Bali ram

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Bali ram

  1. 1. A Project Research Report On SONY India Pvt. Ltd. “CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS ELECTRONIC GOODS WITH REFERENCE TO SONY IN JAIPUR REGION” Award of degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA) Submitted By Submitted To Baliram yadve Dr. Manish Jain MBA 4thSEM. Head of the Department RTU Roll No.-12MAIXX608 Department of Management ARYA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING &TECHNOLOGY KUKAS, JAIPUR (RAJ.) 2012-14
  2. 2. 2 Acknowledgement I express my warmest thanks & deep sense of gratitude to the individuals for their generous help in discussing the project and giving their valuable time in successful completion of this project. Time to time I got constructive suggestions, guidance and encouragement. I would like to express my deep thanks to Dr. Arvind Agarwal, President, Arya Group of Colleges, Dr. Surendra Sharma, Director, Arya Institute of Engg. and Technology and Prof. M. L. Gupta, Principal, Arya Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jaipur for extending me the opportunity of presenting the Final year project and providing all the necessary resources for this purpose. With much pride and delight I would like to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Manish Jain (Head of the department) for his excellent guidance and valuable suggestions throughout the project work. I express heartfelt thanks to Ms. Anchal Sharma (Project Guide) for her wonderful support and for giving me an opportunity to present project report on “CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS ELECTRONIC GOODS WITH REFERENCE TO SONY IN JAIPUR REGION”. I also want to give my humble regards to Ms. Gundeep (Head- Training & Placement Cell), Ms. Roopneet, Ms. Padma Sharma, Mr. Hitesh Tikyani , and Ms. Ankita Jain for their valuable support and believe in my work. Without their sustained interest and encouragement, this work could not have been possible to reach the state of completion with satisfaction. In fact it is their real devotion to the development work, which instilled in me, the need of a passionate commitment to pursue this project.I am also grateful to all my friends for providing critical feedback and support whenever required. There are times in such projects when the clock beats you time and again and you run out of energy, you just want to finish it once and forever. Parents made me endure such times with their unfailing hum our and warm wishes. I regret for any inadvertent omissions. Baliram yadve MBA 4thSEM. RTU Roll No.-12MAIXX608
  3. 3. 3 PREFACE Management of Modern business requires an opportunity of multidisciplinary concept and in depth knowledge of specific analytical tools, geared to the solution the real life problems. No doubt every real situation is unique but a set of theoretical tools of knowledge, itself based on empirical foundation can help in developing the mechanism for handling such situation. So the MBA curriculum has been desired to provide to the future manager sample practical exposures to the business world. Project study report is essential for the fulfilment of MBA curriculum. It provides an opportunity to the student to understand the industry with special emphasis on the development of skills in analysing interpreting practical problems through application of management. The essential aim of management should be to assist management in decision making and improving the efficiency of the organisation.
  4. 4. 4 Executive Summary Mobile phone market in India is going through major changes. Key players are losing market share while new and young companies, mostly from Asian countries, are coming to the market. At the same time the market is slowly expanding when people are buying more phones than ever. The whole process of buying mobile phones has changed in the last few years. People no longer carry the same phone year in year out, change is the fast technological development of the phones. But also consumer‟s but they change their phone very year, some even twice a year. One reason for these attitudes towards mobile phones has changed. Mobile phones are no longer seen as expensive, hi-tech products, but they have become accessories like jewellery or a piece of clothing. “Nokia is still the largest mobile phone company in the world, but its long-term dominance is now challenged more than ever. Observers have begun asking whether the cutting edge that has turned Nokia into the No 1 vendor still exists, as Nokia‟s market share and revenues have been on the decline. Falling average sales prices (ASPs) and market share have had an impact and forced Nokia to further re-think its strategy towards developed and emerging markets.” This report gives an overview on what is happening on the mobile phone market today and analyses Nokia‟s market position in the growing market. This report includes a brief introduction to Nokia followed by an environmental analysis, SWOT analysis of the company. Half way through the report you can find information about consumer behavior and segmentation. At the end, this report introduces the main strategies and objectives of Nokia for the competitive market. Finally we try to make a conclusion of the topics discussed and attempt to give some possible answers to the question at hand.
  5. 5. 5 CONTENT CHAPTER ITEMS PAGE NO. CHAPTER - I INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE 7-38 INTRODUCTION 7 INTRODUCTION OF TOPIC 8 SONY HISTORY 9-23 SONY STORY 24 COMPANY PROFILE 29 OBJECTIVE OF PROPOSED RESEARCH 38 CHAPTER – II LITERATURE REVIEW 39 CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR 40-44 BUYER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS ELECTRONIC GOODS 44- 46 CHAPTER -III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 47-54 RESEARCH METHEDOLOGY 48-51 RESEARCH PROCESS 52-53 CHAPTER-IV DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 55-87 ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 84-87 CHAPTER-V FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION, CONCLUSION LIMITATIONS 88-99 FINDINGS 89-90 LIMITATIONS 90 RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 91 CONCLUSION 92-93 REFERENCE 94-95 QUESTIONNAIRE 96 - 98
  6. 6. 6 CHAPTER - 1 Introduction One of the most recognized brand names in the world today, Sony Corporation, Japan, established its India operations in November 1994, focusing on the sales and marketing of Sony products in the country. In a span of 12 years Sony India has exemplified the quest for excellence in the world of digital lifestyle becoming the country‟s foremost consumer electronics brand. With relentless commitment to quality, consistent dedication to customer satisfaction and unparalleled standards of service, Sony India is recognized as a benchmark for new age technology, superior quality, digital concepts and personalized service that has ensured loyal customers and nationwide acclaim in the industry. In India, Sony has its footprint across all major towns and cities through a distribution network comprising of over 7000 channel partners, 215 Sony World and Sony Exclusive outlets and 21 direct branch locations. Manned by customer friendly and informed sales persons, Sony‟s exclusive stores „Sony World‟ are fast becoming the most visible face of the company in India. Sony India also has a strong service presence across the country with 21 company owned and 172 authorized service centers. A distinctive feature of Sony‟s service is its highly motivated and well-trained staff that provides the kind of attentive and sensitive service that is rare today. Sony is committed to ensuring that both the products and the marketing activities employed truly make a difference to people‟s lifestyles and offer them new dimensions of enjoyment and an experiences which are „like no other‟.
  7. 7. 7 INTRODUCTION OF TOPIC Consumer behavior refers to the mental and emotional process and the observable behavior of consumers during searching, purchasing and post consumption of a product or service. Consumer behavior involves study of how people buy, what they buy, when they buy and why they buy. It blends the elements from psychology, sociology, socio-psychology ,anthropology and economics. It also tries to assess the influence on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups and society in general. Buyer behavior has two aspects: the final purchase activity visible to any observer and the detailed or short decision process that may involve the interplay of a number of complex variables not visible to anyone. Consumers are mainly focused on the broad-scale adoption of new technologies that can empower them in previously unimagined ways. As a result, buying behavior of consumer is changing to adapting to new technological advances so rapidly that marketers or the consumer based enterprises sometimes cannot keep pace. To maintain the pace of consumer for advanced technologies Sony is putting in the effort over the years in Meerut region and has the limits of possibilities and boggled the mind with its breakthrough technology. In fact, it won‟t be wrong to say that it‟s been the soul of technology for the past few years .Sony cutting-edge digital products have set new standards in entertainment for Meerut customer. They have enriched and evolved Meerut people lifestyle. Whether people consider the brilliance of the Sparkling Wage technology in its color televisions or the incredible color and clarity of BRAVIA in its LCDs, they are engineering marvels that bring images to life of Meerut people.
  8. 8. 8 Company Profile Sony is a name synonymous with technological revolutions. Over the last 53 years, the company has evolved into a luminous brand with a unique selling proposition - technology innovation, quality and premium. In the last 50 years, the company had already established itself in the field of hi-tech entertainment. Today, Sony has gone further by becoming a preferred choice for professional requirements as well, whether it is broadcast media or color monitors. The company's leadership position in the world, today, is a reiteration of its ability to connect with the customer's mental space. Sony is not new to India. Whether it was the television, or the walkman, a Sony always remained a must on the wish list of any Indian returning home. This love for the brand culminated in a new relationship when inspired by a reform friendly Indian business environment, Sony Corporation decided to set up a 100% subsidiary called Sony India on 16th January 1995. In a fiercely competitive Indian consumer durables market, Sony India's mission is to "make a difference in the lifestyles and introduce new dimension to enjoyment. Offer new age technology and digital concepts; work hand in hand with the domestic industry to produce and sell excellence and come closer to the Indian customers through committed service." Since its inception in 1995, Sony decided to have sales and distribution channels, which are exclusive to Sony India. The business partners are country managers in their own areas.Sony India today has about 33 distributors and 1475 dealers. In all the metros the Company has direct sales operations. The company also has about 13 exclusive Sony outlets, which showcase products ranging from analog to digital throughout the country.
  9. 9. 9 Company Perspectives: Recognizing that environmental protection is one of the most pressing issues facing mankind today, Sony incorporates a sound respect for nature in all of its business activities. With this philosophy, Sony has defined environmental conservation as an important part of its management strategy. The Sony Group has created a global action plan and conducts environmental preservation programs. This program has five core components: reducing the environmental impact of business activities and production processes; designing environmentally sensitive products and promoting recycling; developing environmental technologies; promoting the environmental education and full participation of Sony employees; and disclosing environmental information to the public. Sony’s History -- Through The Eyes of the Company’s Leaders Sony Corporation is one of the best-known names in consumer electronics and ranks second worldwide in electronics behind Matsushita Electric Corporation. Since it was established shortly after World War II, Sony has introduced a stream of revolutionary products, including the transistor radio, the Trinitron television, the Betamax VCR, the CD player, the Walkman portable cassette player, and the PlayStation game console. The company's electronics segment--which includes audio and video products, televisions, personal computers, monitors, computer peripherals, telecommunications devices, and electronic components (such as semiconductors)--generates about two-thirds of the overall revenues. Sales of game consoles and software account for about 9 percent of revenues. Another 10 percent of revenues are derived from Sony's music businesses, which include the Columbia and Epic record labels. About 7 percent of revenues come from Sony's motion picture and television business, which includes the Columbia TriStar studio. Sony's other major business segment is insurance, from which about 6 percent of revenues originate. Early History: From Tape Recorders to Transistor Radios to the Trinitron Sony was founded by a former naval lieutenant named Akio Morita and a defense
  10. 10. 10 contractor named Masaru Ibuka. Morita, a weapons researcher, first met Ibuka during World War II while developing a heat-seeking missile-guidance system and a night-vision gun scope. After the war Ibuka worked as a radio repairman for a bomb-damaged Tokyo department store. Morita found him again when he read in a newspaper that Ibuka had invented a shortwave converter. In May 1946 the two men established a partnership with $500 in borrowed capital, and registered their company as the Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation, or TTK). Morita and Ibuka moved their company to a crude facility on a hill in southern Tokyo where they developed their first consumer product: a rice cooker, which failed commercially. In its first year TTK registered a profit of $300 on sales of less than $7,000. But as the Japanese economy grew stronger, demand for consumer goods increased. Morita and Ibuka abandoned the home-appliance market and, with injections of capital from Morita's father, concentrated on developing new electronic goods. Ibuka developed a tape recorder fashioned after an American model he had seen at the Japan Broadcasting Corporation. Demand for the machine, which was introduced in 1950 and was the first Japanese tape recorder, remained low until Ibuka accidentally discovered a U.S. military booklet titled Nine Hundred and Ninety-Nine Uses of the Tape Recorder. Translated into Japanese, the booklet became an effective marketing tool. Once acquainted with its many uses, customers such as the Academy of Art in Tokyo purchased so many tape recorders that TTK was soon forced to move to a larger building in Shinagawa. Norio Ohga, an opera student at the academy, wrote several letters to TTK criticizing the sound quality of its recorder. Impressed by the detail and constructive tone of the criticisms, Morita invited Ohga to participate in the development of a new recorder as a consultant. Ohga accepted, and subsequent models were vastly improved. Constantly searching for new technological advances, Masaru Ibuka heard of a tiny new capacitor called a transistor in 1952. The transistor, developed by Bell Laboratories, could be used in place of larger, less-durable vacuum tubes. Western
  11. 11. 11 Electric purchased the technology in order to manufacture transistorized hearing aids. Ibuka acquired a patent license from Western Electric for $25,000 with the intention of developing a small tubeless radio. TTK began mass production of transistor radios in 1955, only a few months after they were introduced by a small American firm called Regency Electronics. The TTK radio was named Sony, from sonus, Latin for 'sound.' The Sony radio had tremendous sales potential, not only in the limited Japanese market but also in the United States, where the economy was much stronger. Traditionally, international sales by Japanese companies were conducted through trading houses such as Mitsui, Mitsubishi, and Sumitomo. Although these trading companies were well represented in the United States, Morita chose not to do business with them because they were unfamiliar with his company's products and did not share his business philosophy. Morita traveled to New York, where he met with representatives from several large retail firms. Morita refused an order from Bulova for 100,000 radios when that company required that each carry the Bulova name. Morita pledged that his company would not manufacture products for other companies and eventually secured a number of more modest orders that assured his company's growth at a measured pace. Another highlight of 1955 was the first listing of the company's stock on the over-the-counter market of the Tokyo Stock Exchange. The rising popularity of the Sony name led Morita and Ibuka to change the name of their company to Sony Kabushiki Kaisha (Corporation) in January 1958. The following year Sony announced that it had developed a transistorized television, which was introduced in 1960. That same year, after a business dispute with Delmonico International, the company Morita had appointed to handle international sales, Sony established a trade office in New York City and another in Switzerland called Sony Overseas. A subsidiary called Sony Chemicals was created in 1962 to produce adhesives and plastics to reduce the company's dependence on outside suppliers. In 1965 a joint
  12. 12. 12 venture with Tektronix was established to produce oscilloscopes in Japan. During the early 1960s Sony engineers continued to introduce new, miniaturized products based on the transistor, including an AM/FM radio and a videotape recorder. By 1968 Sony engineers had developed new color-television technology. Using one electron gun, for more accurate beam alignment, and one lens, for better focus, the Sony Trinitron produced a clearer image than conventional three-gun, three-lens sets. In what has been described as its biggest gamble, Sony, confident that technology alone would create new markets, invested a large amount of capital in the Trinitron. Also in 1968, Sony Overseas established a trading office in England, and entered into a joint venture with CBS Inc. to produce phonograph records. The venture was under the direction of Norio Ohga, the art student who had complained about Sony's early tape recorder, whom Morita had persuaded in 1959 to give up opera and join Sony. The company, called CBS/Sony, later became the largest record manufacturer in Japan. In 1970 Sony Overseas established a subsidiary in West Germany to handle sales in that country. 1970s: Betamax and the Walkman After a decade of experience in videotape technology, Sony introduced the U-matic three-quarter-inch videocassette recorder (VCR) in 1971. Intended for institutions such as television stations, the U-matic received an Emmy Award for engineering excellence from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. In 1973, the year Sony Overseas created a French subsidiary, the academy honored the Trinitron series with another Emmy. Sony developed its first VCR for the consumer market, the Betamax, in 1975. The following year the Walt Disney Company and Universal Pictures filed a lawsuit against Sony, complaining that the new machine would enable widespread copyright infringement of television programs. A judgment in favor of Sony in 1979 was reversed two years later. Litigation continued, but by the time the matter
  13. 13. 13 reached the U.S. Supreme Court the plaintiffs' original case had been severely undermined by the proliferation of VCRs, making any legal restriction on copying television programs for private use nearly impossible to enforce. During the mid-1970s, competitors such as U.S.-based RCA and Zenith and Japanese-based Toshiba and Victor Company of Japan (JVC) effectively adopted and improved upon technologies developed by Sony. For the first time, Sony began to lose significant market share, often in lines that it had pioneered. Strong competition, however, was only one factor that caused Sony's sales growth to fall (after growing 166 percent between 1970 and 1974, it grew only 35 percent between 1974 and 1978). Like many Sony officials, Akio Morita lacked formal management training. Instead, he relied on his personal persuasive skills and his unusual ability to anticipate or create markets for new products. In typical fashion, Sony introduced the Betamax VCR well before its competitors, in effect creating a market in which it would enjoy a short-term monopoly. At this stage, however, Morita failed to establish the Betamax format as the industry standard by inviting the participation of other companies. Matsushita Electric (which owned half of JVC) developed a separate VCR format called VHS (video home system), which permitted as many as three additional hours of playing time on a tape, but which was incompatible with Sony's Betamax. When the VHS was introduced in 1977, Morita was reported to have felt betrayed that Sony's competitors did not adopt the Betamax format. He appealed to 81-year- old Konosuke Matsushita, in many ways a patriarch of Japanese industry, to discontinue the VHS format in favor of Betamax. When Matsushita refused, many believed it was because he felt insulted by Morita's failure to offer earlier collaboration. Matsushita launched a vigorous marketing campaign to convince customers and other manufacturers not only that VHS was superior, but that Betamax would soon be obsolete. The marketing war between Matsushita and Sony was neither constructive nor profitable; both companies were forced to lower prices so much
  14. 14. 14 that profits were greatly depressed. Although Betamax was generally considered a technically superior product, the VHS format grew in popularity and gradually displaced Betamax as a standard format. Despite its falling market share (from 13 percent in 1982 to 5 percent in 1987), Sony refused to introduce a VHS line until the late 1980s. In 1979 Morita personally oversaw the development of a compact cassette tape player called the Walkman. Inspired by Norio Ohga's desire to listen to music while walking, Morita ordered the development of a small, high-fidelity tape player, to be paired with small, lightweight headphones that were already under development. The entire program took only five months from start to finish, and the product's success is now legendary--Walkman even became the generic term for similar devices produced by Sony's competitors. 1980s: CD Player, Video Cameras, CBS Records, Columbia Pictures During the 1970s, Masaru Ibuka, 12 years Morita's senior, gradually relinquished many of his duties to younger managers such as Norio Ohga, who was named president of Sony in 1982. Ohga became president shortly after a corporate reorganization that split Sony into five operating groups (marketing and sales, manufacturing, service, engineering, and diversified operations). While not formally trained in business, Ohga nonetheless understood that Sony was too dependent on an unstable consumer electronics market. In one of his first acts, he inaugurated the 50-50 program to increase sales in institutional markets from 15 to 50 percent by 1990. During this time, Sony's research and development budget consumed approximately 9 percent of sales (Matsushita budgeted only 4 percent). Another groundbreaking result of Sony's commitment to research and development was a machine that used a laser to reproduce music recorded digitally on a small plastic disk. The compact disk (or CD) player, introduced by Sony in 1982, eliminated much of the noise common to conventional, analog phonograph records. Sony
  15. 15. 15 developed the CD in association with the Dutch electronics firm Philips, partly in an effort to ensure broad format standardization. Philips, which had developed the most advanced laser technology, was an ideal partner for Sony, which led in the pulse-code technology that made digital sound reproduction possible. Soon the CD format was adopted by competing manufacturers; by the mid-1990s it had virtually replaced phonograph systems as the recording medium of choice. Early in the 1980s, Morita began ceding some of his duties to Sony's president, Norio Ohga, the young opera student hired 30 years earlier to improve Sony's tape recorders. Under Ohga, Sony entered into a new acquisitions phase with the intent of protecting itself from the costly mistake it had made with Betamax. One example of the changes Ohga brought about was Sony's video camera, introduced in 1985. Lighter, less expensive, and more portable than VHS cameras, the camera used 8mm videotape, and was incompatible with both Betamax and VHS machines. The key difference between this and earlier Sony products was that Sony developed the new 8mm video format in conjunction with over 100 competitors. While the camera may have been incompatible with the older Betamax and VHS technologies, Sony ensured that it would be compatible with the next generation of video cameras. Within three years of its introduction, the camera captured over 50 percent of the European, 30 percent of the Japanese, and 20 percent of the North American markets. In May 1984 Sony purchased Apple Computer's hard-disk-technology operations. As a result of this acquisition, Sony was able to control about 20 percent of the Japanese market for workstations, personal computers used in business offices, thus helping to increase the proportion of its sales derived from institutional customers. Ohga also broke a decades-old tradition in 1984 when he established a division to manufacture and market electronics components for other companies. By 1988, fueled by strong sales of semiconductors (once manufactured only for Sony products), the components division had grown to represent about 11 percent of Sony's total sales. Sony also sought to gain control of the software end of the
  16. 16. 16 electronics/entertainment industry. On November 29, 1985 the Sony Corporation of America, which operated several assembly plants in the United States, purchased the Digital Audio Disk Corporation from its affiliate CBS/Sony. Two years later, Sony purchased CBS Records for $2 billion. CBS Records, whose labels included Epic and Columbia, was during this time the largest producer of records and tapes in the world. Sony had learned through its Betamax experience that a superior product alone would not ensure market dominance; had Sony been able to flood the market with exclusively Beta-formatted movies, the VCR battle might have turned out differently. Looking toward the future development of audio equipment, including digital audio tape (DAT), Sony bought the record manufacturer with an eye toward guaranteeing that the products it manufactured to play music would remain compatible with the medium used to record music. The acquisition marked less of a diversification for Sony than an evolution toward dominance in a specific market. Sony sought further diversification in U.S. entertainment companies. In 1988, the company considered an acquisition of MGM/UA Communications Company, but decided the price was too high. Then in 1989 Sony made headlines around the world when it bought Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc. from Coca-Cola for $3.4 billion. Columbia provided Sony with an extensive film library and a strong U.S. distribution system. It also carried $1 billion in debt, which almost tripled Sony's short-term debt to around ¥8 billion. Industry analysts applauded the move; when a recession hit the film industry shortly after Sony's purchase, however, some began to question Sony's ability to deliver its traditionally strong profits.
  17. 17. 17 1990s and Beyond: PlayStation, VAIO, and the Networked Future Sony did deliver, however, posting record earnings in 1990 of ¥58.2 billion ($384 million), a 38.5 percent increase over 1989. In 1992, Columbia Pictures and its subsidiary TriStar jointly captured 20 percent of the U.S. market share, far above the shares held by competing studios. By this time the entertainment operation had been renamed Sony Pictures Entertainment, Inc. The complexities of operating a truly multinational corporation, however, began taking their toll on Sony. Most of the world's largest economies (Europe, Japan, and the United States) were experiencing a slowdown in the early 1990s. This factor created what Sony called 'an unprecedentedly challenging operating environment.' Although sales in most of Sony's businesses increased in 1992, operating income dropped 44 percent to ¥166 billion ($1.2 billion). Net income increased slightly to ¥120 billion. The ongoing appreciation of the yen against most major currencies had an even more adverse effect on Sony's bottom line in 1993: net income fell a dramatic 70 percent to ¥36 billion ($313 million) on sales of ¥3.99 trillion ($34.4 billion). Had the yen's value held steady at 1992 figures, Sony's net income would have totaled about ¥190 billion ($1.3 billion). During that year, Ohga assumed the duties of chief executive in addition to his role as president. He and Morita responded to Sony's tough economic situation by bolstering marketing, reducing inventory levels, streamlining operations, and keeping a watchful control of capital investments. The company also embarked on an extensive reorganization effort with the goal of decentralizing operations and reducing unnecessary management. Despite these measures, Sony was unable to stem the slide. Net income plummeted another 50 percent in 1994 to ¥15 billion, on sales of ¥3.73 trillion. By this time Morita had relinquished virtually all his duties in the company, having suffered a stroke in late 1993. In Sony's 1994 annual report, his picture and signature were conspicuously absent from the letter to shareholders, implicitly
  18. 18. 18 announcing Ohga's new leadership position. Under Morita's leadership, Sony's rise to preeminence in the world consumer electronics market was almost entirely self- achieved; Sony outperformed not only its Japanese rivals, among them associates of the former zaibatsu (conglomerate) companies, but also larger American firms, which by 1995 had all but abandoned the consumer electronics market. In the late 1980s Morita told Business Week that he regarded Sony Corporation as a 'venture business' for the Morita family, which had produced several generations of mayors and whose primary business remained the 300-year-old Morita & Company. Under the direction of Akio Morita's younger brother Kuzuaki, Morita & Company produced sake, soy sauce, and Ninohimatsu brand rice wine in Nagoya. The company, whose initial $500 investment in TTK was worth $430 million in 1995, owned a 9.4 percent share of Sony. In April 1995, Ohga ascended to the chairmanship of Sony, and Morita was made an honorary chairman. The company's new president was Nobuyuki Idei, a 34-year veteran of the company, who had founded Sony's French subsidiary in 1970 and had since played a role in many of the company's major accomplishments, including audio CD technology, computer workstations, and the 8mm video camcorder. Sony's success had been a direct result of the wisdom of its founders, who had the talent to anticipate the demands of consumers and to develop products to meet those demands; Idei's presidency, some suggested, signaled a new era for the company. Immediate among Idei's concerns were helping Sony become an integral player in the information highway industry. He also hoped to help the company establish an industry standard for DVDs, or digital videodisks, CD-like disks capable of holding full-length films for play on television screens via players. Once again, Sony had teamed up with Philips to develop a DVD format, but the partners quickly discovered they were facing a rival format developed by Toshiba and Time Warner. This rival format quickly gained the support of a number of the world's consumer electronics powerhouses. Rather than face a replay of the bloody battle between
  19. 19. 19 the Betamax and VHS formats, Sony and Philips in late 1995 agreed to support the DVD format developed by Toshiba and Time Warner. Sony subsequently introduced its first DVD player in March 1997. Meanwhile, Sony unexpectedly entered the video game market in the mid-1990s, making an immediate splash. The development of the Sony PlayStation had actually begun in the late 1980s as a joint project with game giant Nintendo Co., Ltd. Nintendo had agreed to help develop a new game console that would combine the graphic capabilities of a computer workstation with Sony's CD-ROM drive, but then pulled out of the project in 1992. Sony decided to develop the new machine solo, introducing the 32-bit PlayStation to the Japanese market in 1994 and the U.S. market one year later. It was an immediate and huge success, in part because of the hundreds of software titles that were quickly available for the console thanks to Sony's ability to entice top Japanese and U.S. developers to create games for the PlayStation. By 1998, the PlayStation had grabbed about 40 percent of the worldwide game market, and Sony's game unit, Sony Computer Entertainment, accounted for 10 percent of the company's worldwide revenue and a whopping 22.5 percent of its operating income. Unfortunately, the mid-1990s were also marked by continued problems at Sony Pictures Entertainment. Top management at the motion picture arm spent hundreds of millions of dollars on a string of flops, such as Last Action Hero and Geronimo, in addition to spending lavishly on hiring, studio renovations, and other expenses. Sony ended up taking a $3.2 billion write-off--one of the largest ever by a Japanese company--related to the entertainment unit during the fiscal year ending in March 1995; consequently, the company posted a net loss for the year of $2.8 billion (on sales of $44.76 billion). A major management shakeup occurred as well. As Sony attempted to turn around its motion picture unit, in electronics the company surprised many observers by entering the crowded and low-margin personal computer business in 1997. That year, through a partnership with Intel, Sony began selling its VAIO line of PCs. Including both desktop and notebook
  20. 20. 20 models, the line received plaudits for its quality but got off to a slow start in the United States thanks to its above-average price tags. Sony designed the VAIO computers specifically for the home market, and they sported unique features that made them particularly well-suited to consumers who owned other Sony products. For example, software and ports were included to allow owners of Sony camcorders to transfer their home videos to the VAIO PC and to edit and manipulate the videos in a variety of ways. Sony also continued to stay on the cutting edge in the venerable television field, introducing its first flat-screen TV in 1996 and its first digital, high-definition model two years later. Also in 1998 came the launch of AIBO, a robot dog, which was touted as having the capability of expressing emotions and learning. During 1999, a year that saw the passing of company cofounder Morita (the other founder, Ibuka, died in 1997), Idei launched a sweeping reorganization to position the company for the future--in Sony's vision, 'the network era of the 21st century.' In March 1999 Sony announced that it planned to cut its workforce by 10 percent and its manufacturing capacity by one-third before 2003. The cutbacks were slated for areas where growth had been slowing: analog televisions, VCRs, and Walkmans. The company planned to increase the amount of resources committed to such hot areas as digital products and the PlayStation, as well as placing increased emphasis on developing software, hardware, and services for the new networks that were beginning to emerge at the end of the 20th century--home networks, broadband networks, wireless networks. For Idei, the key for Sony was a historic shift in focus: hardware had traditionally driven product development, but Idei instead wanted software development and services to drive hardware design. Perhaps the first example of such an approach came with the 2000 introduction of the Sony PlayStation 2. Although it was a technical marvel featuring high-end 3-D graphics and more processing power than most desktop PCs, the 128-bit PlayStation 2 was much more than a souped-up version of the original. It was of course designed for game software but it was not just a game console, having been conceived as a home entertainment center. Its DVD drive not only played game software but also audio CDs and DVD movies. It had the capability of connecting to
  21. 21. 21 the Internet and as such could be used as a broadband device controlling an Internet-connected home network. Despite manufacturing difficulties that limited production during the first year, the PlayStation 2 had a stellar debut, with about nine million units sold in the first 12 months. The high costs associated with developing and manufacturing the machines, however, depressed profits at Sony for the 2001 fiscal year. Also in the wake of its debut came rival Sega's exit from the game console business in favor of concentrating on developing game titles for other companies' machines, including the PlayStation 2. Sony continued to face competition in the game field from Nintendo, which planned to release a new machine in the fall of 2001, and faced the prospect of a new competitor, Microsoft Corporation, which was also planning a fall 2001 release of its XBox machine. In June 2000 Idei was named chairman and CEO of Sony, while Kunitake Ando, who had headed the VAIO unit, was named president and COO. Rounding out the new management team was Teruhisa Tokunaka, a former head of the PlayStation unit, who was named deputy president and CFO. The new team faced a myriad of challenges in the rapidly changing high-tech world of the early 21st century. One example was in Sony's music business, which was being rocked by the industry- wide threat of the rampant and unauthorized downloading of digital music files over the Internet. Sony joined other music giants in suing Napster, the most obvious threat to their hegemony. The company also entered into a joint venture with Vivendi Universal S.A. to develop an online subscription service that would allow music downloads through what was called a 'virtual jukebox.' Such a service was part of a new push by Sony into broadband delivery of the audio and video material owned by its content arms. With its aggressive moves in the areas of games, networking, and delivery of digital content, Sony was almost certain to remain a frontrunner in the ever broadening field of consumer electronics and related platforms and services. Principal Subsidiaries: Aiwa Co. Ltd. (50.6%); Intervision Inc.; Sony Ichinomiya Corporation; Sony Inazawa Corporation; Sony Oita Corporation; Sony Enterprise Co., Ltd.; Sony Kisarazu Corporation; Sony Kita Kanto Corporation; Kibo Industry Corporation; Sony Chemicals Corporation; Sony Kohda Corporation; Sony Kokubu
  22. 22. 22 Corporation; Sony Communication Network Corporation; Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.; Sony Components Chiba Corporation; Sony Siroisi Semiconductor Inc.; Sony Life Insurance Co., Ltd.; Sony Senmaya Corporation; Sony Assurance Inc.; Sony/Taiyo Corporation; Sony Digital Products Inc.; Sony Denshi Corporation; Sony Tochigi Corporation; Sony Trading International Corp.; Sony Nagasaki Corporation; Sony Nakaniida Corporation; Sony Neagari Corporation; Sony Hamamatsu Corporation; Sony Pictures Entertainment (Japan) Inc.; Sony Pictures Television Japan Inc.; Sony PCL Inc.; Sony Finance International, Inc.; Sony Plaza Co., Ltd.; Sony Precision Technology Inc.; Sony Broadcast Products Corporation; Sony Broadcast Media Co., Ltd.; Sony Bronson Corporation; Sony Marketing Co., Ltd.; Sony Max Corporation; Sony Mizunami Corporation; Sony Minokamo Corporation; Sony Miyagi Corporation; Sony Music Entertainment (Japan) Inc.; Sony Logistics Corporation; Sony of Canada Ltd.; Sony Computer Entertainment America Inc. (U.S.A.); Sony Corporation of America (U.S.A.); Sony Electronics Inc. (U.S.A.); Sony Latin America Inc. (U.S.A.); Sony Magnetic Products Inc. of America (U.S.A.); Sony Music Entertainment Inc. (U.S.A.); Sony Pictures Entertainment Inc. (U.S.A.); Sony Argentina S.A.; Sony Comercio e Industria Ltda. (Brazil); Sony Componentes Ltda. (Brazil); Sony da Amazonia Ltda. (Brazil); Sony Chile Ltda.; Sony de Mexico S.A. de C.V.; Sony Corporation of Panama, S.A.; Sony Puerto Rico, Inc.; Sony de Venezuela S.A.; Sony Austria GmbH; Sony DADC Austria A.G.; Sony Service Centre (Europe) N.V. (Belgium); Sony Czech, spol. s.r.o.; Sony Nordic A/S (Denmark); Sony France S.A.; Sony Berlin G.m.b.H. (Germany); Sony Deutschland G.m.b.H. (Germany); Sony Europe GmbH (Germany); Sony International (Europe) G.m.b.H. (Germany); Sony Hungaria kft (Hungary); Sony Italia S.p.A. (Italy); Sony Logistics Europe B.V. (Netherlands); Sony Poland Sp.z.o.o.; Sony Portugal Ltda.; Sony C.I.S. A/O (Russia); Sony Slovakia Spol. Sr. O.; Sony España, S.A. (Spain); Sony Overseas S.A. (Switzerland); Sony Eurasia Pazarlama A.S. (Turkey); Sony United Kingdom Limited; Sony Computer Entertainment Europe Limited (U.K.); Sony Entertainment Holdings Europe Ltd. (U.K.); Sony (China) Limited (Beijing); Sony Corporation of Hong Kong Ltd.; Sony International (Hong Kong) Ltd.; Sony India Limited; P.T. Sony Indonesia; P.T. Sony Electronics Indonesia; Sony Electronics of Korea Corp.;
  23. 23. 23 Sony Electronics (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.; Sony Technology (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.; Sony Philippines, Inc.; Sony Electronics (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.; Sony Industries Taiwan Co., Ltd.; Sony Video Taiwan Co., Ltd.; Sony Magnetic Products (Thailand) Co., Ltd.; Sony Mobile Electronics (Thailand) Co., Ltd.; Sony Semiconductor (Thailand) Co., Ltd.; Sony Siam Industries Co., Ltd. (Thailand); Sony Thai Co. Ltd. (Thailand); Sony Vietnam Limited; Sony Australia Ltd.; Sony New Zealand Ltd.; Sony Gulf FZE (United Arab Emirates); Sony South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. Principal Competitors: Nintendo Co., Ltd.; Matsushita Electric Corporation; Motorola, Inc.; Hitachi, Ltd.; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; Toshiba Corporation; Yamaha Corporation; Victor Company of Japan, Limited; Sharp Corporation; Bose Corporation; Samsung Group; Pioneer Corporation; SANYO Electric Co., Ltd.; Canon Inc.; AOL Time Warner Inc.; BASF Aktiengesellschaft; Bertelsmann AG; Compaq Computer Corporation; Daewoo Group; Dell Computer Corporation; EMI Group plc; Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.; Fujitsu Limited; Harman International Industries, Incorporated; International Business Machines Corporation; Intel Corporation; LG Electronics Inc.; Microsoft Corporation; NEC Corporation; Nokia Corporation; Oki Electric Industry Company Limited; Viacom Inc.; Virgin Group Ltd.; Vivendi Universal S.A.; The Walt Disney Company.
  24. 24. 24 Chronology Key Dates: 1946: Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka found Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (TTK). 1950: TTK introduces the first Japanese tape recorder. 1955: TTK begins selling Japan's first transistor radio; company goes public. 1958: Company's name is changed to Sony Corporation. 1960: Sony introduces the world's first transistor television. 1968: The revolutionary Sony Trinitron color television debuts; Sony enters the record business through a joint venture with CBS Inc. 1975: Company launches the Betamax VCR. 1979: The Sony Walkman is introduced. 1982: Sony introduces the first CD player. 1985: Company introduces its first 8mm video camera. 1987: CBS Records, and its Epic and Columbia labels, is acquired for $2 billion. 1989: Columbia Pictures is acquired for $3.4 billion. 1994: The Sony PlayStation debuts. 1997: The VAIO line of PCs for the home market is launched. 2000: The PlayStation 2, featuring enhanced graphics, processing power, and DVD and broadband capabilities, is released.
  25. 25. 25 Sony story It was in 1946 that Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita together with a small team of passionate and committed group of employees started to build “Tokyo Tsushin Kenkyujo” (Totsuko) or “Tokyo Telecommunications Research Institute” into the billion dollar global conglomerate that it is today. The main objective of the company was to design and create innovative products which would benefit the people.From early attempts at creating products like the rice-cooker to the later success of creating Japan‟s first magnetic recorder, the innovative company went on to create other hit products which won the company widespread recognition and international acclaim as a truly global company known for its quality and innovative products. Significant product milestones included Japan‟s first transistor radio (1955), Trinitron colour television (1968), Walkman personal stereo (1979), Handycam video camera (1989), PlayStation (1994), Blu-ray Disc recorder (2003) and PlayStation 3 (2006).The company name of Sony was created by combining two words of “sonus” and “sonny”. The word “sonus” in Latin represents words like sonic sound. The other word “sonny” means little son. Used in combination, Sony is supposed to represent a very small group of young people who have the energy and passion towards unlimited creations and innovative ideas. With the far-sight of expanding worldwide, it was in 1958 that the company formally adopted “Sony Corporation” as its corporate name. Easy to pronounce and read in any language, the name Sony, which has a lively ring to it, fits comfortably with the spirit of freedom and open-mindedness.
  26. 26. 26 List of SONY Products BRAVIA The era of High Definition has arrived and Sony‟s Bravia LCD TVs are here to help you fully enjoy its advantages. Innovation, creativity and technology come into play in the creation of our LCD TVs, bringing an unprecedented level of realism and stunning clarity to your movies, both visually and aurally. With slim and stylish designs, Bravia LCDs can fit anywhere in your home. Additional features like faster response time and PC connectivity help create the full entertainment experience. X Series Precision colour reproduction and high quality screen resolution are the key factors when creating the Bravia X-Series. Including features like a Full HD (1920 x 1080) LCD panel, Live Colour Creation and Sony‟s intelligent picture enhancement technology- the Bravia Engine, your movies will come alive. The X-Series also offers astounding stereo sound to match the spectacular visuals, providing you a wholesome entertainment experience. Watching movies at home is never the same again. W Series The era of High Definition has arrived and Sony‟s Bravia LCD TVs are here to help you fully enjoy its advantages. Innovation, creativity and technology come into play in the creation of our LCD TVs, bringing an unprecedented level of realism and stunning clarity to your movies, both visually and aurally. With slim and stylish designs, Bravia LCDs can fit anywhere in your home. Additional features like faster response time and PC connectivity help create the full entertainment experience. V Series Enjoy stunning image quality and convenience with Sony‟s LCD Bravia V-Series, which on top of an unprecedented degree of detail, also provides high connectivity,
  27. 27. 27 thanks to the HDMI input that allows you to link up to any other HD sources like Blu-ray players, PlayStation 3 gaming console and HD camcorders. It delivers an uncompressed, all digital audio/ video interface between your Bravia TV and any HDMI-equipped audio/video components. Turn your viewing into an incredible experience now. S Series The Sony Bravia LCD S-Series follows in the Sony Bravia line of high performance and stylish LCD TVs. Thanks to Sony‟s unique S-PVA technology; you can now enjoy vivid colours, wide viewing angles and quick response time. Designed to be versatile, the S-Series is equipped with an extensive range of input interfaces; the PC input allows your TV to double up as a computer monitor; while with HDMI, you can hook your TV up with other compatible players. Experience the world of high definition now. G Series With Sony‟s Bravia LCD G series, you get to enjoy stylish design and superior image and sound quality. Be it for home or office use, you will find the G-series a great addition. The TVs come with user-friendly navigation, convenient front mounted controls, and an easily comprehensible remote control. You can also adjust the angle of the TV to suit viewers‟ position with the base stand that can tilt, or choose to mount it on the wall with the Sony wall mounting bracket. Home Theatre System Combining the latest in video and audio technologies, Sony has developed a series of Home Theatre Systems that provides you with an enhanced home theatre experience. Our up scaling DVD players ensure the delivery of the best in video performance while our Digital Signal Processing guarantees a surround sound environment. Some are even compatible with the latest digital television and have dedicated audio input for connecting to your portable digital music players.
  28. 28. 28 Cyber-shot (Digital Camera) Everyone can be a photographer with the wide range of Cyber-shot cameras of Sony that aim to provide you utmost satisfaction. Packed with plentiful features like Super Steady Shot, High Sensitivity and Real Imaging Processor, you can be sure that each of our Cyber-shot cameras delivers a superior performance. To complement their functions, Sony has also developed a series of accessories that specifically caters to the Cyber-shot range. Handycam (Video Camera) It doesn‟t matter if you are making family videos, filming documentaries or developing feature films. Whatever the purpose, we have the right kind of camcorder you need and can afford. Sony‟s Handycam® Camcorders have a variety of different features and functions that help deliver spectacular video performances of stunning clarity. VAIO Combining form, function and the latest in technology, Sony provides a range of IT and computing devices, storage media, accessories and peripherals to better serve all your IT needs. PlayStation Gaming would not be the same without the invention of the Sony PlayStation series. In addition to the highly popular PlayStation 2, there‟s the handy PlayStation Portable and next-generation console PLAYSTATION 3. Powerful consoles must be accompanied with compelling games, and Sony offers games of all genres to match your gaming preference. X-plod If you spend long hours in your car everyday, it‟s important to equip it with enough entertainment so that you‟ll never have a dull moment. Car audio entertainment
  29. 29. 29 need not be limited to just your favorite radio stations or CDs. Thanks to Sony Xplod mobile entertainment technology, you can enjoy music from more sources. You now can even experience visual entertainment with our innovative Touch- Screen Multimedia Centre receiver. Riding the car is never the same experience again. Hi-Fi System Audiophiles need look no further than Sony‟s selection of high-power Hi-Fi Systems that can fill your whole room with high quality stereo sounds, thanks to superb speakers and powerful components. Sony Ericsson With Sony Ericsson‟s colourful and innovative collection of mobile phones, you can definitely find one that will fit into your lifestyle, budget and shows off your character. We‟ve also created a series of handy mobile phone accessories so you can spruce up your mobile phone‟s appearance, prevent it from damage, or enhance its usage WEGA (CRT) TV It‟s all about features, quality, style and price with Sony‟s CRT TVs. Our range of CRT TVs offer analog and digital high-definition inputs, superior audio features and picture-enhancing technologies for superior visual and aural results.
  30. 30. 30 Sony: The Leader in Product Innovation The new millennium is here and Sony has plenty to celebrate. The company‟s approach – doing what others don‟t – has paid off, in the form of great products that people covet. Throughout its history, Sony has demonstrated an ability to capture the imagination and enhance people‟s lives. The company has been at the cutting edge of technology for more than 50 years, positively impacting the way we live. Further, few companies are as well positioned to drive the digital age into homes and businesses around the world for the next 50 years and beyond. Sony innovations have become part of mainstream culture, including: the first magnetic tape and tape recorder in 1950; the transistor radio in 1955; the world‟s first all-transistor TV set in 1960; the world‟s first color video cassette recorder in 1971; the Walkman personal stereo in 1979; the Compact Disc (CD) in 1982; the first 8mm camcorder in 1985; the MiniDisc (MD) player in 1992; the PlayStation game system in 1995; Digital Mavica camera in 1997; Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) player in 1998; and the Network Walkman digital music player in 1999. Today, Sony continues to fuel industry growth with the sales of innovative Sony products, as well as with the company‟s convergence strategy. Examples include: VAIO notebooks that raise the bar in both form and function; digital cameras that capture pictures on a floppy disk, CD-R or Memory Stick; a handheld device that lets you store and view photos as well as moving photo; MiniDisc recorders with a digital PC Link to marry high quality digital audio with downloadable music; DVD/CD multi-disc changers that playback both audio and video; digital network recorders that pause, rewind and fast-forward "live" television using a hard-disc drive; and Hi-Scan flat screen TVs that deliver near HDTV picture quality through
  31. 31. 31 Digital Reality Creation (DRC) circuitry. But Sony is not just the market leader in consumer electronics. Through research and development, the company has made considerable inroads in the areas of professional broadcasting (with the creation of the Betacam, DVCAM, HDCAM and 24P formats); mobile communications (with digital phones and the CLIE handheld); PCs (with VAIO notebook and desktop computers); storage and media (with the invention of the floppy disk, AIT and DTF drives, and the Memory Stick) and, now, the Internet. Sony‟s future brand success will be determined by how the company meets the challenges of change. Sony has always led the market in terms of innovation. But in a digital networked world, products will no longer be developed with just hardware in mind. The convergence of technologies – consumer electronics, computing and telecommunications – is a reality, with new competitors forming and consumer mindshare up for grabs. Broadband Network Era Sony is a corporation with convergence at its very heart. Driven by an integrated business model, the company is well positioned to bring new benefits to consumers by combining hardware, software, content and services. Sony‟s approach is to make it possible for consumers to enjoy various forms of content on both "home networks," consisting of connected electronic devices, and "mobile networks" that are accessible through mobile terminals. Products such as the i.LINK® interface and Memory Stick® digital storage media provide greater connectivity between digital devices and will help create seamless home and personal networks.
  32. 32. 32 From a hardware perspective, Sony‟s strategy is focused on four gateways to the networked world: 1) Digital televisions and set-top boxes; 2) VAIO personal computers; 3) Mobile devices, such as the CLIE handheld devices and digital phones; and 4) PlayStation2 game consoles. The company‟s software strategy includes the development of new audio-visual applications designed to personalize technology. Recent examples include updated Open MG Jukebox music management software, and digital video editing products, such as PictureGear, MovieShaker and DVGate. Sony‟s vision is to give consumers easy, ubiquitous access to entertainment and information anytime, anywhere – no matter whether the content comes from cable, satellite, terrestrial, packaged media or the Internet. In the company‟s view, the Internet is an "e.Playground" where consumers can collect, share and manage everything from data and text information, to digital images, movie clips and music. The result: New ways to enjoy Sony products. Sony is also giving consumers new reasons to visit the Internet, including the recent launch of SonyStyle.com, a new information rich, e-commerce site for everything Sony. Designed to build a closer relationship between Sony and its customers, the site will offer a variety of commerce, content, community and connectivity options planned for the near future. Other new service offerings include www.ImageStation.com and www.eMarker.com. ImageStation.com helps consumers create, share and enjoy digital pictures and video. The service offers free online albums and eCards, and members can share their favorite pictures as gifts, keepsakes and high-quality prints in a variety of sizes. Select Sony hardware and accessories are also
  33. 33. 33 available for purchase in the ImageStation.com store. eMarker.com is an online service that puts an end to the most frustrating part of hearing a song on the radio -- not knowing the title or the artist‟s name. By pressing the button on the tiny eMarker device, people can "eMark" songs they hear on the radio and locate the information through the site. Sony has been at the forefront of the movement to help consumers adopt digital lifestyles, which, in a broadband network era, means helping them maximize the power and control found within digital technology. However, even in this broadband network era, one fact about Sony remains the same: the company‟s fundamental philosophy of providing products that are fun to use. Sony‟s vision is not necessarily about refrigerators talking to toasters. It‟s about bringing to market products that capture the imaginations of consumers and enhance their lives in the process. In the future, look for Sony to create entirely new forms of entertainment, blending movies, computer generated worlds, games and music. Sony has the vision, technology and content to forge a direction in consumer entertainment that no other company can match.
  34. 34. 34 Promoting a World Class Brand The phenomenal strength of the Sony brand worldwide is surely a testament to the company‟s reputation for producing innovative products of exceptional quality and value. And while traditional brand theory says brand essence should be narrowed down to one element, Sony celebrates brand diversity -- with the Trinitron, VAIO and Walkman sub-brands, to name just a few, each connecting with consumers across various lifestyle segments. Sony has the brand recognition and marketing savvy to create new product categories and revitalize mature ones. Look no further than what the company did with the Walkman brand and for the MiniDisc format.Sony, the company that changed the way the world listens to music with the introduction of the Walkman personal stereo, again set its sights on transforming the portable music landscape when it kicked off a comprehensive, integrated marketing campaign to relaunch the Walkman brand in June 2000. Titled "The Walkman Has Landed," the marketing campaign, which included broadcast, print and online advertising; Internet and dealer events/promotions; and grassroots consumer and public relations components; strategically communicated the lifestyle attributes of the Sony Walkman line to generation Y, its primary target market. Additionally, the campaign brought together an entirely new product line up comprised of CD Walkman, MD Walkman and Network Walkman personal digital audio players. The company knew that it needed to reinvent the Walkman brand for today‟s younger, more digitally inclined music lovers. (To many, the brand had become generic, representing "older," analog-based cassette technology.) Sony promoted a new Walkman ideology based on personal freedom, independence, imagination and creativity in a way that appealed to new techno-savvy, style-conscious consumers who favor digital downloading and ripping CDs. The star of the television commercial from the campaign is an alien character
  35. 35. 35 named Plato, who is "quintessentially diverse and knows how to have fun." His persona offers Gen Y a bit of humor and a good dose of enjoyment. Another example of Sony‟s ability to reposition itself and its products is found in the MiniDisc. A huge success in Japan, where it has become the dominant recording format, MD did not become a success in the U.S. until it was marketed as a digital music player that could record from the Internet. With its inexpensive media and versatility (units are capable of recording Internet music, tracks from personal CD collections and favorite songs off the radio), MD has become a gen Y favorite. U.S. sales have increased by more than 40% since the MD to PC link was introduced. However, the company doesn‟t just rely on brilliantly executed advertising campaigns to secure consumer attention. The company utilizes world class public relations to enhance Sony‟s value, reputation and brand image. Communications campaigns are conducted on both an individual product and strategic platform basis. This process ensures exposure for the company‟s most important products as well as for the company‟s role in key industry issues that cross multiple product categories and disciplines, including electronic music distribution and digital television
  36. 36. 36 Brand Values When remarking about the importance of the Sony brand name, consider this quote from Chairman of the Board, Norio Ohga: "In April of every year a large number of new employees join the company. And what I always say to them is that we have many marvelous assets here. The most valuable asset of all are the four letters, S, O, N, Y. I tell them, make sure the basis of your actions is increasing the value of these four letters. In other words, when you consider doing something, you must consider whether your action will increase the value of SONY, or lower its value." In the minds of consumers, Sony is one of the world‟s greatest brands -- the company was once again rated the number one brand in the U.S. by the 2000 Harris poll. As noted, much of the brand equity Sony enjoys is rooted in product innovations. However, to ensure the future of its brand, the company recently embarked on an extensive, company-wide initiative in the U.S. designed to foster a common understanding of the Sony brand among employees, customers and consumers. The project, dubbed Being Sony, was necessitated because of expansive company growth, an influx of new employees, and converging business opportunities. Sony executives felt the need to clearly articulate the meaning and values inherent in the Sony brand (to both internal and external constituencies), while re-examining the unique relationship of the brand in American culture. Despite involvement in disparate businesses, the company‟s desire is to leverage the brand beyond the products -- the primary touchpoint with consumers, and add to the brand‟s value by re-focusing it to the outside world. In essence, Sony, the box manufacturer, is being replaced by a new Sony – a customer-centric entity centered around broadband entertainment, yet driven by the venture spirit of Sony‟s founding days.
  37. 37. 37 We Help Dreamers Dream Sony is a company devoted to the CELEBRATION of life. We create things for every kind of IMAGINATION. Products that stimulate the SENSES and refresh the spirit. Ideas that always surprise and never disappoint. INNOVATIONS that are easy to love, and EFFORTLESS to use, things that are not essential, yet hard to live without. We are not here to be logical. Or predictable. We‟re here to pursue INFINITE possibilities. We allow the BRIGHTEST minds to interact freely, so the UNEXPECTED can emerge. We invite new THINKING so even more fantastic ideas can evolve. CREATIVITY is our essence. We take chances. We EXCEED expectations. We help dreamers DREAM. Things You Didn’t Know About Sony Sony‟s first product was a rice cooker Sony establishes its first major overseas operation in New York City (514 Broadway) in 1960 with a capital investment of $500,000. Sony becomes the first Japanese company in the United States to make a public offering of 2 million shares of common stock in the form of American Depository Receipts (ADRs) in 1961. In 1986, Walkman was included in the Oxford English DictionaryBefore the Walkman personal stereo became a worldwide brand name, it was introduced under a variety of names, including the Soundabout in the U.S., the Stowaway in the UK and the Freestyle in Australia.
  38. 38. 38 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROPOSED RESEARCH 1. To study the buying pattern of people towards consumer goods. 2. To determine the major factors influencing the buying decision process of the target group. 3. To set out some basic marketing implications for the marketers to cater to different needs of the targets group. 4. To have some insights on the relationship between marketing stimuli and youth responses. 5. To serve as guideline for further research in this area
  39. 39. 39 Chapter -II LITERATURE REVIEW Literature review Moneesha Pachauri Nottingham University Business School The Marketing Review, 2002, 2, 319-355 Consumer Buying Behaviour: a Literature Review In order to develop a framework for the study consumer behaviour it is helpful to begin by considering the evolution of the field of consumer research and the different paradigms of thought that have influenced the discipline. As described in this article, a set of dimensions can be identified in the literature, which can be used to characterize and differentiate, the various perspectives on consumer research. It is argued that consumer behaviour itself emerged as a distinct field of study during the 1960s; and is characterized by two broad paradigms, the positivist and the non-positivist. The positivist paradigm encompasses the economic, behavioural, cognitive, motivational/trait/attitudinal, and situational perspectives; these perspectives are referred to as the traditional perspectives as they pre-date the development of the non-positivist paradigm. The positivist paradigm, which is still the dominant paradigm, emphasizes the supremacy of human reason and that there is a single, objective truth that can be discovered by science. This paradigm regards the world as a rational and ordered place with a clearly defined past, present, and future. The assumption of rationalism is therefore fundamental to the traditional perspective. The opposing, non-positivist paradigm, envelops the interpretive and postmodern perspectives, which have emerged more recently during the period post-1980 to date. The proponents of this emerging perspective argue that positivism overemphasizes the rational view and the ideology of a homogenous social culture and thereby denies the complex social and cultural world in which consumers live. This paradigm instead stresses, the importance of symbolic and subjective experience and the idea that consumers construct meanings based on unique and shared cultural experiences, and thus there can be no single unified world view. Unsurprisingly, the two paradigms differ in their views on the benefits derived from consumption and the objectives that underscore consumer research. The traditional, positivist
  40. 40. 40 perspective takes a very utilitarian approach to the benefits from consumption. While the non- positivist perspectives place much greater emphasis on the symbolic dimensions of choice. The objective of non-positivist research endeavour is to achieve a better understanding of consumer behaviour with no specific intent to influence consumer processes.Conversely, outcomes of positivist research are directed toward advancing the goals of marketing practice. By identifying the paradigmatic shifts within the field, this article aims to identify different streams of thought that could guide future consumer research. Introduction Consumer is the study “of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires” (Solomon 1995, 7). In the marketing context, the term „consumer ‟ refers not only to the act of purchase itself, but also to patterns of aggregate buying which include pre-purchase and post- purchase activities. Pre-purchase activity might consist of the growing awareness of a need or want, and a search for and evaluation of information about the products and brands that might satisfy it. Post-purchase activities include the evaluation of the purchased item in use and the reduction of any anxiety which accompanies the purchase of expensive and infrequently- bought items. Each of these has implications for purchase and repurchase and they are amenable in differing degrees to marketer influence (Foxall 1987). The Traditional Perspectives on Consumer Research This first section outlines the perspectives that emerged during the traditional-positivist era in consumer research. Thus, a brief discussion onthe early models of buyer behaviour, proposed by economists is presented,followed by a discussion on each of the traditional perspectives in consumerresearch that emerged thereafter. These are the behavioural, cognitive, trait, motivational, attitudinal, and situational viewpoints. Overall, the objective of this section is to outline the features and the central arguments of each of these perspectives. While a detailed analytical review of the paradigms is presented in section two, at this stage it is worth noting, that the traditional perspectives while diverse with respect to the many aspects of consumer behaviour they investigate, are fundamentally similar in terms of their philosophical and
  41. 41. 41 methodological bases for undertaking the examination of consumer issues. That is, they are built on the common foundations of “rationalism” and share allegiance to the principles of a single traditional, positivist-based approach to consumer research. The Rational Perspective The economists were the first to dominate model building, in the area of buying behaviour. The early economic view considered consumer behavior in terms of a single act of purchase itself, and post-purchase reactions. Economic theory holds that purchasing decisions are the result of largely “rational” and conscious economic calculations. Thus, the individual buyer seeks to spend his income on those goods that will deliver the most utility (satisfaction) according to his tastes and relative prices. The antecedents of this view can be traced back to Adam Smith (1776). Alfred Marshall (1890) consolidated the classical and neoclassical traditions in economics, into a refined theoretical framework which came to be known as the theory of marginal utility. His theoretical work aimed to simplify assumptions and thereby examine the effects of changes in single variables (e.g., price) holding all other variables constant. The Behavioural Perspective As mentioned above, in contrast to the economic view which underscores the importance of internal mental processes in consumer decision making, the behavioural perspective emphasizes the role of external environmental factors in the process of learning, which it is argued causes behaviour. the behaviourists approach the consumer, as a “black box” and thereby assume that consumer behaviour is a conditioned response to external events. The behavioural perspective therefore focuses on external environmental cues (such as advertising) that stimulate consumer response through learning. The strategic emphasis, of the behavioural modification theories, for example, are to devise a set of expanded behaviour modification techniques (e.g., respondent conditioning; operant conditioning; vicarious learning etc.) that can be used to influence, modify, and control consumer behaviour (Peter and Nord 1982). While a number of researchers have proposed models to study learning principles e.g.,
  42. 42. 42 Thorndike (1911); Watson and Rayner (1920), this view is represented by two major approaches to learning: classical conditioning and instrumental learning. The Cognitive Perspective In contrast to behavioural theories of learning, the cognitive perspective stresses the role of information processing in consumer decision making. This perspective views people as problem solvers who actively use information from the world around them to master their environment However, much debate surrounds the issue of whether or when people are actually aware of these learning processes. On the one hand, there is some evidence for the existence of unconscious procedural knowledge. That is, people apparently do process at least some information in an automatic, passive way, which is a condition that has been termed mindlessness (Langer 1983). Nonetheless, many modern theorists are beginning to regard some instances of conditioning as cognitive processes, especially where expectations are formed about the linkages between stimuli and responses. Studies using masking effects, wherein it is difficult for subjects to learn CS/UCS associations, show substantial reductions in conditioning (Allen and Madden 1985). The Evolution of Consumer Research This section aims to paradigmatically identify the developments within the field of consumer research. Paradigms in consumer research can be broadly classified as a set of fundamental assumptions that researchers make about what they are studying and how they study it. As described below, a set of dimensions as identified by the literature, are employed to characterize and differentiate, chronologically, the paradigms enveloping various perspectives. To further support the discussion, this section provides a diagrammatic representation of the evolution of the field of consumer research6, as identified Conclusion
  43. 43. 43 Overall, it is argued that the study of consumer behaviour is rapidly evolving as researchers recognize and implement new techniques and trans- disciplinary perspectives to understand the nature of purchase and consumption behaviour. This wider view attempts to study consumer. BUYER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS ELECTRONIC GOODS International Journal of Enterprise and Innovation Management Studies (IJEIMS) Vol. 1 No. 3 Mrs. K. RAJASELVI Assistant Professor in Commerce, Emerald Heights College For Women Finger Post Ootacamund- 6. ABSTRACT Buyer behavior is the outcome of both individual and environmental influences‟ –BOONE KURTZ. Buyer behavior is a study of how individuals make decision to spend their available resources (time, money and effort) on consumption related items (what they buy, why they buy, When they buy, Where they buy, How often they buy and use a product or service). I. INTRODUCTION Buyer behaviour is a study of how individuals make decision to spend their available resources (time, money and effort) on consumption related items (what they buy, why they buy, When they buy, Where they buy, How often they buy and use a product or service).
  44. 44. 44 II.FACTORSINFLUENCEBUYERBEHAVIOUR The major factors influencing buyer behaviour are cultural, social, personal and psychological. III.BUYINGROLES For many products, it is fairly easy to identify the buyer. Many other products involve a decision making unit consisting of more than one person. Five roles people might play in a buying decision. 1. Initiator: A person who first suggests the idea of buying the particular product or service. 2. Influencer: A person whose views or advice carries some weight in making the final decision. 3. Decider: A person who decides on any component of a buying decision. Whether to buy, what to buy, how to buy,or where to buy. 4. Buyer: The person who makes the actual purchase. 5. User: A person who consumes or uses the product or service. A company needs to identify these roles because they have implication for designing the product, determining and allocating the promotional budget. IV. PURCHASE DECISION In evaluation stage, the consumer forms preferences among the brands the choice set. The consumer may also form a purchase intension to busy the most preferred brand. V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SOCIAL- ECONOMIC CONDITION OF THE RESPONDENTS
  45. 45. 45 VI. BRANDAWARENESSAND PURCHASE DECISION VII. POSSESSION OF ELECTRONIC GOODS VIII. CONCLUSION Despite the basic characteristics of consumers the behavior pattern of consumers are more or less similar to eachother, particularly in the aspects like quality, preference and decision making. However it is evident that the presentapproaches to draw the attention of customers are not adequate. The consumers are particular about the appropriatesystem of distribution and hence there is a great need for change in the distribution system. It may not be always correct to say that consumers behave in the same way as it much depends on type of products, quality of the products and price of the products. Therefore the producer must be paid special attention at least with regard to price and distribution system to cover the large number of customers. This is mainly because of the fact that the buying capacity of the consumers may not be equal to the buying capacity.
  46. 46. 46 CHAPTER- III RESEARCH METHEDOLOGY Research methodology is simple framework or plan for the study that is as guide in collection and analyzing the data. It is the blue print that is followed in completes the study. Thus, good research methodology ensures the completion of project efficiency and affectivity. Since there are many aspect of research methodology, the line of action has to be chosen from the variety of alternatives, to choose the suitable method through the assessment from various alternatives. Research can be classified from three perspectives: 1. Application of research study. 2. Objectives in undertaking the research. 3. Inquiry mode employed. APPLICATION: From the point of view of application, there are two broad categories of research: PURE RESEARCH APPLIED RESEARCH. Pure research: It involves developing and testing theories and hypotheses that are intellectually challenging to the researcher but it may or may not have practical application at the present time or in the future. The knowledge produced through pure research is sought in order to add to the existing body of research methods. Applied research: It is done to solve specific, practical questions; for policy formulation, administration and understanding of a phenomenon. It can be exploratory, but is usually descriptive. It is almost always done on the base basic research. Applied research can be carried out by academic or industrial institutions. Often, an academic institution such as a university will have a specific applied research program funded by an industrial partner interested in that program.
  47. 47. 47 Objectives: From the viewpoint of objectives, a research can be classified as -descriptive -co relational -explanatory -exploratory Descriptive research: It attempts to describe systematically a situation, problem, phenomenon, service or program, or provides information about , say, living condition of a community, or describes attitudes towards an issue. Co relational research: It attempts to discover or establish the existence of a relationship/ interdependence between two or more aspects of a situation. Explanatory research: It attempts to clarify why and how there is a relationship between two or more aspects of a situation or phenomenon. Exploratory research: It is undertaken to explore an area where little is known or to investigate the possibilities of undertaking a particular research study (feasibility study / pilot study). In practice most studies are a combination of the first three categories. Inquiry Mode: From the process adopted to find answer to research questions – the two approaches are: Structured approach Unstructured approach
  48. 48. 48 Structured approach: The structured approach to inquiry is usually classified as quantitative research. Here everything that forms the research process- objectives, design, sample, and the questions that you plan to ask of respondents- is predetermined. It is more appropriate to determine the extent of a problem, issue or phenomenon by quantifying the variation, e.g. how many people have a particular problem? How many people hold a particular attitude? Unstructured approach: The unstructured approach to inquiry is usually classified as qualitative research. This approach allows flexibility in all aspects of the research process. It is more appropriate to explore the nature of a problem, issue or phenomenon without quantifying it. Main objective is to describe the variation in a phenomenon, situation or attitude. e,g, description of an observed situation, the historical enumeration of events, an account of different opinions different people have about an issue, description of working condition in a particular industry. Both approaches have their place in research. Both have their strengths and weaknesses. In many studies you have to combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches. For example, suppose you have to find the types of cuisine / accommodation available in a city and the extent of their popularity. Types of cuisine is the qualitative aspect of the study as finding out about them entails description of the culture and cuisine The extent of their popularity is the quantitative aspect as it involves estimating the number of people who visit restaurant serving such cuisine and calculating the other indicators that reflect the extent of popularity.
  49. 49. 49 THE RESEARCH PROCESS The research process is similar to undertaking a journey. For a research journey there are two important decisions to make- 1) What you want to find out about or what research questions (problems) you want to find answers to; 2) How to go about finding their answers. There are practical steps through which you must pass in your research journey in order to find answers to your research questions. The path to finding answers to your research questions constitutes research methodology.At each operational step in the research process you are required to choose from a multiplicity of methods, procedures and models of research methodology which will help you to best achieve your objectives. This is where your knowledge base of research methodology plays a crucial role.
  50. 50. 50 STEPS IN RESEARCH PROCESS: 1. Formulating the Research Problem 2. Extensive Literature Review 3. Developing the objectives 4. Preparing the Research Design including Sample Design 5. Collecting the Data 6. Analysis of Data 7. Generalization and Interpretation 8. Preparation of the Report or Presentation of Results-Formal write ups of conclusions reached.
  51. 51. 51 Objectives of Research The objective of the study is to ensure that I as a management student develop in real life for handling the specific project and also to develop all roundness in various management activities related to the area of my specialization. This project gives me a substantial corporate exposure and also serves as a useful tool of interaction with the corporate sector. The project has been derived from the field of „Marketing‟ and is entitled as “Buying Behavior/Need Analysis & Generation of Prospective Customer List for Sony Products in Meerut”. The main idea behind this project is. To get an overall view of the product sale, promotion and problem faced by SONY Products. To make a knowledge about the market strategy of SONY in meerut . Sample Size: 50 Primary Data: Questionnaire distributed among 100 customers. Secondary Data: Internet, Magazines and Newspapers.
  52. 52. 52 CHAPTER ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION DATA ANALYSIS 1. WHAT ARE YOUR FAVOURITE BRANDS OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS ? 60 people says that SONY is the favourite brand of electronic products. 30 people says that SAMSUNG is the favourite brand of electronic products. 8 people says that LG is the favourite brand of electronic products. SONY SAMSUNG LG TOSHIBA Series 1 60 30 8 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 favourite brands
  53. 53. 53 2 people says that TOSHIBA is the favourite of electronic products. DATA IN PERCENTAGE : 60 % says that SONY is the favourite brand of electronic products. 30 % says that SAMSUNG is the favourite brand of electronic products. 8 % says that LG is the favourite brand of electronic products. 2 % says that TOSHIBA is the favourite brand of electronic products. 60% 30% 8% 2% SONY SAMSUNG LG TOSHIBA
  54. 54. 54 2. HAVE YOU HEARD THE BRAND OF SONY PRODUCTS ? 100 people says that they heard the brand of sony. YES NO Series 1 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 sony products
  55. 55. 55 Data in percentage : 100% says that they heard the brand of sony. 100% 0% YES NO
  56. 56. 56 3. DID YOU KNOW ABOUT SONY PRODUCTS ? 10 people says that they know about the BRAVIA . 6 people says that they know about the CYBER SHOT. 20 people says that they know about the VAIO. 4 people says that they know about the X-PLOD. BRAVIA CYBER SHOT VAIO X-PLOD HANDYCA M PLAY STATION WALK MAN SONY ERICSSON Series 1 10 6 20 4 15 5 10 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 sony products
  57. 57. 57 15 people says that they know about the HANDYCAM. 5 people says that they know about the PLAY STATION. 10 people says that they know about the WALK MAN. 30 people says that they know about the SONY ERICSSON. Data in percentage : 10 % says that they know about the BRAVIA . 6 % says that they know about the CYBER SHOT. 20 % says that they know about the VAIO. 4 % says that they know about the X-PLOD. 15 % says that they know about the HANDYCAM. 5 % says that they know about the PLAY STATION. 10 % says that they know about the WALK MAN. 30 % says that they know about the SONY ERICSSON. 10% 6% 20% 4% 15% 5% 10% 30% BRAVIA CYBER SHOT VAIO X-PLOD HANDYCAM PLAY STATION WALK MAN SONY ERICSSON
  58. 58. 58 4. WHICH PRODUCT YOU HAVE BUYED IN SONY OR HAVING INTERESTED TO BUY ? 5 people says that they have buyed BRAVIA or having interested to buy. 10 people says that they have buyed CYBER SHOT or having interested to buy. 15 people says that they have buyed VAIO or having interested to buy. 2 people says that they have buyed X-PLOD or having interested to buy. 8 people says that they have buyed HANDYCAM or having interested to buy. BRAVI A CYBER SHOT VAIO X- PLOD HAND Y CAM PLAY STATI ON WALK MAN SONY ERICSS ON MOBIL E WEGA TABLE T SONY HI-FI HEAD PHON ES Series 1 5 10 15 2 8 5 10 20 2 8 0 15 0 5 10 15 20 25 sony products
  59. 59. 59 5 people says that they have buyed PLAY STATION or having interested to buy. 10 people says that they have buyed WALK MAN or having interested to buy. 20 people says that they have buyed SONY ERICSSON MOBILE or having interested to buy. 2 people says that they have buyed WEGA or having interested to buy. 8 people says that they have buyed TABLET or having interested to buy. 0 people says that they have buyed SONY HI-FI or having interested to buy. 15 people says that they have buyed HEAD PHONES or having interested to buy. Data in percentage : 5% 10% 15% 2% 8% 5% 10% 20% 2% 8% 0% 15% sony products BRAVIA CYBER SHOT VAIO X-PLOD HANDYCAM PLAY STATION WALK MAN SONY ERICSSON WEGA TABLET SONY HI-FI
  60. 60. 60 5 % says that they have buyed BRAVIA or having interested to buy. 10 % says that they have buyed CYBER SHOT or having interested to buy. 15 % says that they have buyed VAIO or having interested to buy. 2 % says that they have buyed X-PLOD or having interested to buy. 8 % says that they have buyed HANDYCAM or having interested to buy. 5 % says that they have buyed PLAY STATION or having interested to buy. 10 % says that they have buyed WALK MAN or having interested to buy. 20 % says that they have buyed SONY ERICSSON MOBILE or having interested to buy. 2 % says that they have buyed WEGA or having interested to buy. 8 % says that they have buyed TABLET or having interested to buy. 0 % says that they have buyed SONY HI-FI or having interested to buy. 15 % says that they have buyed HEAD PHONES or having interested to buy. 5. FROM WHERE YOU LIKE TO BUY THE SONY PRODUCT AND WHY ?
  61. 61. 61 56 people like to buy the sony products from SONY WORLD. 26 people like to buy the sony products from SONY EXCLUSIVE. 18 people like to buy the sony products from MULTI BRAND COUNTER. Data in percentage : SONY WORLD SONY EXCLUSIVE MULTI-BRAND COUNTER Series 1 56 26 18 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 sony stores
  62. 62. 62 56 % like to buy the sony products from SONY WORLD. 26 % like to buy the sony products from SONY EXCLUSIVE. 18 % like to buy the sony products from MULTI BRAND COUNTER. 6. ARE YOU SATISFIED WITH PRICE RANGE WHICH OFFERED BY SONY? 56%26% 18% SONY WORLD SONY EXCLUSIVE MULTI-BRAND COUNTER
  63. 63. 63 50 people are SATISFIED with the PRICE RANGE of sony. 50 people are NOT SATISFIED with the PRICE RANGE of sony. Data in percentage : yes no Series 1 50 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60AxisTitle price range of sony
  64. 64. 64 50 % are SATISFIED with the PRICE RANGE of sony. 50 % are NOT SATISFIED with the PRICE RANGE of sony. 7. ARE YOU SATISFIED WITH THE QUALITY OF THE SONY PRODUCTS ? 50%50% YES NO
  65. 65. 65 18 people are HIGHLY SATISFIED with the QUALITY of the sony products. 68 people are SATISFIED with the QUALITY of the sony products. 8 people are INDIFFERENT with the QUALITY of the sony products. 6 people are DISSATISFIED with the QUALITY of the sony products. 0 people are HIGHLY DISSATISFIED with the QUALITY of the sony products. Data in percentage : HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED INDIFFERENT DISSATISFIED HIGHLY DISSATISFIED Series 1 18 68 8 6 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 quality of sony products
  66. 66. 66 18 % are HIGHLY SATISFIED with the QUALITY of the sony products. 68 % are SATISFIED with the QUALITY of the sony products. 8 % are INDIFFERENT with the QUALITY of the sony products. 6 % are DISSATISFIED with the QUALITY of the sony products. 0 % are HIGHLY DISSATISFIED with the QUALITY of the sony products. 8 . ARE YOU SATISFIED WITH THE DURABILITY OF THE SONY PRODUCTS ? 18% 68% 8% 6% 0 HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED INDIFFERENT DISSATISFIED HIGHLY DISSATISFIED
  67. 67. 67 1 0 pe opl e are HI GH LY SA TI SF IE D wit h the DURABILITY of the sony products. 78 people are SATISFIED with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 4 people are INDIFFERENT with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 4 people are DISSATISFIED with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 4 people are HIGHLY DISSATISFIED with the DURABILITY of the sony products. Data in percentage : HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED INDIFFERENT DISSATISFIED HIGHLY DISSATISFIED Series 1 10 78 4 4 4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 AxisTitle durability of sony products
  68. 68. 68 10 % are HIGHLY SATISFIED with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 78 % are SATISFIED with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 4 % are INDIFFERENT with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 4 % are DISSATISFIED with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 4 % people are HIGHLY DISSATISFIED with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 9. RATE THE AFTER SALES SERVICES OF SONY . 10% 78% 4% 4% 4% HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED INDIFFERENT DISSATISFIED HIGHLY DISSATISFIED
  69. 69. 69 16 people says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is EXCELLENT. 54 people says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is GOOD. 24 people says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is AVERAGE. 2 people says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is POOR. 4 people says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is VERY POOR. Data in percentage : EXCELLENT GOOD AVERAGE POOR VERY POOR Series 1 16 54 24 2 4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 after sales services
  70. 70. 70 16 % says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is EXCELLENT. 54 % says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is GOOD. 24 % says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is AVERAGE. 2 % says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is POOR. 4 % says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is VERY POOR. 10. WHICH FACTOR INFLUENCE YOU TO PURCHASE THE SONY PRODUCT ? 16% 54% 24% 2% 4% EXCELLENT GOOD AVERAGE POOR VERY POOR
  71. 71. 71 66 people says that COMPANY BRAND NAME influence them to purchase the sony product. 30 people says that PRODUCT FEATURES influence them to purchase the sony product. 0 people says that SERVICES influence them to purchase the sony product. 4 people says that PROMOTION ACTIVITIES influence them to purchase the sony product. COMPANY BRAND NAME PRODUCT FEATURE SERVICES PROMOTION ACTIVITIES PRICE INFLUENCED BY OTHERS Series 1 66 30 0 4 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 AxisTitle factors
  72. 72. 72 0 people says that PRICE influence them to purchase the sony product. 0 people says that they purchase the sony product on INFLUENCED BY OTHERS. Data in percentage : 66 % says that COMPANY BRAND NAME influence them to purchase the sony product. 30 % says that PRODUCT FEATURES influence them to purchase the sony product. 0 % says that SERVICES influence them to purchase the sony product. 4 % says that PROMOTION ACTIVITIES influence them to purchase the sony product. 0 % says that PRICE influence them to purchase the sony product. 0 % says that they purchase the sony product on INFLUENCED BY OTHERS. 66% 30% 0% 4% 0 0 COMPANY BRAND NAME PRODUCT FEATURE SERVICES PROMOTION ACTIVITIES PRICE INFLUENCED BY OTHERS
  73. 73. 73 11.WHERE DO YOU HEARD OF/GET INFORMATION OF SONY MOST OFTEN ? 62 people says that they get the information of sony products through TELEVISION. 08 people says that they get the information of sony products through NEWS PAPERS 16 people says that they get the information of sony products through MAGAZINES. 14 people says that they get the information of sony products through FRIENDS TELEVISION NEWS PAPERS MAGAZINES FRIENDS Series 1 62 8 16 14 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 information of sony
  74. 74. 74 Data in percentage : . 62 % says that they get the information of sony products through TELEVISION. 08 % says that they get the information of sony products through NEWS PAPERS 16 % says that they get the information of sony products through MAGAZINES. 14 % says that they get the information of sony products through FRIENDS 62% 8% 16% 14% information of sony TELEVISION NEWS PAPERS MAGAZINES FRIENDS
  75. 75. 75 12 .WHEN YOU PREFER TO BUY SONY PRODUCTS ? 54 people says that they prefer to buy the sony products on SALES OFFER. 46 people says that they prefer to buy the sony products on DISCOUNT OFFER. SALES OFFER DISCOUNT OFFER Series 1 54 46 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 preference
  76. 76. 76 Data in percentage : 54 % says that they prefer to buy the sony products on SALES OFFER. 46 % says that they prefer to buy the sony products on DISCOUNT OFFER. 54% 46% SALES OFFER DISCOUNT OFFER
  77. 77. 77 13.OVER ALL RATE THE SONY ? 28 people rate the sony EXCELLENT. 64 people rate the sony GOOD. 6 people rate the sony AVERAGE. 2 people rate the sony POOR. 0 people rate the sony VERY POOR. EXCELLENT GOOD AVERAGE POOR VERY POOR Series 1 28 64 6 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 AxisTitle rating of sony
  78. 78. 78 Data in percentage : 28 % rate the sony EXCELLENT. 64 % rate the sony GOOD. 6 % rate the sony AVERAGE. 2 % rate the sony POOR. 0 % rate the sony VERY POOR. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Over all analysis : 28% 64% 6% 2% 0 rating of sony EXCELLENT GOOD AVERAGE POOR VERY POOR
  79. 79. 79 60 % says that SONY is the favourite brand of electronic products. 30 % says that SAMSUNG is the favourite brand of electronic products. 8 % says that LG is the favourite brand of electronic products. 2 % says that TOSHIBA is the favourite brand of electronic products. 100% says that they heard the brand of sony. 10 % says that they know about the BRAVIA . 6 % says that they know about the CYBER SHOT. 20 % says that they know about the VAIO. 4 % says that they know about the X-PLOD. 15 % says that they know about the HANDYCAM. 5 % says that they know about the PLAY STATION. 10 % says that they know about the WALK MAN. 30 % says that they know about the SONY ERICSSON. 5 % says that they have buyed BRAVIA or having interested to buy. 10 % says that they have buyed CYBER SHOT or having interested to buy. 15 % says that they have buyed VAIO or having interested to buy. 2 % says that they have buyed X-PLOD or having interested to buy. 8 % says that they have buyed HANDYCAM or having interested to buy. 5 % says that they have buyed PLAY STATION or having interested to buy. 10 % says that they have buyed WALK MAN or having interested to buy. 20 % says that they have buyed SONY ERICSSON MOBILE or having interested to buy. 2 % says that they have buyed WEGA or having interested to buy. 8 % says that they have buyed TABLET or having interested to buy. 0 % says that they have buyed SONY HI-FI or having interested to buy. 15 % says that they have buyed HEAD PHONES or having interested to buy. 56 % like to buy the sony products from SONY WORLD. 26 % like to buy the sony products from SONY EXCLUSIVE.
  80. 80. 80 18 % like to buy the sony products from MULTI BRAND COUNTER. 50 % are SATISFIED with the PRICE RANGE of sony. 50 % are NOT SATISFIED with the PRICE RANGE of sony. 18 % are HIGHLY SATISFIED with the QUALITY of the sony products. 68 % are SATISFIED with the QUALITY of the sony products. 8 % are INDIFFERENT with the QUALITY of the sony products. 6 % are DISSATISFIED with the QUALITY of the sony products. 0 % are HIGHLY DISSATISFIED with the QUALITY of the sony products. 10 % are HIGHLY SATISFIED with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 78 % are SATISFIED with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 4 % are INDIFFERENT with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 4 % are DISSATISFIED with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 4 % people are HIGHLY DISSATISFIED with the DURABILITY of the sony products. 16 % says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is EXCELLENT. 54 % says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is GOOD. 24 % says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is AVERAGE. 2 % says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is POOR. 4 % says that AFTER SALES SERVICES of sony is VERY POOR. 66 % says that COMPANY BRAND NAME influence them to purchase the sony product. 30 % says that PRODUCT FEATURES influence them to purchase the sony product. 0 % says that SERVICES influence them to purchase the sony product. 4 % says that PROMOTION ACTIVITIES influence them to purchase the sony product. 0 % says that PRICE influence them to purchase the sony product. 0 % says that they purchase the sony product on INFLUENCED BY OTHERS. 62 % says that they get the information of sony products through TELEVISION.
  81. 81. 81 08 % says that they get the information of sony products through NEWS PAPERS 16 % says that they get the information of sony products through MAGAZINES. 14 % says that they get the information of sony products through FRIENDS 54 % says that they prefer to buy the sony products on SALES OFFER. 46 % says that they prefer to buy the sony products on DISCOUNT OFFER. 28 % rate the sony EXCELLENT. 64 % rate the sony GOOD. 6 % rate the sony AVERAGE. 2 % rate the sony POOR. 0 % rate the sony VERY POOR.

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