to self-respect.
National security, foreign policy, utilization of water resources, and mobilization of foreign
assistance shall be based on Nepal’s sovereignty, independence, and welfare. Unequal
treaties and agreements shall be reviewed.
The foreign policy regarding neighbors shall be based on national interest, the UN Charter,
non-alignment and the theory of Panchasheel.
Financial assistance shall be taken from friendly forces, the UN and donor communities in
the course of Nepal’s economic and livelihood development.
National integrity and balance foreign policy shall be mobilized to internationalize and
resolve the Bhutanese refugee situation.
(ii) State restructuring concerning implementation of democratic republic
A New Constitution shall be framed in 2 years by forging consensus among CA parties.
All acts, rules and regulations that contradict with the declaration of republic on May 28,
2008 shall be scrapped.
All efforts shall be utilized to trace the property of the former king and royalty.
Special attention shall be paid to constitutional supremacy, independence of judiciary,
fundamental human rights, press freedom and rule of law.
The agreements signed with MJF on August 29, 2007 and United Democratic Madhesi
Front (UDMF) on March 1, 2008 shall be implemented, but constitutional issues shall be
decided by the CA.
All women, Dalits, Muslims, Janajatis, Madhesis and backward people shall be included in
all state mechanisms constituting and reforming necessary acts.
Justifiable tax and resources shall be distributed to the backward areas, restructuring the
country’s economic policy.
Autonomous local government shall be established based on consensus of political parties
till next local government is elected.
Bureaucracy, Nepal Army, Nepal Police and Armed Police shall be mobilized
independently forming a Monitory Task Force under the existing legal parameters.
(iii) Sustainable peace in realization for security
The Peace process shall be ended at a logical conclusion through talks.
The Maoists PLA combatants and arms shall be adjusted/managed within six months.
A High Level Security Commission shall be formed to develop new National Security
Policy. Nepal Army to be mobilized on development activities during transition to peace.
As per the Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA), the National Peace and Rehabilitation
Commission, High-Level Truth and Reconciliation Commission, High Level State
Restructuring Commission, Commission of Disappeared, and Land Reforms Commission
shall be set up.
Crime, anarchy and the culture of impunity shall be ended, consolidating law and order. To
make independent and accountable administration and security organs, the Code of
Conduct (CoC) shall be developed for the people’s realization of security.
(iv) Immediate relief concerning reconstruction
Relief to families of martyrs and disappearances, rehabilitation of armed conflict effected
families and internally displaced people, and compensation to the conflict victims who lost
property shall be provided. A special Fund shall be established to manage rescue, relief,
rehabilitation and assistance to the conflict victims.
Medical treatment shall be provided to the people injured during the course of the People’s
War, popular movement and Madhes violence.
Top priority to reconstruction of infrastructure damaged during conflict shall be given.
Price hikes shall be controlled; supply of fuel shall be smoothed; fair price shops shall be
opened; and relief shall be provided to landslide, flood victims, etc.
Debts of those who are below the poverty line shall be waived.
(v) Socio-economic transformation
A National Independent Economy shall be set up based on the theory of people-oriented
democracy and public-private partnership.
Coordinating the State, cooperative, and private sectors; economic, social policy and
programs shall be developed for social justice, economic growth and just distribution to
address poverty, unemployment, backwardness, inequality and dependency.
Immediate, short-term, mid-term and long-term development plans shall be established
based on balanced development, people’s spirit and necessity of the country, restructuring
the traditional National Planning Commission.
Top priority shall be given to agriculture, hydroelectricity, tourism, human resources and
physical infrastructure development.
Land to the tillers shall be established in the course of scientific land reform.
Top priority shall be given to national industries; special reform policy shall be adopted to
revive sick industries; and special emphasis shall be given to small and cottage industries.
Cheap, easy and effective services shall be provided, strengthening people’s service
providers’ institutions. Both domestic and international investment shall be attracted.
Rural electrification shall be given special attention to end load-shedding. Internal
investment shall be encouraged for small and medium scale hydro-power.
Loans shall be returned from big defaulters as per rules and regulations.
Professional skill and commitment towards neutrality of the civil servants shall be
enhanced. Culture of impunity shall be ended, pursuing transparency and governance.
Effective corruption control shall be established. For this, concerned authorities, including
Commission for Investigation of Abuses of Authority (CIAA), shall be strengthened.
The participation of women including Janajatis, Madhesi, Dalit and disadvantaged groups
at government mechanism shall be increased. Special package programs, such as education,
health and employment shall be brought to them.
A National literacy campaign shall be mobilized. The Government shall increase its budget
to primary, informal, occupational and technical education. Fundamental education rights
to secondary level shall be guaranteed.
Primary and basic health shall be guaranteed as fundamental rights. The budget for drinking
water, sanitation and rural infrastructures programs shall be increased.
The construction of an east-west railway, international airport, irrigation, hulaki (post-
office) highway, link roads to district headquarters, etc. shall be developed.
Social security program for Dalits, disadvantaged classes and areas shall be created for
Special programs and mechanisms shall be constructed, focusing to balanced development
of Tarai (Madhes), hill, mountain, village and urban centers including Karnali areas and
mid-and-far western Nepal.
The country shall be declared free from untouchability.
All kinds of discrimination such as rape, domestic violence and trafficking against women
shall be ended.
Special training and opportunity for employment to disabled persons shall be managed.
A High Level Youth Commission shall be formed to resolve their problems.
Employment shall be guaranteed as a fundamental right to citizens. Security free loans shall
be provided for business start ups. Foreign employment shall be managed to generalize
equal access to commoners. Labor bank centers shall be established to record the numbers
Discrimination against religion, dialect and culture shall be ended completely. A National
Muslim Commission shall be established for their welfare and development.
The demands put forward by the Non-Resident Nepalis (NRN) shall be fulfilled, and they
will be encouraged to be involved more in Nepal’s development.
All appropriate demands put forward by farmers, labors, students, teachers, women,
journalists, industrialists, intellectuals, artists, doctors, engineers, lawyers, civil servants,
professors, squatters, bonded labors, Badis, Muslims, disabled, etc. shall be fulfilled
The CPN (Maoist) chairperson Prachanda became the first Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic
Republic of Nepal, as he received more than a three-fourth majority (80% of 577 votes) in the CA on
August 15, 2008. This is a golden opportunity to the world’s communist parties/tendencies to flaunt
to anti-communist forces that believe that the communist era is over. After JanaandolanI, communists
received a total of 37% total votes in the first general election of 1991, but now they have reached
63% in 15 years’ tenure. Why has Nepal become fertile ground for a communist regime? Why are
communists, who are anachronisms elsewhere, flourishing in the county like Nepal?
The government in the past did not respect the spirit and sentiment of commoners, but was motivated
by family particularly and party interest in general. The past government operated with a spirit of
Hamro Manchhe rather than Ramro Manchhe (nepotism, favoritism/sycophancy than competency).
Consequently, they now stand as an opposition political force. If the two-third provision had not been
changed, the NC would also be in the government under the leadership of Prachanda. For the NC, to
remain outside the government is very challenging. The UML’s recent instance on the second cabinet
position in the government after the PM is yet another power struggle divorced from the people’s
interest. Bam Dev Gautam was twice prevented by the electorate from even being a parliamentarian
and has allegedly indulged in money, muscle and mafia games as well.
Large numbers of Nepali people believe that the UML wanted to stop Prachanda’a China visit under
the pretext of the second in command cabinet minister port-folio fight. (ii) The previous government
not only remained silent spectators against foreign intervention, but also supported their naked
games, much to the peoples’ frustration. (iii) The economic gap between the elite and poor widened
due to the “elite protected and people neglected” nature by the state in the past. (iv)A culture of
impunity flourished, owing to rampant corruption in the security forces, bureaucracy, judiciary and
leadership. (v) Nepal’s communists have a stronger sense of nationalism than the others. The CMP
tries to address all types of burning issues such as nationality, implementation of republic, relief and
reconstruction and socio-economic transformation, even in this short-term government. Moreover,
the CMP has incorporated education, health and employments as the fundamental rights which are
very difficulty to fulfill by the existing traditional planning, acts, judiciary, income, and bureaucratic
state mechanisms. The most perplexing fact is that most of the competent human resources are
outside from the state’s mainstreaming.
The ambitious CPM has stressed people-oriented and forward looking change similar to the
Scandinavian model, prioritizing food first, apposed to the previous government which ostensibly
stood for freedom first. In Nepal, a country that has never truly seen rule of law, this priority seems
obvious to most. The CMP focuses much on socio-economic progress while forgetting that this
government exists simply to draft a new constitution and promulgate it. If the Maoist lead
government fulfills its half of the CMP (public commitment), the people will be with them, but if
they can not fulfill it, there is a danger of inviting socio-cultural violence that would be more
painful and destructive than in the past. On the other hand, the implementation of the CMP will not
be very easy, as the same anti-Maoists forces – Army’s generals, senior bureaucrats, diplomats,
policy-makers, judiciary ̶ are trying hard to undermine Maoists vertically and horizontally.
Despite this, the Maoist-lead government’s public commitment is toward the eradication of poverty,
assurance of social justice, and promotion of liberty minimizing the gap of classes that tends to
initiation of People’s Republic of Nepal.