Organisational Communication


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Organisational Communication

  1. 1. Organisational Communication A Presentation by Rajiv Bajaj
  2. 2. The Vital Link <ul><li>In every part of the business organisation, communication provides the vital link between people and information </li></ul><ul><li>Whether a newcomer to the organisation or a seasoned employee, you have information that others need in order to perform their functions… </li></ul><ul><li>… and others have information that is vital to you </li></ul>
  3. 3. A Complex Network <ul><li>Looking over all of an organisation’s communication, we see an extremely complex network of Information Flow </li></ul><ul><li>We see dozens, hundreds or even thousands of individuals engaging in untold numbers of communication events throughout each workday </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Your exchange of information & ideas with others in the organisation is called Internal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of information & ideas with those outside the organisation is called External Communication </li></ul><ul><li>This exchange of information may be over Formal or Informal Channels </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Formal Network
  6. 6. The Formal Network <ul><li>Just as body has arteries and veins, Business has major, well-established channels of information flow </li></ul><ul><li>Formal channels are arteries or mainlines of operational communication that handle bulk of the communication that an organisation needs to operate </li></ul><ul><li>These main channels should not just happen – they should be carefully thought out & changed as needs of business change </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Most information flow is Downward & follows the formal (from top executives down to workers) </li></ul><ul><li>This is so because most information, instructions, orders and executive decision etc, needed to achieve the business objectives , originate at the top and must be communicated downwards </li></ul><ul><li>Helps employees to do their jobs </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Specifically, flow includes upward, lateral & downward movements of information… </li></ul><ul><li>By reports, email, records; orders instructions & messages down the authority structure; </li></ul><ul><li>Of working information through the organisation’s email, intranet; </li></ul><ul><li>And of externally directed messages, sales presentations, advertising & publicity </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>However, most good companies also recognise the value & importance of Upward Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Flows from employees to executives, providing timely reports on problems, trends, opportunities, grievances & performance </li></ul><ul><li>Executives use open channels of communication to be better informed about status of things at the frontline </li></ul><ul><li>Information from the lower level can be important in achieving company’s objectives </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Horizontal / Lateral or Diagonal communication flows between employees at the same level or between departments </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to share information as well as to coordinate efforts towards common goals </li></ul><ul><li>Especially useful in solving complex and difficult problems, particularly in large organisations </li></ul>
  11. 11. Informal Network: The Grapevine
  12. 12. Grapevine – The Informal Network <ul><li>Runs parallel to formal network consisting primarily of Personal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of that part of personal communication that relates to operations of the company </li></ul><ul><li>If Formal network is like arteries, then Informal network is like veins . Comprises of thousands upon thousands of personal communication that supports the formal communication network </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Complexity of this network cannot be over-emphasized. Consists of all communication of employees whenever they get together </li></ul><ul><li>Not really a single network, but rather a complex relationship of smaller networks comprising a group of people </li></ul><ul><li>Made even more complex because many people may belong to more than one group </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Group memberships & links between groups are constantly changing </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as the Grapevine in management literature </li></ul><ul><li>As fickle & inaccurate as the human beings who are a part of it </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Even so, grapevine often carries more info than formal system </li></ul><ul><li>In many matters, it is more effective in determining the course of an organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Wise management recognises the presence of the grapevine and uses it effectively </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>They give talk-leaders the information that will do most good for the company </li></ul><ul><li>They keep in touch with the grapevine and turn it into a constructive tool </li></ul><ul><li>In a large organisation, the informal network can be so large and complex that it may defy description </li></ul>
  18. 18. Variation in Communication Activity <ul><li>How much communicating a business does depends on several factors </li></ul><ul><li>The Nature Of Business is one. Eg. Insurance companies have a great need to communicate with their customers, especially through Ads, mailers & letters, whereas housekeeping services have little such need </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Operating Plan affects the total amount of internal communication. Relatively simple businesses such as repair services, require far less communication than complex businesses such as car manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Dispersion of the operations is also another major factor that affects volume of Internal communication </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>People who make up the business also affect the volume of communication. Every human being is unique – each has his own communication needs and abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Varying combinations of people will produce varying needs for communication </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sailing Through The 7 C’s . . . 7 C’s of Effective Communication
  22. 22. <ul><li>1. Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing credibility is not the outcome of a one-shot statement </li></ul><ul><li>It is a long-drawn process in which the receiver, through constant interaction with the sender, understands his credible nature and is willing to accept his statements as being truthful and honest </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Strive to present yourself from a position of reliability and competence </li></ul><ul><li>If the sender can establish his credibility, the receiver has no problems in accepting his statement </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>2. Courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Once the credibility of the sender has been established, attempts should be made at being courteous in expression </li></ul><ul><li>In the business world, almost everything starts </li></ul><ul><li>with and ends in courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Much can be accomplished if tact, diplomacy and appreciation of people are woven into the message </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>A. BOSS : “You can never do things right. Try working on this project. If you are lucky you may not have to redo it.” </li></ul><ul><li>B. BOSS: “This is an interesting project. Do you think you would be able to handle it ? I know that last time something went wrong with the project, but everyone makes mistakes. Suppose we sit down and discuss it threadbare ? I’m sure you would be able to do wonders.” </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>The two statements convey totally different impressions </li></ul><ul><li>While the first statement is more accusative, the second is more tactful and appreciative of the efforts put in by the receiver at an earlier stage </li></ul><ul><li>The crux of the message in both the statements is the same - You want an individual within the organization to undertake a project </li></ul><ul><li>The manner in which it is stated brings about a difference in approach </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Courteous message strengthen present relations and make new friends. They build Goodwill </li></ul><ul><li>Tips : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Answer your mail promptly </li></ul><ul><li>2. Be sincere, tactful, thoughtful and appreciative </li></ul><ul><li>3. Use expressions that show respect </li></ul><ul><li>4. Use the “You” approach rather than “I & We” </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>3. Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Have a definite purpose for writing and make sure it is clearly communicated up front. Be bold and connect quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute clarity of ideas adds much to the meaning of the message </li></ul><ul><li>The first stage is clarity in the mind of the sender </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>The next stage is the transmission of the message in a manner which makes it simple for the receiver to comprehend </li></ul><ul><li>As far as possible , simple language and easy sentence constructions, which are not difficult for the receiver to grasp should be used </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Use of complicated Jargon should be avoided if the message can be constructed without it </li></ul><ul><li>Unnecessary use of complicated sentences & words confuses the receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Here’s an Example… </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Ordinary person : “Here’s an Orange for you.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lawyer : “ Know all persons by these present that I hereby give, grant, bargain, sell, release, convey, transfer, and quitclaim all my right, title, interest, benefit, and use whatever in, of, and concerning this chattel, otherwise known as an orange, or Citrus Orantium, together with all its appurtenances thereto of skin, pulp, pip, rind, seeds and juice, to have and to hold the said orange together with its skin, pulp, pip, rind, seeds and juice for his own use and behoof, to himself and his heirs, in fee simple forever, free from all liens, encumbrances, limitations, restraints, or conditions whatsoever, any and all prior deeds, transfers or other documents whatsoever, now or anywhere made, to the contrary notwithstanding, with full power to bite, cut, suck, or otherwise eat the said orange or give away the same, with or without its skin, pulp, rind, seeds, or juice.” </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>4. Correctness </li></ul><ul><li>At the time of encoding, the sender should ensure that his knowledge of the receiver is comprehensive </li></ul><ul><li>The level of knowledge, educational background and status of the decoder help the encoder in formulating his message </li></ul><ul><li>In case there is any discrepancy between the usage and comprehension of terms, miscommunication can arise </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>If the sender decides to back up his communication with facts and figures, there should be accuracy in stating the same </li></ul><ul><li>A situation in which the listener is forced to check the presented facts and figures should not arise </li></ul><ul><li>Be complete - include all the necessary facts and background information to support the message you are communicating </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Double- check your spelling, punctuation and grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Proof read it before you send it ! We can't afford to make mistakes ! </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that you - </li></ul><ul><li>1. Provide all necessary information </li></ul><ul><li>2. Answer all questions asked </li></ul><ul><li>3. Give something extra, when desirable </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>5. Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>The approach to communication should, as far as possible, be consistent - There should not be too many ups and downs that might lead to confusion in the mind of the receiver </li></ul><ul><li>If a certain stand has been taken, It should be observed without there being situations in which the sender is left groping for the actual content or meaning </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>If the sender desires to bring about a change in his understanding of the situation, he should ensure that the shift is gradual and not hard for the receiver to comprehend </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>6. Concreteness </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete and specific expressions are preferable as against vague and abstract expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Facts and figures presented should be specific - Abstractions or abstract statements can cloud the mind of the sender </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Instead of stating: </li></ul><ul><li>“ There has been a tremendous escalation in the sales figures”, suppose the sender made the following statement: </li></ul><ul><li>“ There has been an escalation in the sales figures by almost 50% as compared to last year.” </li></ul><ul><li>The receiver is more likely to comprehend the factual details </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>7. Conciseness </li></ul><ul><li>The message to be communicated should be as brief and concise as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Weighty language definitely sounds impressive but people would be suitable impressed into doing precisely nothing ! </li></ul><ul><li>As far as possible only simple and brief statements should be made </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Excessive information can also sway the receiver into either a wrong direction or into inaction </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum of information should be just right, neither too much nor too little , e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>“ In most cases it has been seen that the date of the policy...” OR “Usually the policy date...” </li></ul><ul><li>Which statement is more concise ? Do they convey the same meaning ? </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Keep in mind the reader's knowledge of the subject and their time constraints. Convey the information as quickly and easily as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Eliminate wordy Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Include only relevant material </li></ul><ul><li>3. Avoid unnecessary Repetition </li></ul>
  42. 42. Forms & Channels of Communication
  43. 43. Communication - The Basic Forms <ul><li>1. Verbal / Oral – Talks / Conversation / Dialogue / Speech / Discussion / Meetings etc </li></ul><ul><li>2. Written – Letters / Circulars / Memos / Reports / Brochures / Books etc </li></ul><ul><li>3. Non-Verbal – Body Language </li></ul><ul><li>Language constitutes the vehicle on which both Verbal & Written communication travels </li></ul>
  44. 44. And The Other Forms… <ul><li>Apart from these methods, the other forms are : </li></ul><ul><li>The Visual </li></ul><ul><li>The Audio-Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic </li></ul>
  45. 45. Forms of Communication Oral - Talks - Speeches - Telephone - Discussions - Meetings - Seminars - Counseling - Radio - Dialogue - Monologue - Arguments Non-Verbal - Body Language - Gestures - Expressions - Posture - Appearance - Codes - Signs / Signals - Behaviour Visual - Pictures - Graphs - Charts - Signs - Symbols - Signals Audio-Visual - Presentations - Demonstrations - Films - TV Advts. - Video Conference Written - Letters - Memos - Circulars - Notes - Reports - Brochures - Books - Print Advt. - Fax - Email - Telegram - Telex - Printouts Silence - Absence of words
  46. 46. <ul><li>Verbal / Oral Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the Spoken Word. Takes the form of Sounds & Words </li></ul><ul><li>Is both , Structured & Unstructured </li></ul><ul><li>Instant two-way process - no time loss </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Highly Interactive process / cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken words Carry Weight – can be very persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Supplements as well as Complements non-verbal communication </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Demerits - Verbal / Oral Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective when target group is spread out </li></ul><ul><li>Constrained by language, accent & vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Also constrained by noise & other barriers </li></ul><ul><li>No documentary record, and does not permit repeated reference </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be erased. Often dependant on memory </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Written Communication </li></ul><ul><li>“ The pen is mightier than the sword.” </li></ul><ul><li>Great significance in lives of individuals as well as organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Ever-improving writing skills & word power of communicators make it forceful & effective </li></ul><ul><li>It is well structured </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Can be preserved & creates a record </li></ul><ul><li>Permits erasure , substitution & revision </li></ul><ul><li>Demerits – Written Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Takes time to reach target </li></ul><ul><li>Less interactive. May require many repetitions and clarifications to be properly understood </li></ul><ul><li>May continue over long periods of time </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Non-Verbal Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Thrives on observation. Has universal appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Includes Body Language, Gestures, Postures, Appearance, Personal space, Codes, Signs & Signals, Facial Expressions & Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>May be deliberate or unintended </li></ul><ul><li>May substitute verbal communication or complement it </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Visual Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Effected through pictures, graphs & charts as well as through signs, signals & symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Useful in reaching out to illiterate audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Can be useful in communicating when language is a barrier </li></ul><ul><li>“ A picture is worth more than a thousand words” </li></ul>
  53. 54. <ul><li>Audio-Visual Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Involves Demos & Presentations through various audio-visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>Effective blend of both Verbal & Visual – High Retention Value </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly useful in fostering learning & in classroom sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining high level of popularity </li></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>Signs, Signals & Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Date back to probably to prehistoric times but still of considerable significance </li></ul><ul><li>Sign: Mark traced on a surface to indicate a particular meaning </li></ul><ul><li>May also be a movement or gesture that has some significance or meaning </li></ul><ul><li>May be specific to a subject – e.g. Maths </li></ul>
  55. 56. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Placing of hand on heads of people – Blessing </li></ul><ul><li>Player raising two fingers in V Sign – Victory </li></ul><ul><li>Finger on the lips – Silence </li></ul><ul><li>Touching of Feet of Elders – Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Senior executive present in meeting - Support </li></ul>
  56. 57. <ul><li>40 mph > Speed limit 40 miles per hour </li></ul><ul><li>] [ > Narrow Bridge ahead </li></ul><ul><li>+ > Addition </li></ul><ul><li>@ > At the rate / Email id indicator </li></ul><ul><li>/ > Division </li></ul><ul><li>= > Equal to </li></ul>
  57. 58. <ul><li>Apart from these set of signs, there is also the Sign Language </li></ul><ul><li>A system of communicating used by the hearing or speech impaired persons using hand movements </li></ul><ul><li>It is their Language , as Braille is the language of the visually challenged </li></ul>
  58. 59. <ul><li>Signals – a Sound or a Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Used for giving information, instructions or warning </li></ul><ul><li>An indication that something exists or is about to happen </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Danger signal / Green signal / Traffic signal / Radio signal </li></ul>
  59. 60. <ul><li>Signals differ from signs </li></ul><ul><li>Sign – something that we find or see </li></ul><ul><li>Signal – Used for something done intentionally and usually suggests some action to be taken in response </li></ul><ul><li>Signs & Signals may be overt or covert; explicit or in code language </li></ul><ul><li>Their awareness makes communication more meaningful </li></ul>
  60. 61. <ul><li>Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to a credo or manner of representation of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Also understood as a person, object or event that represents a more general quality or situation </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Logos – Commonly used. Printed design or symbol that companies use as their special sign . Some more examples…. </li></ul>
  61. 62. <ul><li>Symbol of Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of Strength / Supremacy </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Status Symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of Non-Violence </li></ul>
  62. 63. <ul><li>Silence </li></ul><ul><li>State of Wordlessness or Verbal Abstinence </li></ul><ul><li>If self-imposed, carries a powerful message </li></ul><ul><li>May also convey a form of punishment </li></ul><ul><li>May be deliberate or unintentional . Unexpected silence may cause awkwardness </li></ul>
  63. 64. Acknowledgements <ul><li>This presentation contains extracts drawn mainly from the book “Business Communication – Skills for empowering the Internet generation” by R V Lesikar & M E Flatley </li></ul>
  64. 65. End of Unit 3 T H A N K Y O U