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A BOOK ON FRONT OFFICE OPERATION

A BOOK ON FRONT OFFICE OPERATION

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    Front office operation Front office operation Document Transcript

    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Front Office Operations Diploma In Hotel & Hospitality Management Subject Code-HM-15 School of Distance Education Karnataka State Open University, Karnataka Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 1
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Copyright 2012, Karnataka State Open University All Rights Reserved Compiled and Printed By ECDL Educations Private Limited For, School of Distance Education Karnataka State Open University Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 2
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Preface…. Hospitality Industry is considered to be one of the fastest growing Industry in the world , and with ever changing trends . We need to be updated …. We have tried to put across the latest development and educate our students for facing the Industry in a most technically advanced way. Front office is considered to be the show window, So in all sense the various aspects should be of highest standard as to create the first impression on a guest mind, and forever. We hope this book will go a long way in making the student aware of newest approach for their Career. ECDL… Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 3
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First CONTENTS BLOCK- I UNIT 1 Topic Hospitality Industry 2 Types of Hotel, Supplementary accommodation 3 Heritage Hotels, Palace & Classification of Hotels Basis of room tariff charges 4 UNIT 5 Topic Organization of lodging properties 6 Front Office Operations 7 Front Office Computer Application Registration F.O Procedures 8. Contents Page No. 1.1 Introduction to hotel industry 9 1.2 Overview of accommodation. 10 1.3 Modern trends of industry, Evolution of Modern Hotel 11 1.4 Grouping hotels, Guest profile & Functional aspects. 12 2.1 Commercial, airport, resort, time share & condominium 14 2.2 Heritage hotels, Motels. Conference & convention centers 15-16 2.3Defining Supplementary accommodation 17-18 2.4 Types & Characteristics of Supplementary accommodation 19 3.1 History, Various Heritage hotels in India. 21 3.2 Size, Star system, Eligibility for Star classification. 22-24 3.3 How to apply for star classification. 25-27 3.4 Five star category, 2 star category hotels 28-29 4.1 Various types of - CP, EP, AP, MAP, Bermuda Plans 32 4.2 Types of rooms in Hotels 33 4.3. Facilities offered in Hotels 33 BLOCK –II Page No. Contents 5.1 Independent hotels. Chain hotels. 37 5.2 Franchise and referral groups. Management 38-39 5.3 Organizational missions, goals and strategies, 40-42 Organizational chart and its functional areas 5.4 Front office organization (Staffing including uniformed 43-44 staff) Job description, Functional organizational of F.O. department 6.1 Reservations, Types, Tentative or confirmed, Guaranteed. 47 pre-payment, credit cards, travel agent and corporate 6.2 Non-guaranteed reservation, Sources, enquiry, Central 48-49 reservation system, Group reservations 6.3 various charts, computerized system, CRS, records 50-52 6.4 confirmations, amendments, cancellations, expected arrivals 53-54 and departures, processing deposits, reservation history. 7.1 Room Inventory. 56 7.2 Status. 57 7.3 Software used 58 8.1 Registration, Guest Data, Reports, Self check-in : Walk In 60 Client 8.2 Call accounting, Guest information, Employee information, 61-63 Post charges, Messages, Wake up calls. 8.3 Inquiries, Registration, Check-outs, Credit balances 64-65 8.4 Security, Thieves, Fire alarm, Burglar alarm, Security code, 66-67 Guest Folio. BLOCK –III Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 4
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT 9 10 11 12. UNIT 13 14 15 16 Topic Hotel Guide Contents 9.1 Organization & History, 9.2 Mission, 9.3 Achievements 9.4 Organization & History, Handling of 10.1 Co-ordination with other departments Guest mail, 10.2 Handling of keys - types of keys. Messages 10.3 Handling of Pagers, Fax, E-Mail etc. 10.4 Telephone Handling Visitor's 11.1Guest Weekly Bill Tabular Ledger 11.2 NCR Machines, 11.3 Maintenance of Cash book, 11.4Night Auditor Approvals 12.1 At project stage. required for 12.2 Classification & Reclassification of hotels Hotel BLOCK –IV Topic Contents Tourism 13.1 History 13.2 Recent Developments 13.3 Sustainable Tourism 13.4 Growth Guest 14.1 Guest Dissatisfaction satisfaction 14.2 Customer Relations 14.3 Service is a Two-sided coin, 14.4 Delivery of Psychological Service Value based 15.1 Exposure to Cultural Heritage of India education in 15.2 Values through learning & teaching Hospitality Page No. 73 73 74 74 76 77 78 79 81 82 82 83 86-87 88-90 Page No. 95 96 96 97 99 99 100 100 102 103 Application of 16.1 Time Management Management 16.2 Manpower Management, Resource Management Principles 16.3 Time and Motion Study, Conflict Management 16.4 Cost-Benefit Analysis Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. 105 106 106 107 Page 5
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 6
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 7
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT -01 HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 8
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First CONTENTS 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction to hotel industry 1.2 Overview of accommodation. 1.3 Modern trends and growth of industry 1.4 Evolution of Modern Hotel 1.5 Grouping Hotel On the basis of Size 1.6 Guest Profile & Functional aspects 1.6.1 Guest Classification 1.7 Lesson Summary 1.8 Key Words 1.9 Questions to Solve 1.10 References 1.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: •Hotels, history of hotels, development and growth of hotel industry in India, •Category of hotels, •International corporate hotels and • Major hotel groups in India. 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO HOTEL INDUSTRY Hotel industry is a hospitality industry. Of course, hospitality is not free, but is paid for, where the payment depends on the comforts and services provided for. Payment also depends on the fancy and economic affordability of the customer. The hospitality industry is nowadays a global industry, and is considered as an important employer in countries world-wide. It now has attained a much higher status in society and demands high standards of work ethics and efficiency from its employees. Employment opportunities are many, and are now sought by a vast majority of people. In other words, Hospitality means making a tourist feel totally welcome as not only your guest, but also the guest of the complete family of the Hotel. Hospitality is genuine smiling face. Hospitality can be termed as deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and public i.e. business of making and keeping friends, and promoting an atmosphere of better understanding. Hospitality activity covers everything i.e. providing attentive and courteous services, facilities and amenities to a traveler, meeting and greeting him at the door, providing efficient and caring service of food and beverage to him in the room i.e. providing ―A Home away from Home‖, and making his visit a memorable and pleasant experience. 1.2 OVERVIEW OF ACCOMMODATION Many countries have recognized the vital importance of accommodation industry in relation to tourism and their governments have coordinated their activities with the industry by way of providing attractive incentives and concessions in the form of long term loans, liberal import licenses and tax relief, cash grants for construction and renovation of buildings, and similar other concessions to the accommodation industry. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 9
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First The United Nations Conference on International Travel and Tourism held in Rome in 1963 considered, in particular, problems relating to means of accommodation. The Conference acknowledged the importance of means of accommodation, both traditional (hotels, motels) and supplementary (camps, youth hostels, etc.) as incentives to international tourism. The Conference recommended that governments should consider the possibility of including projects, and particularly those relating to accommodation, on the list of projects eligible for loans from industrial or other corporations, and that, where required; they should establish special financial corporations for tourism. It also has recommended that governments should give sympathetic consideration to the possibility of granting special facilities and incentives for accommodation projects. According to the WTO Report on 'the Development of the Accommodation Sector,‘ tourist accommodation is used to denote the facilities operated for short-term accommodation to guests, either with or without service, against payment of and according to fixed rates. For the purposes of classification, all tourist accommodations have been divided into the following groups: (i) Hotels and similar establishments (the hotel industry proper) and, (ii) Supplementary means of accommodation. The first group usually includes hotels, motels, boarding houses and inns, while the second includes registered private accommodation (rented rooms, apartments, and houses), camping / mountain huts and shelters as well as health establishments that are sanatoria and convalescent homes. 1.3 MODERN TRENDS AND GROWTH OF INDUSTRY Gone are the days when people looked upon a hotel for a bed and food. Now it provides almost everything that a guest needs. Hotels have become service providers for the guests in all possible ways. Competition has set into providing these services in order to woo the guests. Every big hotel chain / group has been spending crores of rupees in order to stay in this race. Different services are rendered by the hotels, viz. Banquets, convention centers, exhibition centers, restaurants, catering service, secretarial services, corporate services, money changers, travel desk, butler service, valet service, internet service, facility for sports and games, massage parlor, health club, gym, shopping arcade, swimming pool, tourist limousines, airport service, etc. These services are either wholly owned and run by the hotel, or owned by hotel and run on franchise by experts in the field, or owned & run by outsiders but attached to the hotels. These services complement each other and also help in improving the occupancy rate of the hotels. 1. Banquet- Hotels provide wide range of banquet menus, Weddings, parties, business gathering, all of which help in improving food sales and also work in attracting new customers. 2. Convention Center- Meetings, seminars, conventions and other social gatherings are arranged which in turn attract group bookings, good occupancy and food service. 3. Restaurant- Restaurants serving different specialty cuisine like Chinese, Korean, Italian, Continental, Mexican, Indian (South Indian, Mughalai etc.) are set up by hotels with the interiors suiting those places are run to cater to the different tastes of domestic as well as international tourists. Catering services are also undertaken at off-campus locations. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 10
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 4. Secretarial Service- This is an essential service for corporate clients. The CEOs, MD‘s and Chairpersons of different companies need this arrangement for expediting their notes, letters and agreements, communications etc. 5. Corporate Service- This works as an extension to the corporate offices of the clients. All the services needed for handling corporate affairs are provided to make the corporate guest feel at ―office away from his office.‖ Internet Service is the latest addition to the corporate service list. This is available even in small and medium sized hotels. The guest can connect his laptop to this service and perform his regular work / tasks. 6. Money Changers- Where there is high proportion of foreign tourists / visitors; there will be the need of money changing service. Here the hotel exchanges the foreign currency for local currency. However it cannot sell foreign currency. This service must function as per the foreign exchange rules and guidelines of the Reserve Bank of India from time to time. 7. Travel Desk- Provides car rental services, air & train ticketing and looks after the other travel needs of the guest. In some hotels Concierge looks after this service too. 8. Butler Service- A personalized service provided to the guest and his visitors exclusively. He provides the food and beverage and also wine service, looks after the visitors to the guest and helps in keeping the room tidy from time to time and also arranges the wardrobe for the guest. 9. Valet Service- A personalized service, but limited to help at car parking and laundry facility etc., in hotels. 10. Health Club and Sports and Games- This is provided not only in resort or leisure hotels but also in down town & commercial hotels. The present corporate guest even though a busy person wants some time out for himself for health and pleasure reasons. Health club, Spa, Gym, Massage Parlor, Swimming pool, billiards, bowling ally, tennis court, mini golf course are some of the popular facilities. In some parts of our country health tourism has picked up at places like Himachal Pradesh and Kerala where health spas and ayurvedic treatments are provided. The tourist on vacation can go back a rejuvenated person. 1.4 EVOLUTION OF MODERN HOTEL The concept and the format of hotel have changed a great deal over the years. There are different types of hotels ranging from international hotels to resort hotels catering to the increasing and diversified demand of the clients. The size, the facade, architectural features and the facilities and amenities provided differ from one establishment to another. In addition, the landscape in a particular destination area also greatly influenced the architectural features of a hotel. The following are the main types of hotels: i) International Hotels ii) Commercial Hotels iii) Residential Hotels iv) Resort Hotels v) Floating Hotels vi) Palace Hotels vii) Capsule Hotels iii) Heritage Hotels ix) Guest Houses 1.5 GROUPING HOTELS ON THE BASIS OF SIZE Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 11
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Classification is made based on the number of let able rooms. It can be indicated either by rooms as is done in America or by the number of beds as is done in Europe. • Small hotels: 25 rooms or less •Average hotels: 25 rooms to 90 rooms •Above average hotels: 80 rooms to 250 rooms • Large hotels: 250 rooms and above 1.6 GUEST PROFILE AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS A hotel customer or client is called a guest because the hotel offers homely and professional service to him, and establishes an intimate relationship with him during his stay. Hotel guests may be defined as ―people who have, who are, or who will be availing the services of hotel, for a particular period in order to satisfy their demand for accommodation, food and beverage or entertainment, for which they are willing and able to pay‖. Guest relation is the integral part of the hotel industry. It is a means for the management to reach out to the guest and convey to him the feeling of warmth and welcome. 1.6.1 Guest Classification A guest may be classified under following headings: 1. Guests on the basis of presence in the hotel: an expected guest, an in-house guest and check out guest. 2. Guests on the basis of recognition: regular guest, V.I.P, special attention and distinguished guest and new guests 3. Guests on the basis of revenue: paying guests and Complimentary Guests. 1.7 LESSON SUMMARY Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 12
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First The hospitality industry is part of a larger enterprise known as the travel and tourism industry. The two main segments of the hospitality industry are the lodging industry (also called hotel industry) and the food and beverage industry (also called restaurant industry). Some of the earliest known hotels are taverns or inns, caravanserais, etc. where travelers rested and slept. During the middle ages, the churches across the world established guest offices for pilgrims and travelers. The merchant class hotels began to emerge in 15th century due to increase in trade. The inns of the 16th century provided private rooms to the visitors. The present day hotels started emerging from the late 18th century. The past one hundred years have brought about dramatic changes in modes of transportation, as well as in lodging accommodations. Hotels are built near the railway stations and bus stands for the convenience of passengers. 1.8 KEY WORDS Sanatoria - a resort for maintaining or improving health Renovation – renewal, restoration, redecoration Convalescent – recuperative, restorative, recovery Concierge – caretaker, janitor Rejuvenated – revitalized, re-energized, recharged Amenities – facilities, services 1.9 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in short about the Hotel Industry? 2. Write about the Overview of Accommodation? 3. Write in detail about Modern Trends & growth of Industry? 4. Write about Evolution of Modern Hotel? 5. What is grouping of Hotel on the basis of size? 6. Write about Guest Profile and its functional aspects? 1.10 REFERENCES 1. M. Zulfikar, Introduction to Tourism and Hotel Industry,Sangam Books Ltd. 2. S.K. Bhatnagar, Front Office Management, Frank Bros. & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 3. Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction, Wiley. 4. Tom Powers, Clayton W. Barrows, Introduction to the Hospitality Industry, Wiley. UNIT -02 Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 13
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First TYPES OF HOTELS & SUPPLEMENTARY ACCOMMODATION CONTENTS 2.0 Objectives 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Airport Hotel. 2.3 Resort Hotel 2.4 City Hotel 2.5 Time Share & Condominiums 2.6 Heritage Hotels 2.6.1 Heritage 2.6.2 Heritage Classic 2.6.3 Heritage Grand 2.7 Motels 2.8 Conference & Convention Centers 2.9 Supplementary Accommodation 2.10Defining Supplementary Accommodation 2.11 Characteristics of Supplementary Accommodation 2.12 Types of Supplementary Accommodation 2.12.1 Youth Hostels/ Yatri Niwas 2.12.2 Caravans, Camping group, Tourist Camps. 2.12.3 Railway/ Airport Retiring Rooms 2.12.4 Hotel Garni & Condominiums 2.13 Lesson Summary 2.14 Key Words 2.15 Questions to Solve 2.16 References 2.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: • Types of hotels, • Heritage hotels & palaces, • Types of Supplementary accommodation and • Characteristics of Supplementary accommodation. 2.1 INTRODUCTION Hotel is the transient home away from home. Hotel industry is a hospitality industry. Of course, hospitality is not free, but is paid for, where the payment depends on the comforts and services provided for. Payment also depends on the fancy and economic affordability of the customer. The hospitality industry is nowadays a global industry, and is considered as an important employer in countries world-wide. It now has attained a much higher status in society and demands high standards of work ethics and efficiency from its employees. Employment opportunities are many, and are now sought by a vast majority of people. 2.2 AIRPORT HOTELS Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 14
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First As the name suggest, these hotels are situated at airports and are ideal for transit passengers who have only a few hours to while away, making it impractical for them to stay in a downtown hotel. Rates are on E.P., i.e., charges for room only. 2.3 RESORT HOTELS These types of hotels are located in the hills, on beaches or at other naturally scenic places and are mainly patronised by vacationers. Facilities may range from the basic to the most luxurious. The rates quoted are often on A.P., i.e., room plus meals. 2.4 CITY HOTELS These are hotels located in the heart of the city and within a short distance from the business centre, shopping areas, theatres, public buildings, etc. Business clientele normally prefer such hotels. Rates are generally high due to their geographical advantages and due to the fact that the rate of return on investment (R.O.I.) computed on these capital-intensive hotels are substantially high. 2.5 TIME SHARE AND CONDOMINIUM Time share properties involve individuals who purchase the ownership of accommodation for a specific period of time usually 1 or 2 weeks a year. These owners then occupy the unit during the time. Owners may also have the unit rented out by the management company, which operates the hotel. These hotels are becoming popular in resort areas. Condominium hotels are similar to time share hotels but the difference between the two lies in the type of ownership units in condominium hotels have only one owner instead of multiple owners. In a condominium hotel an owner inform the management company as to when he or she occupy the unit. That way, the management company is free to rent the unit for the reminder of the year. 2.6 HERITAGE HOTELS ‗Heritage Hotels‘ cover running hotels in palaces /castles/forts/ havelies/ hunting loges /residence of any size built prior to 1950. The facade, architectural features and general construction should have the distinctive qualities and ambience in keeping with the traditional way of life of the area. The architecture of the property to be considered for this category should not normally be interfered with. Any extension, improvement, renovation, change in the existing structures should be in keeping with the traditional architectural styles and constructional techniques harmonizing the new with the old. After expansion/ renovation, the newly built up area added should not exceed 50% of the total built up (plinth) area including the old and new structures. For this purpose, facilities such as swimming pools, lawns etc. will be excluded. Heritage Hotels will be sub-classified in the following categories: 2.6.1 Heritage: This category will cover hotel in Residences/Havelies/Hunting Lodges/Castles/Forts/Palaces built prior to 1950. The hotel should have a minimum of 5 rooms (10 beds). 2.6.2 Heritage Classic: Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 15
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First This category will cover hotels in Residences/Havelies/Hunting Lodges/Castles/Forts/Palaces built prior to 1935. The hotel should have a minimum of 15 rooms (30 beds). 2.6.3 Heritage Grand: This category will cover hotels in Residence/Havelies/Hunting Lodges/Castles/Forts/Palaces built prior to 1935. The hotel should have minimum of 15 rooms (30 beds). Room & Bath Size: No room or bathroom size is prescribed for any of the categories. However, general ambience, comfort and imaginative re-adaptation would be considered while awarding sub-classification ‗classic‘ or ‗grand‘. 2.7 MOTELS The term is derived from the phrase, ‗Motor hotels‘ which are located principally on highways. They provide modest board and lodging facilities highway travelers. The length of stay is usually over night, the rates quoted are on European plan i.e.; room only. 2.8 CONFERENCE AND CONVENTION CENTERS These are specially designed to handle group meetings. Most full service conference centers offer overnight accommodation. They usually provide all the services and the equipment necessary to ensure a meetings success. They are often situated outside the metropolitan areas and many provide leisure facilities like golf course, spas etc. These hotels may have as many as 2000 rooms or more. These facilities are designed to accommodate large conventions. They have sufficient number of guest rooms to house all the attendees of most conventions. They have huge conference halls, ball rooms etc. Business services like tele-conferencing, secretarial assistance, language translator of facsimile machines are also usually available. 2.9 Supplementary accommodation You are aware that by following the price segmentation methods in the target markets it becomes clear that the paying capacity of the tourists differ to a large extent. This has bearing on the accommodation demand. For various reasons, there is great demand for accommodation outside the organized hotel sector. 2.10 Defining Supplementary accommodation There are a number of establishments outside the hotel industry which offer accommodation to tourists. For example, supplementary accommodation in India had been provided by Sarais and Dharamshalas, on the principle that the traveler can make do with accommodation if not hotel service when on holiday. However, supplementary accommodation is that which is specifically designed to cater to the tourist where hotel accommodation may not be available or may be beyond the budget of the tourist. In the present context we may consider tourist bungalows with dormitory accommodation, travel lodges, youth hostels, railway retiring rooms and PWD rest houses as supplements to the organized accommodation sector. The basic criteria are: • To provide furnished accommodation, either rented rooms or apartments, and • Related to the investment that is being planned for the development of infrastructure in consonance with an overall promotional strategy. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 16
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 2.11 CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPPLEMENTARY ACCOMMODATION When youth tourism was identified as an important motivation for the development of tourism, the plans stressed the setting up of supplementary accommodation in the form of youth hostels to cater to the young travelers, both domestic as well as foreign. The development of the Yatri Niwas as a supplement to western style hotel facilities was also a step in this direction. Various points along the highways and in the suburbs of metropolitan cities became the ideal locations for setting up supplementary accommodation units. Country clubs, holiday inns, holiday villages, traveler’s lodges and inns were set up at such locations. The criteria was to encourage the linkage between transport and accommodation and develop visitor flows in such a way that accommodation moved out of a central business district to the leisure needs of the local residents as well as visitors. 2.12 TYPES OF SUPPLEMENTARY ACCOMMODATION In the following Sections we will discuss about various forms of supplementary accommodation. 1.12.1 YOUTH HOSTELS/YATRI NIWAS Youth took to travel on foot or hitch-hiking both from the cities as well as the countryside for education, adventure and recreation. This requirement created the need for providing accommodation. Germany took the lead in establishing youth hostels at the turn of the century. Youth hostels provide dormitory accommodation with common bathing and cafeteria facilities. They also provide kitchens for self-catering. Self service in a low cost environment encouraged the youth tourism movement and the World Tourism Organization encouraged all member countries to construct hostels. In India the youth hostels movement began in the early sixties and provided young and family oriented domestic tourists the opportunity to travel to different parts of the country using the LTC subsidy. They were no longer limited to destinations where they had friends and relatives. The Yatri Niwas was a similar concept, to provide domestic tourists low cost self service accommodation in cities. The first such facility was constructed in the Janpath area of Delhi attracting budget tourists. Such accommodation units encouraged people from different regions and social backgrounds to interact with each other. Comfort is modest, the stay is short and the cost is low. Such properties are set up and operated by noncommercial or developmental organizations. They are located at historical, cultural and natural sites. The hostels are small to medium scale and their average capacity is about 40 rooms. Hostels are constructed by the Central Government on land given free of cost by State Governments as they would not be able to provide low cost accommodation without such a subsidy. They are operated by the State Governments and social organizations like the YMCA and YWCA. 2.12.2 CARAVANS, CAMPING GROUPS AND TOURIST CAMPS Such facilities are normally located within cities in open spaces. Delhi has such locations, in Asif Ali Road and Kashmere Gate. They provide parking space along with water, electricity and toilets. Destinations like Goa, Khajuraho and Aurangabad, which have a mild and dry climate along highways and along major tourist circuits are being encouraged to set up such sites. Camps must follow certain regulations regarding Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 17
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First quality of services and costs set up by municipalities and the serving personnel there require some prior exposure and training to ensure that tourists get the required facilities 2.12.3 RAILWAY /AIRPORT RETIRING ROOMS The purpose of retiring room accommodation is to offer a convenience to the traveler without going into the city. These are situated at the main platform of major railway stations and at domestic and international airports. They provide accommodation to railway confirmed and current tickets or air passengers from out of these retiring rooms are offered at reasonable rates and are often air conditioned at the major junctions. They are generally clean and well maintained. They have attached baths and Railway canteen or airport restaurant catering. Bookings are made through the Station Superintendent. Or Airport Manager 2.12.4 TRAVELLERS LODGES/BOARDING HOUSES These are modest hotels situated away from the centre of the city or at remote destinations. These are self- sufficient establishments offering standard facilities like well furnished rooms with catering and bar facilities. Tourist Bungalows also offer similar facilities. Some extend their services to telecommunication and postal facilities as well as a general store. These services cater to budget and middle class tourists particularly in destinations which do not attract the major hotel industry. These bungalows have prime locations since they are the first to set up operations at many tourist centers. However, their maintenance and services need to be upgraded and the tariff structure has to be more flexible to cater to a range of income groups. They are small sized units which could be more profitable if the number of rooms can be increased from 5 to 25-30. State Governments and Tourism Departments also provide tourist rest houses at scenic locations in the mountains and forests where most wild life tourism is located. They provide access to the forest and also have good viewing locations. They are constructed to mirror the appeal of the area. Boarding houses are establishments which usually provide accommodation and meals at specified periods of time like the week end or for a specified stay. Thus they cater to residents and tend to be small enterprises and require advance booking to ensure space. They can range from simple hostel like facilities to the more sophisticated ones depending on the duration of the stay and the kind of customers. In Europe these mansions are an important supplement for tourist accommodation in big cities as well as touristic destinations. Such units are good for families because they provide all meals and comfortably furnished rooms and do not mind having children. 2.12.4 HOTEL GARNI AND CONDOMINIUMS These units provide bed and breakfast and supplement accommodation in big cities. In rural and resort areas such units are also popular with young people who need a room to sleep and spend the whole day on the move. They provide the single tourist with company, a family atmosphere and home cooking which makes for a relaxed holiday with no formal dress code, public areas and behavior and no extra costs. This involves ownership of a suite or an apartment, with payment for the common facilities for maintenance and surroundings, as well as for the recreational services. The owner can access a holiday destination at will; can rent it to others when not in use and Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 18
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First in the rest of the period the condominium is looked after by the common staff. Thus, a condominium is private ownership of space with joint ownership of common facilities. Beach tourism in Europe owes its rapid growth to the development of this type of accommodation which was often started by a package tour operator to ensure regular traffic. Many charter operations also own condominiums. The concept of time-sharing is also gaining ground and certain companies are developing resorts on this basis. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 19
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 2.13 LESSON SUMMARY Hotels are of various types depending on number of factors like the nature and facilities offered, size, location, etc. Hotel can be classified into Economy / Limited Service Hotels, Mid-Market Hotels, All-suite Hotels, First-Class or Executive Hotels, Luxury or Deluxe Hotels. According to ownership and management, hotels can be classified into Independent Hotels, Chain / Group Hotels and Management Contractual Hotels. According to type of plan (tariff pattern), hotels are classified into European Plan, Continental Plan, American Plan/ Modified American Plan and ‗Bed and Breakfast Plan‘. According to the size, hotels are grouped into small hotels, average hotels, above average hotels and large hotels. According to visitors stop-over, hotels are grouped into Residential Hotels, Semi Residential Hotels, Transient / Transit Hotels and Resort Hotels. According to its relationship with transport, hotels are grouped into Motels, Railway Hotels, Airport Hotels and Floating Hotels. In India, the development of hotel industry is closely linked to travel. For rest, the travelers stayed at dharmashalas, choultries, temples and other religious places free of cost. Musafir khanas and sarais were established during the Arab occupation. Sarais are later developed as inns by the British Rulers in cities like Calcutta and Bombay. 2.14 KEY WORDS Transient – temporary, passing, momentary Vacationers - vacationers Façade – frontage, front elevation, front wall Supplementary – additional, ancillary, accompanying Convenience – ease, handiness, expediency Sophisticated – stylish, classy, refined Mansions – house, manor, hall Recreational – leisure, fun, entertaining 2.15 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in short about airport, city, & resort hotels? 2. What is time share & condominium? 3. Write in detail about Heritage Hotel? 4. Write in short about motels, conference & convention centers? 5. Define supplementary accommodation? 6. What is the characteristics Supplementary accommodation? 7. Write in short about Yatri Niwas / Youth Hostels? 8. Write about Caravans, Camping Groups, & Tourist Camps? 9. Write in short about Airport / Railway Retiring room? 10. What are Traveler Lodges / Boarding Houses? 11. What are Hotel Garni / Condominiums? 2.16 REFERENCES 1. M. Zulfikar , Introduction to Tourism and Hotel Industry,Sangam Books Ltd. 2. S.K. Bhatnagar, Front Office Management, Frank Bros. & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 3. Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction, 4. Tom Powers, Clayton W. Barrows, Introduction to the Hospitality Industry, Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 20
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT 03 HERITAGE HOTELS & CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS CONTENTS 3.0 Objectives 3.1 Introduction & History of Heritage Hotels 3.2 Various Heritage Hotels in India. 3.2.1 Welcome Heritage Hotels 3.2.2 Neemrana Hotels 3.2.3 HRH Group of Hotels 3.2.4 Palaces of India 3.2.5 Samode Hotels 3.3 Size, Star system 3.4 Eligibility for star classification 3.5 How to apply for star classification 3.6 Five Star Category 3.7 Two Star category hotels 3.8 Lesson Summary 3.9 Key Words 3.10 Questions to Solve 3.11 References 3.0 OBJECTIVES After reading this Unit you should be able to: • understand the Heritage Hotel History, •appreciate the importance of Heritage Hotel in India •learn about different types of Heritage Hotel & Palaces in India •know how to apply for Star Classification, Eligibility, and above all facilities & services offered in Five Star & Two Star category Hotels. 3.1 INTRODUCTION & HISTORY OF HERITAGE HOTELS For decades, if not centuries, the Rajput fortress, the defensive castle, the composite Haveli was the abode of nobility- where hospitality was a way of life. Visitors, guests, even strangers were welcomed in a tradition that was a part of the life styles. Even enemies, should they have come calling, were treated with utmost respect. And an extensive network of matrimonial alliances amongst the warring clans ensured that all battles ended on the field. The chivalry and gallantry of the warrior clans was reflected in the architecture of the feudal homes. A grand entrance was reserved for state guests. There were separate viewing galleries for woman, and the ladies of the 'zenana' conducted their own durbars and wielded considerable power from behind the 'purdah' Post independence democratic India witnessed the merger of the Princely States, abolition of 'Jagirs' land reforms and finally the withdrawal of the special privileges and Privy Purse from the royal families a few decades later consequently the noble families lost their traditional means of livelihood and even the wealthy merchants left their homes for more lucrative pastures. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 21
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Their large castles and mansions lay almost abandoned or unattended till a few enterprising pioneers realized that perhaps the only way to maintain these historic homes was their appropriate reuse. The large Palaces of the Maharajas set the trend by becoming five star hotels. Now, some of the ancestral homes to find sustenance in this new lease of life Much of the charm of these heritage hotels, united under a common banner, is the individual attention and personalization; the very meals, for example that were cooked for generations are still served at your table. Families in residence for centuries now welcome you to their homes as guests. And each ancestral home is different, uniquely so, reflecting its own, exceptional history, tradition and period. The ambience is perfectly reflected through sepia photographs and family memorabilia. Even the retainers may have been in the service of the families for generations. While history is always at hand, there have been changes too, so that the home are modernized to meet the needs of Today's international traveler, with adjoining bathrooms, running hot and cold water, modern plumbing, even perhaps a swimming pool. 3.2 VARIOUS HERITAGE HOTELS IN INDIA Heritage hotel chains in India are those hotels, which at some point of time in history were fortresses, and castles that were home to the rulers of Rajasthan. For centuries, the ancient fortress, the defensive castle, or the composite haveli-was the abode of royalty and the nobility where hospitality was an integral part of life in Rajasthan. These Heritage hotels are a special treat to the visitors, as those who run or maintain these hotels have made sure that the traditional work, carvings, décor and the style of hospitality remain as it were in the olden times in the state of Rajasthan, India. As already mentioned, these heritage hotels were home to the Rajputs and Rajasthani rulers; therefore it is but natural that the architecture and décor of these palaces are lavish. Some of these heritage homes are reflective of Rajputana and Mughal architecture. The architecture of these royal buildings was such that there were separate viewing galleries for the ladies of these households. There were separate wings constructed for the men, women, guests and the servants of the household. Over the centuries it has been the custom of these heritage homes in Rajasthan, India, to provide hospitality to every person who visited these homes, now that most of these homes have been transformed into hotels, the owners endeavor to maintain the traditional concept of extending a warm and hospitable atmosphere to each and every individual who visits these hotels in Rajasthan. After the year 1947, that is in the post independence period the Government of India abolished royal titles and the concept of feudal lords and feudal ownership of lands in Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 22
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Rajasthan. The Government of India withdrew the Privy Purse and special privileges to the royalty. Consequently, members of most of the royal families found it extremely difficult to maintain these huge buildings in Rajasthan. These large mansions lay almost abandoned or unattended till a few enterprising people realized that perhaps the only way to maintain these historic homes was their appropriate reuse. And the large palaces of the Maharajas set precedent by becoming five star luxury hotels. Later some of the heritage homes followed suit and are now functioning as luxury heritage hotels all over Rajasthan. 3.2.1 Welcome Heritage Hotels Spread across erstwhile princely India is a large number of palaces and estates that were once home to families that ruled over India. These bastions of history still reverberate with memories. Memories of coronations, durbars, polo balls, spectacles, extravaganzas, pageants... Welcome Heritage represents some of the best traditions of heritage hospitality in India. After independence in 1947, some of the owners of such glorious properties resolved to preserve the heritage of the past by converting their properties into 'heritage hotels'. And finally, these once-private royal homes opened their doors to share their gracious lifestyles with the world. In doing so, they have ensured that the properties continue to be maintained in a befitting manner. A slice of history that would otherwise have been irretrievably lost continues to survive. It offers 20 exclusive heritage destinations in India and a number of resorts. Khimsar fort Bandavgarh Jungle Lodge - Nagaur, Rajasthan -India - Bandhavgarh, Madhya Pradesh Kanha Jungle Lodge Balsamand Lake Palace - Kanha, Madhya Pradesh India - Jodhpur, Rajasthan -India Sardar Samand Palace Maharani Bagh Orchard - Pali, Rajasthan -India - Ranakpur, Rajasthan Karni Fort - Udaipur, Rajasthan -India Taragarh Palace Judges Court - Taragarh, Himachal Pradesh - Pragpur, Himachal Pradesh The Belvedere Palace - Nainital, Uttaranchal WoodVille Palace - Shimla, Himachal Pradesh Corbett RamGanga Resort Kasmanda Palace - Corbett , Uttaranchal - Mussoorie , Uttranchal Windamere Hotel Hotel Shambha La - Darjeeling , West Bengal - Leh , Ladakh , Jammu & Kashmir Connaught House - Mt. Abu , Rajasthan Umaid Bhawan Palace Noor Us - Sabah Palace - Kota , Rajasthan - Bhopal , Madhya Pradesh Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 23
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Royal Camp, Nagaur fort - Nagaur , Rajasthan Jagat Palace - Pushkar , Rajasthan Solang Valley Resort - Manali, Himachal Pradesh Grace Hotel - Dharamshala, Himachal Pradesh Khimsar Sand Dunes - Khimsar , Rajasthan Bassi Fort, Chittorgarh Regency Vilas Palace - Chittorgarh , Rajasthan - Ooty, Tamil Nadu Fern Hills Palace, Nilgiris - Ooty, Tamil Nadu Bundel Khand Riverside hotel - Orchha, Madhya Pradesh Rajendra Villas Palace - Mysore, Karnataka 3.2.2 Neemrana Hotels Even though history is a record of the past, it lives in the present and waits in the future.Where valor, romance, feasting and celebrations have had a history of their own. Eight Neemrana 'nonhotels'- from the 14th to the 21st centuries offer a panorama of 700 years. Hill Fort, Kesroli - Near Alwar Neemrana Fort Palace Mud Fort, Kucheswar Hotel Del Orient - Neemrana, Rajasthan - Bulandshahar, UP - Pondicherry Ramgarh Bungalows - Ramgarh, Kumaon Hills, Rajasthan The Verandah in the Forest - Matheran , Maharashtra Piramal Haveli, Bagar - Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan Glass house on the Ganges - Rishikesh , Uttranchal Villa Pottopati Wallwood Garden - Bangalore, Karnataka - Coonoor, Tamil Nadu 3.2.3 HRH Group of Hotels The HRH Group of Hotels offers authentic heritage palace-hotels and historical venues, for memorable events which happen once-in-a-lifetime like 'Regal Weddings' and other events Conferences, Theme Shows, Banquets. Udaipur Shiv Niwas Palace Hotel, Udaipur Fateh Prakash Palace Hotel, Udaipur Shikharbadi Hotel Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 24
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Garden Hotel & Restaurant Kumbhalgarh The Aodhi Hotel Jaisalmer Gorbandh Palace, Bikaner Gajner Palace, Gajner Karni Bhawan Palace Maan Bilas Hotel Jaipur, Ramgarh Resort & Polo Complex 3.2.4 Palaces of India Palaces of India, is a company specializing in Sales & Marketing operations for Palaces, Forts & Heritage Hotels in India. It represents premium Palaces, Forts & Heritage Homes in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala and Northeast Castle Mandawa - Mandawa, Rajasthan Deogarh Mahal - Deogarh, Rajasthan Jaipur House - Mt. Abu, Rajasthan Mandawa Haveli - Jaipur, Rajasthan Raj Mahal Palace - Jaipur, Rajasthan Rohetgarh - Rohet, Rajasthan Udai Bilas Palace - Dungarpur, Rajasthan Desert resort - Mandawa, Rajasthan 3.2.5 Samode Hotels Samode hotels are luxury heritage hotels in India's most exquisite and remote settings. Each property is enhanced by its unique surroundings and expands horizons for travelers while respecting local ways of life. All are family run hotels offering personalized service and attention to detail that makes the welcome warm and the stay unforgettable. Samode Hotels have three world class luxury hotels in Rajasthan, as different as their location each property upholds the Samode commitment to integrate the highest international standards of hospitality with indigenous culture, designs and materials. 1. Samode Palace The winner of best Heritage Hotel in the country, for 5 consecutive years, the Palace has been meticulously restored offering a retreat into an aesthetically beautiful environment where visitors can enjoy India's natural beauty and rich history. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 25
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Samode Palace is one of India's most charming and romantic hotels. It offers a quiet, elegant and luxurious atmosphere. 2. Samode Haveli The Samode Haveli is a unique small property hotel offering intimate and personalized service. Its unique atmosphere blending the contemporary and the historic elements gives Samode Haveli a warm & friendly atmosphere. It's a home away from home. With its understated luxury, antique furniture, furnishings and original work-of-art, the hotel is a celebration of traditional values and gracious living. 3. Samode Bagh Samode Bagh is a garden paradise located 4 kms from the Samode Palace. It is nestled on 20 acres of beautiful grounds combines warmth and luxury. It is a romantic hideaway, a unique experience of an air-conditioned tented camp where the dune colored tents is luxuriously furnished with every comfort. The garden is about three blocks long and is enclosed by a 15-foot high stonewall. Two hundred feet long row of fountains fed from natural springs and wells are displayed all along the garden. Victorian and traditional Rajasthan décor echo life in a 16th century luxury camp. Development in the field of transportation, communication and increase in population had effect on the growth, type and location of hotels and supplementary accommodation. Today, we find many hotels and catering establishments of varied character, size and nature operating in different cities and tourist centers. Classification of these hotels and supplementary units within the industry is a complicated task. Hotels are of various types depending on number of factors like the nature and facilities offered, size, location etc. Classification in the real sense separates accommodation into different categories or class on the basis of objective criteria, for example, by the type of accommodation, such as hotels, motels, tourist lodges, holiday camps etc. It seeks to present information about tourist accommodation units in a form, which enables the user to find information he requires. Information thus obtained will help to compare with identical classification and thus, separates accommodation according to physical features. 3.3 SIZE, STAR SYSTEM Classification is made based on the number of let able rooms. It can be indicated either by rooms as is done in America or by the number of beds as is done in Europe. · Small hotels: 25 rooms or less · Average hotels: 25 rooms to 90 rooms · Above average hotels: 80 rooms to 250 rooms · Large hotels: 250 rooms and above Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 26
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 3.4 ELIGIBILITY FOR STAR CLASSIFICATION The Department of Tourism classifies functioning hotels under the star system, into five categories from 1-star to 5-star. For this purpose a permanent Committee, the Hotel and Restaurant Approval and Classification Committee (HRACC) has been set up which inspects the applicant hotels to assess their suitability or otherwise for award of the star category applied for. Based on the recommendations of the HRACC, deserving hotels are awarded the appropriate star category and are placed on the approved list of the Department. Approved hotels become eligible to various fiscal reliefs and benefits. The Department intercedes on behalf of such hotels whenever necessary to ensure that their needs get priority consideration from various concerned authorities. These hotels also get worldwide publicity through tourist literature published by the Department of Tourism and distributed by the Government of India Tourist Offices in India and abroad. Approved hotels become eligibility for obtaining foreign exchange for their import of essential equipment and provisions and for their overseas advertising, publicity and promotion under the Hotel Incentive Quota Scheme. To be eligible to apply for classification, a functioning hotel must fulfill the following minimum basic requirements: i) The hotel must have at-least 10 let able bedrooms. ii) All rooms should have proper ventilation and ceiling fans. iii) Carpet areas in respect of rooms and areas of bathrooms should by and large adhere to the following limits prescribed: Failure to satisfy these conditions will disqualify a hotel for consideration. The general features, facilities and services expected of hotels in the different star categories are broadly described here: 3.5 HOW TO APPLY FOR STAR CLASSIFICATION A classification fee (at the existing rate) is payable by the hotels applying for classification. The Classification fee is payable by means of a demand draft drawn in favor of the pay and accounts officer, department of tourism, New Delhi. For reclassification, fee will by 50% of the fee payable at first time. Application form for the particular star category applied for can had from the member secretary H.R.A.C.C, department of tourism, Government of India, ‗Transport Bhawan‘, New Delhi. The powers to classify hotels in 1 and 2 star categories have been delegated to the respective State Government/Union Territories w.e.f 1.1.1986. A hotel applying for 1 or 2 star categories is, therefore, required to approach the concerned stare government/union territory. ◘ Classification for newly operational hotels must be sought within 3 months of completion of approved hotel projects. Operating hotels may opt for classification at any stage. However, hotels seeking re-classification should apply for reclassification one year prior to the expiry of the current period of classification. ◘ If the hotel fails to reapply 1 year before the expiry of the classification order, the application will be treated as a fresh classification case. ◘ Once a hotel applies for classification / re-classification, it should be ready at all times for inspection by the HRACC. No requests for deferment of inspection will be entertained. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 27
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First ◘ Classification will be valid for 5 (five) years from the date of issue of orders or in case of reclassification from the date of expiry of the last classification provided that the application has been received within the stipulated time mentioned above, along with all valid documents. Incomplete applications will not be accepted. ◘Hotels which propose to let out part of or all its rooms on time-share basis are not eligible to be classified 3.6 FIVE STAR CATEGORY General Features - The facade, architectural features and general construction of the hotel building should have the distinctive qualities of a luxury hotel of this category .The locality, including the immediate approach and environs should be suitable for a luxury hotel of this category and there should be adequate parking space for cars. The hotel should have at least 25 let able bedrooms, all with attached bathrooms with long bath or the most modern shower chambers. All public rooms and private rooms should be fully air-conditioned and should be well equipped with superior quality carpets, curtains, furniture, fittings etc., in good taste. It would be advisable to employ the services of professionally qualified and experienced interior designers of repute for this purpose. There should be an adequate number of efficient lifts in the building of more than two stories (including the ground floor) with 24 hours service. There should be a welldesigned and properly equipped swimming pool. There should be a well-designated lobby and ladies' and gentlemen's cloakroom equipped with fittings and furniture of the highest standard. Facilities - There should be a reception, cash and information counter attended by highly qualified, trained and experienced personnel and conference facilities in the form of one each or more of the conference rooms, banquet halls and private dining rooms. There should be bookstall, beauty parlor, barbershop, recognized travel agency, florist and a shop for toilet requisites and medicines on the premises. There should be a telephone in each room and telephone for use of guests and visitors and provision for a radio or relayed music and a TV set in each room. There should be a well equipped, well-furnished and well-maintained dining room /restaurant on the premises and wherever permissible by law, there should be an elegant, well equipped bar / permit room. The kitchen, pantry and cold storage should be professionally designed to ensure efficiency of operation and should be well equipped. Services - The hotel should offer both International and Indian Cuisine and the food and beverage service should be of the highest standard. Glassware, cutlery, silver, table wear and all necessary accessories should be of best quality and standard. There should be professionally qualified, highly trained, experienced, efficient and courteous staff in smart, clean uniforms, and the staff coming in contact with guests should understand English. The supervisory staff knowing at least one continental language should be rotated on duty at all times. There should be 24-hour service for reception, information and telephones. There should be provision for reliable laundry and dry cleaning services. Housekeeping, at the hotel, should be of the highest possible standard and there should be plentiful supply of linen, blankets, towels etc., which should be of the highest quality available. Each bedroom should be provided with a good vacuum jug/ thermos flask with ice cold boiled drinking water except where centrally chilled purified drinking water is provided. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 28
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First There should be a special restaurant / dining room where facilities for dancing, orchestra are available. 3.7 2 STAR CATEGORY HOTELS General Features - The building should be well constructed and the locality and environs including the approach should be suitable for a good hotel. The hotel should have at least 10 let able bedrooms of which at least 75% should have attached bathrooms with showers and a common bathroom for every four of the remaining rooms and should be with modern sanitation and running cold water with adequate supply of hot water, soap and toilet papers. 25% of the rooms should be air-conditioned (where there should be heating arrangements in all the rooms) and all rooms must be properly ventilated, clean, and comfortable with all the necessary items of furniture. There should be a well-furnished lounge. Facilities - There should be a reception counter with a telephone. There should be a telephone or call bell in each room and there should be a telephone on each floor unless each room has a separate telephone. There should be a well-maintained and well equipped dining room / restaurant serving clean, wholesome food and a clean, hygienic and well-equipped kitchen and pantry. Service - There should be experienced, courteous and efficient staff in smart and clean uniforms. The supervisory staff coming in contact with guests should understand English. There should be provision for laundry and dry cleaning services. Housekeeping at the hotel should be of a good standard and good quality linen, blanket, towels etc., should be provided. Similarly, crockery, cutlery and glassware should be of a good quality. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 29
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 3.8 LESSON SUMMARY The Heritage Hotel Scheme has created immense interest and it has great potential because it will greatly enhance India as a product owing to its special attraction. It will also substantially increase the accommodation available for tourists within the country in a short time and with comparatively less investment and will make substantially that short fall which exists in the approved hotel category. It will help to the heritage of the country (though in private hands) which may otherwise be lost forever. Finally, it will generate substantial economic activity and employment, particularly in the lesser developed areas where many of these properties are located. We hope that the information provided in the Unit will be utilized by you as per your own requirements. These could be providing information to clients, putting Heritage Hotels on the itinerary with packaging tours, planning to open your own heritage hotel, improving the services, etc. Normally hotels have four categories of rates, viz. rack rates, group and tour rates, special and promotional rates, and package rates. The tariff also varies as per room categories and bedding. A number of hotels offer special discounted rates for Companies, Government, Military Tour, Agent and Salesperson. The meal plans are usually of five types, viz. European plan, American plan (full and modified), Continental plan and ‗Bed and Breakfast‘ plan. Guest relation is the integral part of the hotel industry. A guest may be classified on the basis of presence in the hotel, on the basis of recognition and on the basis of revenue (paying and complementary). 3.9 KEY WORDS Clans – tribe, family, relations Chivalry – politeness, courtesy, loyalty Gallantry – courage, bravery, daring Feudal - of, relating to, or having the characteristics of a medieval fee Privy Purse- Amount of money given by the government to the kings & princes for their Private expenses after India became independent. Sepia - a photograph with a brownish tone Lucrative – profitable, rewarding, worthwhile Memorabilia - objects collected as souvenirs of important personal events or experiences Fiscal – economic, financial, monetary Intercede- intervene, mediate, negotiate Environs – neighborhood, surroundings, locality Deferment – postponement, rescheduling, suspension 3.10 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Define History of Heritage Hotels? 2. Mention about the various Heritage Hotels of India? 3. Mention about the welcome Heritage Hotels? 4. Mention the Heritage Hotels of Neemrana? 5. Mention the HRH Heritage Hotels? 6. Name the palaces of India? 7. Write about Samode Hotels & Samode Haveli? 8. What is classification of hotel? Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 30
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 9. 10. 11. 12. What is the eligibility for star classification? How to apply for star classification? What are the general features, Facilities & services for a five star hotel? What are the general features, Facilities & services for a two star hotel? 3.11 REFERENCES 1. M. Zulfikar, Introduction to Tourism and Hotel Industry,Sangam Books Ltd. 2. S.K. Bhatnagar, Front Office Management, Frank Bros. & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 3. Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction, Wiley. 4. Tom Powers, Clayton W. Barrows, Introduction to the Hospitality Industry, Wiley. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 31
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT -04 BASIS OF ROOM TARIFF CHARGES CONTENTS 4.0 Objectives 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Various types of room plans. 4.2.1 European Plan 4.2.2 Continental Plan 4.2.3 American Plan 4.2.4 Modified American Plan 4.3Types of Rooms in Hotels 4.3.1Deluxe Room 4.3.2 Superior Room 4.3.3 Standard Room 4.3.4 Economy Room 4.3.5 Suite 4.4 Lesson Summary 4.5 Key Words 4.6 Questions to Solve 4.7 References 4.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: • Various Plans applicable in the hotels • Different types of Rooms available in the Hotel. • The facilities available to the guest. 4.1 INTRODUCTION In most of the standard hotels, now days the basis of charging the guest differs according to the property. There are various plans as per the choice of the guest, which they feel suitable, and are charged according to that. There are various types of rooms too available as per the choice of the guest, and above all regarding the facilities offered by the hotel as per their classification. 4.2 VARIOUS TYPES OF ROOM PLANS 4.2.1 European plan - In this case only the lodging i.e. bed is offered. Thus the charges are made for lodging only. The guest is free to take or not to take teas, breakfast, and meals in the hotel. He has a choice of eating out at any other good restaurant. The guest is booked to pay for lodging only and is charged separately for all other things or services he enjoys or consumes. This system is generally followed by youth hostels or hotels which are situated in metropolitan cities. In India most of the hotels are being run on European plan. Almost all the public sector hotels are run on this basis. 4.2.2 Continental Plan - In the case of continental plan, bed and breakfast are included in the tariff charges. Thus bed is offered along with breakfast and the guest is, however, free to take his meal and tea as he likes. Thus the guest tariff includes lodging and ‗bed and breakfast‘ and for other he is separately billed. 4.2.3. American Plan - Hotel where American plan is prevalent, boarding and lodging is provided in the charge. The tariff fixed includes board and lodging. It is an all inclusive Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 32
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First full board tariff. Accommodation and three meals daily are included in the price of the room. It includes bed, breakfast and two principal meals and evening tea. The needs are usually 'table d‘hôte menu'. It is also known as 'full pension'. This analysis is mostly used at those tourist resorts, which are not situated in big cities. 4.2.4. Modified American Plan - The tourists mostly prefer this plan, as it is comparatively more flexible. It is offered in most of the good hotels and is normally by arrangement. It includes hotel accommodation, breakfast and either lunch or dinner in the price of the room. Thus, in this type of accommodation bed and breakfast and along with it one principal meal, lunch or dinner at the discretion of the guest is also included. It generally includes continental breakfast and either 'table d‘hôte lunch or dinner in the room rates. It is also known as 'demi-pension'. It has been observed that the Indian style local hotels in India follow the European plan. However, and the western style hotels operating in India which cater the foreign tourists, operates on the American plan. 4.3 TYPES OF ROOMS IN HOTELS The tariff also varies as per room categories. Every hospitality establishment has different types of rooms available but the most common type of rooms available in large hotels are A - Deluxe (Maximum Rate), B - Superior (Moderate Rate), C – Standard (Minimum Rate), D - Economy (Promotional rate). The accommodation is also categorized depending on occupancy rates charged accordingly. Su - Suite, S - Single occupancy, D – Double occupancy. Category Type of Accommodation 4.3.1. Deluxe Room- offers the best location in the hotel and offers best view, highest level of comfort with matching furnishings and decor. The amenities include a fully stocked bar or refrigerator and the room has king or queen beds. 4.3.2. Superior Room - is a medium rate room usually located on the ground floor with a good view and may have a double king or queen bed. 4.3.3. Standard Room is a regular room consisting of one or two double beds, a queen bed or two twin beds. They may not have either a good view or a good location. 4.3.4. Economy Room- generally a room reserved for promotional or discounted rates and may have under sized beds, small floor plan or a mediocre location. 4.3.5. Suite normally consists of two rooms -a living room and a sleeping room. It may sometimes also have a kitchenette or conference room. The other amenities provided are a stocked bar and refrigerator. 4.4 FACILITIES OFFERED IN HOTELS Facilities offered by hotels may be the most important criteria for classification. Some countries adopt Star Rating System. Thus a five star hotel which is the highest rating provide facilities such as central air conditioning, attached bathrooms with hot and cold water, channel music, wall to wall carpeting, shopping arcade, health club, swimming pool, sports facilities and a variety of restaurant & bars including coffee shop, specialty restaurant, grill room etc. These are some of the criteria of star rating. Certain such facilities are denied as the star rating of the hotels goes lower and lower. They may be excluded for a variety of reasons such as cost, level of business etc. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 33
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 4.4 LESSON SUMMARY According to type of plan (tariff pattern), hotels are classified into European Plan, Continental Plan, American Plan/ Modified American Plan and ‗Bed and Breakfast Plan‘. According to the size, hotels are grouped into small hotels, average hotels, above average hotels and large hotels. According to visitors stop-over, hotels are grouped into Residential Hotels, Semi Residential Hotels, Transient / Transit Hotels and Resort Hotels. According to its relationship with transport, hotels are grouped into Motels, Railway Hotels, Airport Hotels and Floating Hotels. Normally hotels have four categories of rates, viz. rack rates, group and tour rates, special and promotional rates, and package rates. The tariff also varies as per room categories and bedding. A number of hotels offer special discounted rates for Companies, Government, Military Tour, Agent and Salesperson. The meal plans are usually of five types, viz. European plan, American plan (full and modified), Continental plan and ‗Bed and Breakfast‘ plan. Guest relation is the integral part of the hotel industry. A guest may be classified on the basis of presence in the hotel, on the basis of recognition and on the basis of revenue (paying and complementary). 4.5 KEY WORDS Discretion – carefulness, judgment, caution Amenities – facilities, services Mediocre – average, ordinary, middling Kitchenette - a very small room, or part of another room, equipped and furnished as a kitchen Arcade – mall, walkway, shopping arcade 4.6 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Mention the various types of room plan? 2. Mention the different types of Rooms in Hotel? 3. Write in short about the facilities offered in the hotel? 4.7 REFERENCES 1. M. Zulfikar, Introduction to Tourism and Hotel Industry, Sangam Books Ltd. 2. S.K. Bhatnagar, Front Office Management, Frank Bros. & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 3. Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction, Wiley. 4. Tom Powers, Clayton W. Barrows, Introduction to the Hospitality Industry, Wiley. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 34
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 35
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 36
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT -05 ORGANIZATION OF LODGING PROPERTIES CONTENTS 5.0 Objectives 5.1 Introduction 5.2. Independent Hotels 5.3 Chain Hotels 5.4 Franchisee and Referral Groups 5.5 Management 5.6 organization Mission goals & strategies 5.6.1 Mission 5.6.2 Goals 5.6.3 Strategies 5.7 Hotel Organization & its functional areas 5.7.1 Functional areas 5.8 Front office Organization 5.9 Functional Organization & FO Department 5.10 Lesson Summary 5.11Key Words 5.12 Questions to Solve 5.13 References 5.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: • Regarding the advantages & disadvantages of Independent hotels, • The various Chain Hotels in India & abroad. • Franchisee & referral Groups ◘ Front office department and its functions ◘ Front office organization ◘Duties and responsibilities of front office staffs ◘ Front office desk layout and equipments 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this unit we discuss the Organization of Lodging properties presently in practice. The organization and management depends on the type of hotel organization they are operating. From this we can understand the advantages and disadvantages of various types of organization hotels are operated. At the hub of the hotel world is the reception desk where most guest transactions take place. It is here that the guest is received, registered and assigned a room. Information, mail, messages, complaints and room accounts are all dealt with here. Therefore, to a large extent, the reception team is the key to an enjoyable and problemfree stay for the hotel guest. It is also the centre of attraction and money generation for the establishment. 5.2 INDEPENDENT HOTELS These hotels are on ownership basis and do not have any affiliation or contract through any other property. And also they do not have any tie-up with any other hotels with Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 37
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First regards to policy, procedures and financial obligations. The advantage in this type of hotel is that they need not maintain a particular image and they are not bound to maintain any set targets, but can independently adapt quickly to the changing trends.  Independent hotels do not have ownership or management affiliation with other properties.  They have no relationship to other hotels regarding policies, procedures, financial obligations, management, accounting etc.  These may be registered as sole proprietor-ship or a private limited company.  The owner may decide the standard, type of clientele, the tariff etc.  He may tie up with travel agencies to sell his property against commission. 5.3 CHAIN HOTELS There are many single owner hotels, yet more and more hotels and motels are now getting affiliated to each other. This gives them the advantage of a large central organization providing reservation system, management services, financial strength, expertise, manpower specialties, merchandises and promotional help. 5.4 FRANCHISE AND REFERRAL GROUPS Franchises: are special categories of chain operations, they pay fees to use name, building design and business methods of the franchisor. Furthermore, the franchisee must agree to maintain the franchisor‘s business and quality standards. The franchisee is usually responsible for generating funds to start the business.  Franchise is a system in which the franchise owner grants another the right or privilege to merchandise a product or service for a specified return.  Franchise Agreement is an agreement under which the owner operates as a member of the chain, utilizing the brand image, name, goodwill and obtaining for a certain fee some services of marketing and operating nature support from resources of a large organization, advertising, sales promotion, technical and financial help etc.  The best known franchising companies are Holiday Inn, Choice International, and Quality Hotels & Inns etc. Referral groups are that members, who are independent operators, achieve the marketing benefits of chains without chain membership.      Referral Groups consists of independent hotels which have grouped together for some common purpose. Though the properties in the referral group may be different from each other but there is sufficient consistency in the quality of service to satisfy guest expectations. The member hotels recommend guests to other member hotels. Best Western International, one of the largest hotel chains is the best example of referral groups. The referral groups also extend benefit of more extensive reservation and expanded advertising through pooled resources. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 38
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 5.5 MANAGEMENT  Management companies are organizations that operate properties owned by others.  Those other hotels may be owned by individual persons, partnerships or private limited companies.  The individual hotel, under construction, may contract with a professional hotel management company to operate the proposed property.  These contracts are normally on a long-term basis.  Some management companies, when feel that they must have a hotel in a particular location then they approach prospective individuals to build a hotel and operate under their managements contract.  The management contract can even be signed before the construction starts.  After paying the management fees, operating expenses, the owners keep the balance cash for paying their debts, taxes etc. and the balance is their net profit.  The Management companies only take over the management of the company, whereas the franchising companies provide the financial assistance, advertising, central reservation facilities, marketing etc. 5.6 ORGANIZATIONAL MISSIONS, GOALS AND STRATEGIES 5.6.1 MISSION: Therefore, the mission statement should indicate how it would satisfy all three factors so that they continue performing well in the hotel industry. An example of a mission statement is given below. In the initial stages of the formation of a company, promoters discuss and formulate the broad guidelines that the company will follow in the future. These guidelines are collectively known as the MISSION STATEMENT. A MISSION is the unique purpose that sets one hotel or motel company apart from others. Moreover, the mission statement gives meaning and direction to hotel policies. When faced with problems, uncertainties or the need to take strategic decisions, managers shall always make sure that their decisions match the mission statement. The mission statement shall be general and broad. For, if a mission were specific and limited, it would be impossible to apply the mission statement in any future circumstances. The mission statement shall reflect the interests of participants interacting in the hotel industry, namely: 1. Guest: Guest(s) constitute one of the most important factors in the hotel industry. No guest means an accommodation sector! 2. Employee: A hotel with no employees would simply mean that guests would not be welcomed, registered or assisted. Employees are therefore the fundamental factor in hotel industry. 3. Management & Owners: A hotel with no managers resembles an army sans generals. Moreover, there have to be investors to put in money to build, furnish and operate a hotel. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 39
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 5.6.2 GOALS: Bearing in mind the company's mission statement, managers shall put together the company's global objectives and then break them down to departmental goals and objectives. By definition, goals are those activities and standards an organization must successfully perform or achieve to effectively carry out its mission. Moreover, goals shall be: 1. Specific and limited 2. Tangible 3. Quantifiable If objectives were general and non-quantifiable, it would be impossible to ascertain whether company‘s actual performances match planned objectives. 5.6.3 STRATEGIES: After determining departmental goals and objectives, managers shall design the best methods their respective departments or divisions shall use to achieve its goals. These methods are referred to as strategies. Managers shall further break down each strategy into tactics (i.e. day-to-day methods to implement the strategies). An example of a Front Office department goal, a strategy to achieve this and the related tactic is given below: Goal: Operate the front desk efficiently and courteously so that guests register within 2 minutes of arrival. Strategy: Pre-register guests with reservation guarantees as room become available from the housekeeping department. Tactic: Pre-print registration cards for arriving guests and segregate cards of all guests with reservation guarantee. Managers should continuously monitor and evaluate their strategies and tactics, revising them if necessary, so that department goals and objectives are fully attained at the end of the planned period. 5.7 HOTEL ORGANIZATION AND ITS FUNCTIONAL AREAS In order to carry out its mission, global goals and departmental objectives, every company shall draw up a formal structure depicting the hierarchy of managerial, supervisory and employee (staff) levels. This structure is referred to as organization chart. The organization chart projects reporting relationships span of management and staff or line functions. Two types of relationships might exist between any two functions on an organization chart. An organization chart shall be flexible in order to reflect and survive ever-changing environmental dynamics. Therefore, organization charts shall be reviewed from time to time to determine whether the actual organization still matches environmental needs and conditions (guests, employees, technology, competition, etc.). Changes in the organization chart shall be initiated through SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis. Organization charts shall be tailored to fit the needs of each individual hotel property. Given the uniqueness of an individual property, it is most unlikely there be any two hotels having exactly the same organization chart. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 40
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First FUNCTIONAL AREAS: There are two approaches to classify departments in typical hotels: 1. Revenue Generating versus Cost Centers: The first approach is by differentiating departments with respect to revenue generation. Departments that generate revenue to the hotel (e.g. Front Office, F&B, etc.) are called revenue generators and departments that incur cost without directly contributing to hotel profitability are called cost or support centers (e.g. Accounting Department, Maintenance and Engineering Department, etc.). 2. Front House versus Back House: This approach classifies departments by the frequency their staffs communicate with guests. If communication between staff and guest is frequent then the department is termed as a ―front house‖ or ―front office‖ department (e.g. Front Office Department). On the other hand, if communication between department staff and guests is non-existent or occasional, then the department is said to be a ―back house‖ or ―back office‖ (e.g. Maintenance and Engineering Department). 5.8 FRONT OFFICE ORGANIZATION Front Office Manager- He is the head of the department. His area of activity include front desk, bell desk, lobby, information counter, back office, telephone operator, reservation counter etc. the manager has ensure that his staff reports of duty in time with proper uniform. He has to ensure smooth running of the dept. The manager prepares the duty schedule, weekly off, sanction leave etc. He has to ensure that the V.V.I.P. or V.I.P. is received properly. He has to check the functioning of each section under the dept. He deals with a complaint against his staff and also the complaints of the guests. He is responsible to taking decision at the time of unusual events such as death, theft etc. Asst. Front Office Manager- He is the responsible person for taking decision in the absence of front office manager. He has ensured the smooth running; efficient polite Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 41
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First personalized service is given to the guest by his staff. He has to see that all dept. staff are carried out their duty is very efficiently. Reservation Manager- In large hotel, reservation is responsible for the smooth functioning of the entire reservation section. He has to plan and control all room reservation and must inform the front office manager about the room position. He has to handle all reservation including groups, crews, V.I.P. etc. He has to prepare monthly reports 10 days forecast etc. He has to see all dates are fully booked after the approval from the F.O. Manager. He has to prepare the training schedule for all new recruits in this section. Reservation Assistant- In a large hotel, he is responsible for handling the entire duties assistant by the reservation manger and in a medium type hotel he is the in charge of the reservation section. He has to prepare the details regarding arrival room requirements expected departures etc. He has to check the V.I.P. reservation and ensure V.I.P. ministers, voucher for fruits, beverages and other special items providing in the guest room. He has to prepare replaces to all reservation enquiring coming through telephone telex, fax. He has not down the arrival of V.I.P.‘s and guest required special services. Reservation Clerk- He is responsible to attending all reservation enquires by personal by letter, telephone, telex, and fax etc, gives proper information. He has to comfort the booking and prepare the arrivals list for each day. He has to send the arrival list to reception, housekeeping dept. F & B dept. etc. Lobby Manager- He is responsible to look after all activities in the lobby. The reception information bell desk etc., are normally under the control of the lobby manager. He is considered as a problem solver and authority to handle all guests problem. The lobby manager could this have to be an experienced person and should capable to handing the guest problem. He has to known about the rules and regulations of establishment. The lobby manager controls a learn supervisors and they will handle the different sections. He would have highly diplomatic in all his dealings. Bell Captain -He is the person responsible to organize and supervise and control all lobby service to guest satisfaction. He is responsible to control and supervise all bell boys to get maximum efficiency. He is responsible for the safely and security of the lobby. He has to ensure that all procedure regarding arrivals and departure are followed strictly. He has to attend all guest complaints in the issue of manager He has to supervise delivery of morning newspaper to the guest room and handle left luggages. Bell Boys- There is responsible for handling all guest luggages in the hotel. He is responsible to take the guest baggages from the vehicle and escort the guest to this room at the time of guest arrival. He has to explain the operation of light switches, A/c controlling etc. to the guest. At the time of departure he has to bring down the luggage from the room. He is also responsible to distribute daily news papers to guest room administrative officers depts. Etc. They have to keep the lobby area clean and clear to ensure smooth traffic floor. They have to reports to the lobby manager about the guest with sandy baggages or to no baggages. The bell boys will do the paging distribution of mail etc… Front Office Supervisor- He reports to Asst. Front office manager or lobby manger. The supervisor is responsible to supervise and ensure the smooth and efficient functioning of the front desk systems and standard set by the manager. He has to ensure that all front staff reports on time with proper uniforms and properly uniformed. He is responsible Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 42
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First briefing all dept staff to ensure maximum efficiency. He has to check and sign the log book and take appropriate action. He is also responsible to meet and great all at the time of guest arrival. Information Asst. - An information asst is responsible to distribute room keys to registered guest. Answer all the incoming call for all messages. Handle guest mail, parcels, telegrams, telex etc… Keep information about their hotel tourist places road maps, plate timing, train timing… Front Office Asst.- He is responsible to receive, register and allotting room to all guests coming to the hotel. In large hotel, the receptionist reports to the front office supervisors and the receptionist must keep a room status register or board accurately. Front Office Cashier - He is responsible to receive payment from guest at the time of departure or settlement of their bills. He is responsible to accept all credit payment by getting the signature of the guests in to the voucher. He has to accept credit cards, travelers cheques, travel agents voucher etc. He is also responsible to look after the safe deposit lockers and foreign currency exchange regulations. Telephone Operator- He is responsible for the efficient operation of the telephone exchange installed with .The telephone has to attend all the incoming calls with the hotel and direct to the proper extensions. He has to control all outgoing calls from the hotels including STD & ISD. He is also responsible to handle wake-up call service promptly and timely. The operation should very speedily and accurate when connecting all incoming calls and outgoing calls. He should keep a clear voice while attending the calls. Doorman / Linkman- He is place of duty is the main entrance of the hotel. He is responsible to open the main door at the time of a guest arrival or departure. When a vehicle arrived, he should inform the bell desk for bell boys and then opens the door of the car. He should carry umbrellas in the rainy season. He keeps the unwanted visitors away from the hotels. At the time of guest departure he should call the car or the vehicle for the guest. Normally he may wear a peak cap as a part of his uniforms. Valet- This is also a uniformed staff in the hotel. A valet is responsible for giving personnel service to the room guests according to their request. He may help in all his personal works including packing and in packing of guest‘s baggage‘s, ironing of guest‘s clothes and attending any laundering and dry-cleaning needs of the guest. The valet service is normally provided by superior hotels, in such most of the guest may request a personalized service. Lift Operator- In some hotels the lift is normally operated by a lift operator. Even if the lift is automatic, it is advisable to have and attend to operate lift. The operator is responsible for the condition and cleanliness of the lift. He should keep a regular maintenance record and never permit any unauthorized person to operate the lift. He should take care that the lift is not over loaded and normally he wears a similar uniform that of bell boys. Guest Relation Executive- In large hotels there are G.R.E is and they are the representative of the management of the hotel, for dealing all problems and complaints of the house guests. He must always touch with the hotel guest and her office is near to the reception office. She has to deal with the all problems very politely and diplomatically. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 43
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 5.9 FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF F.O. DEPARTMENT The front office department of a hotel comprises of various sections. Depending on the size of the hotels, the sections may vary. In small or medium sized hotels the sections may be merged and handled accordingly. The following are the sections of the front office department. 1. Reservation Section is responsible for booking of rooms in advance. It is responsible for the receiving of the room requests, reservation analyzing and documentation of the room requests received. This section of the department depends upon the size of the hotel; if the hotel is small sized there may be not be a separate section for reservations. This section is mostly found in mid sized and large sized hotel. 2. Front Desk Section is responsible for receiving the guest, registering of the guest, assigning of room and room keys and remote controls for television and air conditioners if such services are available and assistance to the guest during their stay. They are also a source of information for government offices. 3. Bell Desk is mainly responsible for luggage handling of the guests. It consists of group of uniformed staff for guest services. This section is maintained separately in large hotels only. 4. Travel Desk Section handles the transportation facility of the hotel guest. It assists in the booking of air tickets, hiring of the car and other transportation facilities. It also arranges / organizes city tours, sightseeing tours to the guests on request. 5. Business Centers serve the guests with laptops, internet, mobiles, facsimile, LCD projectors, and photocopier and also on request secretarial facilities. This is the latest addition in the large and medium sized hotels, in line with the electronic era. 6. Concierge Section provides information about the hotel, its services and amenities, city, town, country, travel and transport, banks etc. They can also handle the guest luggage and bags if the hotel does not have the bell desk section. The receiving and distribution of mail and message, packets, news papers and magazines in the early mornings to guest room are also attended to. In addition, it may also handle the hiring of the car and booking of air tickets and other transportation facilities if there is no travel desk in the hotel. 7. Cashiering Section is responsible for maintaining and recording guest accounts and bills and folio of guest and either cash or credit settlement of guest folios at the time of departure. 8. Communication and Telephone Section handles the guest telephones and messages, both incoming and outgoing of the guest. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 44
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First LESSON SUMMARY The hospitality industry is part of a larger enterprise known as the travel and tourism industry. The two main segments of the hospitality industry are the lodging industry (also called hotel industry) and the food and beverage industry (also called restaurant industry). Some of the earliest known hotels are taverns or inns, caravanserais, etc. where travelers rested and slept. During the middle ages, the churches across the world established guest offices for pilgrims and travelers. The merchant class hotels began to emerge in 15th century due to increase in trade. The inns of the 16th century provided private rooms to the visitors. The present day hotels started emerging from the late 18th century. The past one hundred years have brought about dramatic changes in modes of transportation, as well as in lodging accommodations. Hotels are built near the railway stations and bus stands for the convenience of passengers. The front office department is the nerve centre of the hotel. This is the department where the guest first checks-in and finally checks-out of the hotel. The front office is also the main controlling centre of all room services. The front office functions include reservations, registration, room and rate assignment, guest services, room status maintenance, settlement of guest accounts and creation of guest history records. The front office department of a hotel comprises of the following sections: Reservation section, Front desk section, Bell desk, Travel desk, Concierge section, Cashiering section, Communication and telephone section, and Business centers. The Front Office Manager must be a skilled planner who channelizes the various resources viz. people, money, time, work methods, materials, energy and equipment to suit the objectives of the property. The Front Desk Agent (Receptionist or Front office Assistant) is the first person a guest sees on entering the hotel and the last person the guest sees on leaving. 5.11 KEY WORDS Affiliation – association, relationship, connection Obligations – compulsion, responsibility, commitment Merchandises – products, commodities, produce Prospective – potential, future, forthcoming Hub – center, core, focal point Sans – without, lacking, short Tangible- touchable, real, substantial Quantifiable- medical, experimental, proven Hierarchy - pecking order, ladder, chain of command 5.12 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What are Independent Hotels? 2. Write in short about Chain Hotels? 3. What are franchisee and referral group? 4. What is management based hotels? 5. Write in detail about Organizational mission, Goals & Strategies? 6. Write in detail about Hotel Organization & its functional areas? 7. Write in detail about Front Office Organization? Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 45
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 8. Write in detail functional sections of Front office? 5.13 REFERENCES 1. M. Zulfikar , Introduction to Tourism and Hotel Industry, Sangam Books Ltd. 2. S.K. Bhatnagar, Front Office Management, Frank Bros. & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 3. Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction, Wiley. 4. Tom Powers, Clayton W. Barrows, Introduction to the Hospitality Industry, Wiley. 5 Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction, Wiley. 6. James A. Bardi, Hotel Front Office Management, Wiley. 7. Ahmed Ismail, Front office operations and management, Thomson Delmar Learning. 8. Michael L. Kasavana and Richard M. Brooks, Managing Front Office Operations, Educational Institute of American Hotel & Motel. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 46
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT -06 FRONT OFFICE OPERATIONS CONTENTS 6.0 Objectives 6.1 Introduction 6.2. Reservation 6.3 Types of Reservation 6.3.1 Guaranteed Reservation 6.3.2 Non Guaranteed Reservation 6.4 Reservation Enquiry 6.5 Sources of Reservation 6.5.1 Central Reservation System 6.6 Group Reservation 6.7 Wall Charts 6.8 Computerized System 6.9 Control Books 6.10 Reservation Confirmation 6.11Amendment/ Cancellation 6.12 Expected arrival, Stay Over 6.13 Lesson Summary 6.14Key Words 6.15 Questions to Solve 6.16 References 6.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Reservation and its types ◘ Sources of reservation ◘Reservation availability ◘Equipment tracking room availability ◘Reservation records and confirmation. 6.1 INTRODUCTION A hotel mainly relies on the income generated from the effective letting of its bedrooms for profit. A large percentage of revenue is obtained from room sales, and out of that again, a large proportion is contributed by the advance booking or reservation of rooms of the hotel. Reservation is an activity concerning the sale of room. In a small hotel, the volume of reservation, i.e. advance booking of room is much less as compared to a large hotel; hence this function and subsequently the work involved in reservations can be done by the receptionist himself at the reception counter. In a large hotel, the volume of work of booking of rooms is quite big and hence it becomes necessary to allocate a separate section away from the reception counter so that the receptionist can concentrate more on the guest services Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 47
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 6.2 RESERVATIONS Reservation is the activity of booking the room in advance for a prospective guest on his request for future, which may be from few days to months in advance. Below is the detailed process of reservation: 1. Conduct the reservation enquiry 2. Determine room and rate availability 3. Create the reservation record 4. Confirm the reservation record 5. Maintain the reservation record 6. Produce reservation reports. Functions of the Reservation Section: · The main function of the reservation section is to help the hotel in generating revenue from future and prospective room sales. · The reservation section should receive the reservation request from the prospective guest, check availability of rooms, process the request and either accept it, wait list it or deny it and communicate the decision. · Prior to Computerization Era, the main function of the Reservation Process is only to determine basic room availability. That is, the reservation clerk can only tell the potential guest whether a room is reserved for him / her or not. However, the reservation clerk cannot tell the type of the room, rate honored etc. But nowadays, with the wide use of computer reservation (on-line reservation) with software package programs, it is now possible to reserve a room by room type, rate, and to accommodate all the possible special requests of the guest. Therefore, the selling function has largely shifted from the front office to the reservation department. Hence, projections of Room Revenues and Profitability Analysis became one of the main functions of the Reservation Department. 6.3 TYPES OF RESERVATIONS 6.3.1 Guaranteed Reservation Ensures that the hotel will hold a room for the guest until a specific time following the guest‘s scheduled arrival date [i.e. check in time or start of the hotel‘s day shift or any time the lodging property chooses]. On return, the guest shall guarantee his / her reservation of room unless reservation is properly canceled. In order to guarantee a reservation, guests might opt for one of the following methods: 1. Prepayment Guaranteed Reservation – the hotel request the prospective guest to either send the complete deposit or a partial deposit and on receiving, makes the booking for the prospective guest. 2. Credit Card Guaranteed Reservation – in this case the prospective guest gives his credit card number and details to the hotel. The hotel confirms the room from the credit card guarantee and then claims from the credit card company, if the guest does not occupy the room on the said date. 3. Travel Agent Guaranteed Reservation – some travel agents have arrangement with hotel chains to book room for their clients and executives travelling to various destination. The travel agents are solely responsible for the reservation; they are billed after the guest‘s stay is completed. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 48
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 4. Voucher or Miscellaneous Charge Order [MCO] - this is a special arrangement designed to attract return guest or new business. This is usually provided by the hotels themselves for their prospective guests. 5. Corporate Guaranteed Reservation – in this case the corporation or company takes the responsibility for booking for their executives, visitors etc. 6.3.2 Non-Guaranteed Reservation A hotel agrees to hold a room for the guest until a stated reservation cancellation hour (usually 6 p.m.) on the day of arrival. In case the guest who has made the reservation arrives after 6.00 pm, the hotel is not bound to provide him accommodation. Nonguaranteed reservation usually occurs when the prospective guest does not provide any payment guarantee but simply confirms through a letter. Reservation agents shall make sure to encourage their guests to guarantee their reservations, especially in the high season. 6.3.3 Tentative / Provisional Reservation Provisional reservation is done when a request from prospective guest is received for some future day arrival and the hotel blocks the room for this guest, provisionally in the hotel records such as charts and diaries and racks or computer and sends a letter of offer to the prospective guest. The offer has a cutoff date by which the guest should send his confirmation which may be in the form of a letter, guarantee by company, credit card or deposit whichever the hotel may request. Once the confirmation from the guest is received by the hotel within the cutoff date, the hotel makes the tentative booking into confirmed booking. Otherwise the tentative booking is cancelled and the records updated. 6.4 RESERVATION ENQUIRY Guests can communicate their reservation enquiries in any one of the methods; in person, over the telephone, via mail, through facsimile, telex or e-mail. Moreover, reservation inquiries can also be made through Central Reservation System or Inter-sell Agency. While getting a reservation enquiry, the reservation agent shall obtain the following guest-related information: i) Guest‘s name, address and telephone number ii) Company or travel agency name, where possible iii) Date of arrival and departure iv) Type and number of rooms requested v) Desired room rate and type of room vi) Number of people in the group, if applicable vii) Method of payment and / or guarantee viii) Any other special requests 6.5 SOURCES OF RESERVATIONS 6.5.1 Central Reservation Systems The majority of Lodging Properties belongs to one or more Central Reservation Systems. A central reservation system is composed of a central reservation office, member hotels connected together via communication devices, and potential guests. Central Reservation Office [CRO] offers its services via a 24-hours toll free telephone number(s). Member hotels of the central reservation system shall provide and exchange accurate room availability data to central reservation offices. To illustrate, central reservation Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 49
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First offices and member hotels shall communicate (on real time) any reservation transaction. This is possible, nowadays, with the sophisticated communication equipment available. These equipments shall be provided by central reservation offices to its member hotels. Such equipment may range from teletype, telex, facsimile machines, to personal computers or Internet connections. On return for the services, central reservation offices charges a fee for the utilization of its services which might take the form of a flat fee and a variable fee, or a flat percentage of potential room revenue, actual room revenue, and / or Rooms Division gross profit. Central Reservation Offices are divided into two: i) Affiliate reservation network - this network is referred to as the hotel chain‘s reservation system. In fact, it is composed of a CRO and hotels, which are members of the same chain. The main advantages of affiliate reservation network are: a) Streamline the process of reservation b) Reduce overall system costs c) Attract business for or refer business to another chain property d) Affiliate reservation networks might serve, in addition to its main function, other duties like: · Serve as an inter property communication network · Serve as an accounting transfer tool · Serve as a destination information center · Serve as a connection with Global Distribution Systems [GDS] System including several Central Reservation Offices connected to each other. ii) Non-affiliate reservation network - A non –affiliate reservation network is composed of a central reservation office, potential guests, and member independent hotels. 6.6 GROUP RESERVATIONS Conducting a reservation request for a group shall be treated differently than accommodating a reservation of individual guests (i.e. Frequent Independent Traveler). The main reason is that individual reservation requests are treated by the reservation department, while group reservations are initiated by the Sales & Marketing Division, and finalized through a careful coordination of the reservation from one hand and the marketing on the other. Below is a detailed procedure of how group reservation, in a typical hotel, is conducted: 1. A group representative, a member of the travel agency or the tour operator, not individuals, shall communicate group reservations' request to the hotel's marketing department 2. Upon availability, the hotel's reservation department shall block the requested number of rooms for this very group 3. The Hotel shall give a deadline for the group, in order to receive their final list. That deadline is called Cut-off Date. 4. After receiving the final list, the reservation department shall change the desired number of rooms' status from blocked to booked (or reserved) rooms, and release the remaining rooms if any left) as vacant for sale. 5. If the hotel did not receive the final list by the cut-off date, then the reservation department has all the right to cancel the group reservation and release all the initially booked rooms into vacant rooms. However, management shall use this right with Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 50
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First precautions especially when it comes to groups reserving from travel agencies and tour operators of which the hotel is frequently servicing. Reservation availability After receiving a reservation request, the hotel might accept it, as it is, if there is room availability. If not, the reservation department should suggest alternative room types, dates, and / or rates, to the potential guest. If, however, the potential guest insists on his / her previous request, the hotel should suggest an alternative hotel. That's one of the main reasons why we need to maintain good relationships with nearby competing hotels. The reservation department should always compare historical reservation volumes against actual arrivals. The main reason is to cope with overbooking, which a situation occurring when the total number of rooms reserved for a certain period of time exceeds the total number of rooms available for sale, for the same period of time. In order to cope with the overbooking problem, some statistical and historical data should be stored and processed by the hotel and should be continuously updated. Such data should include: ◘ Number of rooms reserved for a specific date ◘ Number of rooms occupied by stay over‘s (for a certain specific date) ◘ Forecasted no-show-ups percentage ◘ Forecasted under stays percentage ◘ Forecasted overstays percentage ◘ Forecasted cancellation percentage ◘ Out of order rooms for a specific date. 6.7 WALL CHARTS These are charts stapled on the wall depicting days of the month versus hotel rooms. Moreover, upon need and convenience, these charts might be customized to track appropriate room numbers, rates, and codes, hence, is advantageous to control books. Moreover, in this system, different colors are used to differentiate between different reservation transactions and types of guest reserving. Wall charts eliminates the erasures and rewriting associated with control book, hence less errors might occur. 6.8 COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM In order to function properly, the reservation department shall maintain control books, wall charts, and / or a computerized system. Whatsoever system chosen, the reservation department shall maintain and update that system to include any reservation transaction (i.e. whether a reservation, cancellation, or modification). Below is a description of the three commonly used sets of equipment to track room availability under the manual, semi-automated and fully-automated systems: Computerized systems are by far the best systems that track room availability. In fact, these systems control room availability data and automatically generate many reservation-related reports in an accurate manner. Moreover, computerized systems can itemize room availability for future periods by open dates, closed dates, versus special event dates. This system can also forecast room availability for any reservation horizon needed in the future. In the case of non-availability of room type, the system can further suggest alternative room types, rates, or even other hotels. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 51
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 6.9 CONTROL BOOKS Control books are standard three-ring, loose-leaf binders with a tally page assigned to each day of the year. Under this very system, when a potential guest calls to have a reservation, the reservation clerk shall check the cells corresponding to rooms. If there is an empty cell for all the length of stay of the guest then the reservation clerk marks it as X (i.e. reserved). If the guest is expected to continue staying the next day, then the reservation clerk shall mark the next day's respective room cell as (i.e. Stay over). Lastly, the reservation clerk is encouraged to use colors while updating information or the cells on the control book. 6.10 RESERVATION CONFIRMATION The hotel should communicate with guests by telephone, telex, mail, or e-mail a Letter of Confirmation, which confirms the important points of the reservation agreement. This letter might be shown at the registration process in order to accelerate the pace of registration and to prove that the guest has the right to have a room at the hotel. The Hotel shall send a confirmation letter to all reserved potential guests, whether their reservations are guaranteed or non-guaranteed. Below are the main points that should be communicated in a confirmation letter: ◘Name and address of the guest ◘Date and time of arrival ◘Room type and rate ◘Length of stay ◘Number of persons in a group, if any ◘Reservation type [guaranteed or not] ◘Reservation confirmation number ◘Special requests, if any. 6.11 AMENDMENTS, CANCELLATIONS Potential guests initially asking for an accommodation might make up their minds later (before arrival) and call back for a reservation modification. In fact, guests might change their arrival date, expected departure date, method of payment or call for any other item change previously confirmed in their confirmation letter or simply call to cancel their previous reservation. In such a case, if possible reservation clerks shall proceed as to satisfy guest needs. Below, are two possible examples of guest modification? The first one concerns modifying a reservation type from non-guaranteed to guaranteed. This might be because the guest's airplane schedule has changed in a way that the guest is no more certain to reach the hotel by the cancellation hour. On the other hand, the second example depicts a situation where the guest calls to cancel a reservation (both guaranteed and non-guaranteed cancellations will be discussed). 1. Modify a reservation type (from non-guaranteed to guarantee): In this very case, the reservation clerk shall: a) Obtain the guest‘s name, and access the correct non-guaranteed reservation b) Obtain the guest‘s credit card type, number and expiration date, and the cardholder‘s name, and verify the validity of the credit card (Here assuming that the guest would like to guarantee via a credit card) c) Assign the guest a new reservation confirmation number, if it is the hotel‘s policy Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 52
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First d) Complete the reservation type change from non-guaranteed to guaranteed reservation status according to additional property‘s procedures, if any 2. Reservation Cancellation: Reservation clerks accepting a reservation cancellation shall behave in a polite, courteous and effective manner even though that reservation might make the hotel faced with unsold room(s). The main reason is that guests are doing the hotel a favor, especially under the non-guaranteed type of reservation, to communicate the hotel their cancellation to let you adjust your room availability, and try to find alternative potential guests beforehand. When canceling a reservation, the reservation clerk shall issue and communicate a cancellation number to the guest. In accordance to confirmation numbers, cancellation numbers shall be meaningful as to be used for statistical purposes, and as to prove whether a reservation has been properly canceled according to hotel cancellation policies or not. A) Cancellation of a non-guaranteed reservation: In this very case the reservation clerk shall: a) Obtain guest‘s name and address b) Obtain number of reserved room(s) c) Obtain scheduled arrival and departure dates d) Obtain the reservation confirmation number, if applicable e) Access the right account, and cancel it f) Assign a cancellation number g) Suggest an alternative reservation B) Cancellation of a guaranteed reservation: All the above mentioned procedure applies also for the cancellation of a guaranteed reservation. Moreover, the reservation clerk shall pay attention to the following: 1. In the case of a cancellation of a credit card guaranteed reservation, the cancellation number acts as a proof of whether a certain guarantee shall be refunded to the potential guest or not. 2. In the case of advance deposit guaranteed reservation, again the cancellation number acts as a proof of whether a certain guarantee shall be refunded to the potential guest or not. 3. In the case of any other guaranteed reservation, the reservation clerk shall obtain the representative‘s coordinates and mail him/her a letter documenting the cancellation 6.12 EXPECTED ARRIVAL, STAY OVER, AND DEPARTURE LISTS: On a daily basis, the reservation department shall prepare the expected arrival, stay over, and departures lists and communicate them to the front office department. 1. Arrival list: List of the names, and surnames along with respective room number of the guests who are expected to arrive the next day. 2. Stay over list: List of the names, and surnames along with respective room number of the guests who are expected to continue occupy their rooms the next day. 3. Departure list: List of the names, and surnames along with respective room number of the guests who are expected to depart the next day. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 53
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 6.13 PROCESSING DEPOSITS, RESERVATION HISTORY Guests who decide to guarantee their reservation by paying a certain deposit to the hotel shall be informed about the procedure of sending deposits (i.e. how, when to send the deposits?). Moreover, only employees who do not have access to reservation records shall process deposits (ex: General Manager Secretary or hotel's general cashier). The reason is if reservation and monetary transaction overlap, than internal control over one of the most important assets of the hotel (i.e. cash) becomes very weak. When a hotel assigned agent receives deposit, he/she shall: a) Endorse deposit checks with the hotel stamp as soon as it is received b) Record in the deposits received log the check number, amount, date received, guest name, arrival date, and confirmation number, if known c) Only the log shall be sent to the reservation department Maintaining Reservation History Statistics: The reservation department shall maintain, and update various reservations history statistics to be used in the future whenever needed (ex. to integrate statistics in a model to solve overbooking, to come up with operational ratios, to help for Rooms Division budget preparation…). The following items are some of the data that might be stored in the reservation department system: a) Number and distribution of guests by market segment, age, income, and nationality… b) Number of expected occupied rooms c) Reservation volumes by sources of reservation d) Reservation volumes by types of reservation e) Number of turn away guests with reasons of refusal Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 54
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 6.13 LESSON SUMMARY Reservation is the activity of booking the room in advance for a prospective guest. The process of reservation includes conduct the reservation enquiry, determine room and rate availability, create the reservation record, confirm the reservation record, maintain the reservation record and produce reservation reports. Reservations are of many types, viz. prepayment guaranteed reservation, credit card guaranteed reservation, travel agent guaranteed reservation, voucher or miscellaneous charge order, corporate guaranteed reservation, non-guaranteed reservation, tentative / provisional reservation, etc. Hotels depend on the income generated from the sale of its bedrooms. Reservation is an activity concerning the sale of room. Reservations are done by the receptionist at the reception counter. In large hotels, it is done by a separate section. 6.14 KEY WORDS Sophisticated – stylish, classy, refined Tentative – uncertain, unsure, cautious Communicate – correspond; be in touch, converse, Affiliate- associate, member, belong to Streamline- rationalizes, update, restructure Statistical – arithmetical, numerical, geometric 6.15 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Write in detail about Reservation section in a hotel? Mention the different types of Reservation? What is reservation enquiry? What are the sources of Reservation? How to handle Group reservation? What is meant by Reservation availability? Write short notes on Wall charts, computerized system in reservation? What is Central Reservation System? Write in short about reservation confirmation? How is cancellation and amendments done in reservation? Write about Expected & Departure List? Write in short about processing deposit & reservation History? 6.16 REFERENCES 1. Michael L. Kasavana and Richard M. Brooks, Managing Front Office Operations, Educational Institute of American Hotel & Motel. 2. S.K. Bhatnagar, Front Office Management, Frank Bros. & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 3. Michael L. Kasavana, Richard M. Brooks, Managing Front Office Operations, Educational Institute of American Hotels. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 55
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT-7 FRONT OFFICE COMPUTER APPLICATION CONTENTS 7.0 Objectives 7.1 Introduction 7.2. Room Inventory 7.3 Status 7.4 Software used 7.4.1 Reservation Management Software 7.4.2 Rooms Management Software 7.4.3 Guest Account Management Software 7.4.4 General Management Software 7.5 Lesson Summary 7.6 Key Words 7.7 Questions to Solve 7.8 References 7.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: •To know the importance of room Inventory, •Importance of various status of rooms, and • Regarding the computer software used in the hotel & esp. in Front office. 7.1 INTRODUCTION Hotel industry is a hospitality industry, where every aspect for utmost care of guest should be considered. For proper handling the work and other aspects of front office should continuously update regarding room inventory and the awareness of room status and nevertheless the computer software to cope with the present sophisticated hospitality work. 7.2 ROOM INVENTORY Making room inventory is a continuous process in any hotel industry. Room inventory is maintained for housekeeping purpose. Actually this term used in determining how many rooms is currently available in the hotel. The process of room inventory system basically comprises of an activity whose job is to regularly revise and scrutinize a database for deciding housekeeping status in the hotel. Though the front office department will be responsible for making reservation, but for having the regular update of housekeeping status the front office department should have to make regular communication with other staffs of Housekeeping, Maintenance, and reservation Department. The front office personnel should also have to be updated about the process of room inventory as it plays a vital role in the operational activities of Front office department. Besides the front desk personnel and the floor supervisor, the reservation staff also should be updated about the room inventory to ensure confirmed guest reservation and qualitative service. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 56
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 7.3 STATUS Status of a hotel room changes rapidly, also it is very much crucial to give accurate room status information to the front desk, so that they can sell the room or stop selling or guiding guests. 1. Complimentary- The room is occupied by the guest but he is not charged for using. This sort of offer is given to management staff from other branches, special guests of the management or to big group leaders etc. 2. Did Not Check Out- The guest have made arrangements previously to settle the account but did not turn up neither informed regarding his check out. Here we have to note that he is not a skipper, as he has settled his account. 3. Do Not Disturb- The guest has requested not to be disturbed. This is usually indicated with a sign left hanging on the room‘s door knob or electronically by a red light indicator outside the guest room door. This is one of the most popular terms of Hotel Industry. 4. Due Out- The guest is expected to leave after the following days check out time. 5. Late check out- The guest has requested and is being allowed to check out later after the standard check out time which is usually 11 am or 12noon. Normally one hour is allowed after check out time, and after that normally it is charged. 6. Lock out- The room is locked and the guest will not be allowed until he has been cleared by the hotel official. 7. Occupied- The guest is registered to the room and has not checked out yet. 8. On Change-The guest has just checked out and the room is in the process of cleaning, by housekeeping, and is not ready for resale. 9. Out of Order- The room is not ready for sale as it is closed for maintenance, repair, cleaning, refurbishing, etc. 10. Skipper-The Skipper is a guest who leaves the hotel without settling the account. 11. Sleeper- This situation occurs when the front desk has not updated their room status information. The guest has settled his account and left the hotel, but it was not recorded in the front desk. 12. Sleep out- The guest registers into the room but does not use the bed. 13. Stay over- The guest did not check out on the said date and extends his stay, and would stay one more night. 14. Vacant & Ready-The room has been cleaned and fully ready for resale. 7.4 SOFTWARE USED All front office computer systems do not operate identically. The Property Management Systems (PMS) may illustrate the nature of the front office computer applications. PMS contains sets of computer software packages capable of supporting a variety of activities in front office areas. Common front office software packages are designed to help front office employees perform functions related to: Reservations Management Rooms Management Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 57
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Guest Account Management General Management 7.4.1 Reservations Management Software: Enables a hotel to rapidly process room requests and generate timely and accurate rooms, revenue, and forecasting reports, Central reservations system timely and accurate rooms, revenue and forecasting reports. Computerized in-house reservations records, files and revenue forecasts are immediately updated as reservation are immediately updated as reservation data are received at the hotel. It is through electronic file updating that the computer system remains current and in control of reservations activities. Various reservation management reports, containing a summary of reservation data and guest account status information can also be generated. Current reservations management also includes upgraded rate control features, guest history modules and more detailed property information such as bed types, guestroom views and special features. Reservation management software can also track deposits due, requests deposits and record deposit payments made. 7.4.2 Rooms Management Software: maintains current information on status of rooms provides information on room rates, assists in room assignment during registration and help front office in coordinating guest services. It can be used to provide rapid access to room availability data during the reservation process. This information is useful in short term reservation confirmation and room revenue forecasting-also provides a summary on each room status 7.4.3 Guest Account Management Software: increases the hotel‘s control over guest accounts and significantly modifies the traditional night audit role. Guest accounts are maintained electronically, thereby eliminating much of the need for folio cards, folio trays and account posting machines. The guest accounting module monitors predetermined guest credit limits and provides flexibility through multiple folio formats. When hotel revenue outlets are connected to the front office computer system, remote electronic cash registers can be used to communicate guest charges to the front office. These charges can then be automatically posted to the appropriate electronic guest folios which reduces the chances of late charges. 7.4.4 General Management Software: This software cannot operate independently of other front office software packages. It is report generating which means that it will depend on data collected through the reservation management, room‘s management and guest account management programs. Reports include days expected arrivals, and number of rooms available for occupancy etc. It also serves as a link between front office and back office computer system interface applications. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 58
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 7.5 LESSON SUMMARY Room inventory is maintained for housekeeping purpose. Actually this term used in determining how many rooms is currently available in the hotel. Status of a hotel room changes rapidly, also it is very much crucial to give accurate room status information to the front desk. All front office computer systems do not operate identically. The Property Management Systems (PMS) may illustrate the nature of the front office computer applications. PMS contains sets of computer software packages capable of supporting a variety of activities in front office areas. Some of the software‘s are, Reservations Management, Rooms Management, Guest Account Management, and General Management. 7.6 KEY WORDS Inventory – list, stock, record, supply Scrutinize – inspect, examine, analyze Complimentary – praising, admiring, approving Crucial – vital, critical, essential Refurbishing – restore, redecorate, renew Eliminating – eradicate, remove, abolish 7.7 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is room Inventory? 2. What is the different status of rooms in a hotel? 3. What is the different software‘s used in a Hotel? 7.8 REFERENCES 1. M. Zulfikar, Introduction to Tourism and Hotel Industry,Sangam Books Ltd. 2. S.K. Bhatnagar, Front Office Management, Frank Bros. & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 3. Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction, Wiley. 4. Tom Powers, Clayton W. Barrows, Introduction to the Hospitality Industry, Wiley. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 59
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT -8 REGISTRATION & FRONT OFFICE PROCEDURES CONTENTS 8.0 Objectives 8.1 Introduction 8.2. Registration 8.3 Guest data 8.4 Reports 8.5 Walk in Guest 8.6 Call Accounting 8.7 Guest Information 8.8 Message 8.9 Wake up calls 8.10 Enquiries 8.11 Reservation 8.12 Registration 8.12.1 Functions of Registration 8.12.2 Check Outs 8 .13 Security 8.14 Theft 8.15 Fire alarm 8.16 Burglar Alarm 8.17 Guest Folio 8.18 Lesson Summary 8.19 Key Words 8.20 Questions to Solve 8.21 References 8.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Registration processing and records ◘ Methods and systems of registration ◘ issuing room keys and fulfilling special requests ◘ Room rates and room assignments ◘ Methods of payments. 8.1 INTRODUCTION Guest registration is one of the first and most lasting impressions on a hotel customer. Guest registration sets the tenor for the stay and is, therefore a critical contact point. The front desk should promote the warmth and hospitality of the property. Guest registration is the point at which critical information is collected about the customer and his / her wishes. Reservation is also another important procedure in front office, including Information and aspects which goes a long way in making front office job run smoothly. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 60
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 8.2 REGISTRATION Registration is a mandatory requirement that all guests over the age of 16 years – irrespective of Indian or foreigner, ordinary personnel or VIP. Regardless the size of the hotel, be it small or large guests, must provide basic information about them and fill up either a visitors register / hotel register. The register may be a Red Book / form or a card also called G.R. Card (Guest Registration Card). The guest has to fill in the form and attest his signature. This agreement between the hotel and the guest is known as a simple contract. 8.3 GUEST DATA When a guest first enters the hotel then he needs to fill up guest registration card. Hotel collects data from guests for security concern. Also such specific data is further used for making guest history and for marketing purpose. Here are some basic points of Information a hotel collects from its guests. Full Name Address and country of Residence Type of travel document and serial number. Validity of endorsement for arrivals. Type of Visa and its expiry data. Validity of document of Overseas. Date of Entry. Purpose of stay. Birth date Date of arrival & departure Here is some step by step instruction for front desk personnel‘s on how to collect data from a guest on his first arrival in your hotel: 1. After a guest checks in collect his passport and travel documents. Be sure the photo match with the person standing in front of you. Nowadays you should give extra care in order to catch fraud. 2. Request your guest to fill all required data in detail in guest registration card. Don‘t use any backdated registration card; according to the present security demand includes new information. 3. If guest becomes bored or slow, angry to fill so much detail then politely inform him or her that all these information are needed to be taken for national security. 4. Collect business card and frequent flyer card from all first time travelers in order traveler in order to perform a proper guest profile. 5. If your guest does not have any business or not willing to give you then gently request him or her to fill in the remainder of the guest registration card. 6. Not take much of his time as other guest might wait behind him and want to check in. Try to complete check in procedure promptly but emphasize much on accordance not for time saving, as taking proper information is your ultimate task. 7. After collecting data verify with present document and be sure information he has provided are correct. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 61
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 8.4 REPORTS Occupancy report- The Occupancy figures and other Information are presented daily to the management and consolidated on a standard occupancy report. This is either prepared by the late shift on reception or by the night audit staff. Operational reports- A number of reports need to be regularly completed to assist in the smooth running of the hotel. Some of these are completed by the housekeeping department, and checked by reception. Housekeeper‘s report- The Housekeeping department will send to reception a report on the state of each individual room in the hotel. Standard room report- The reception department is sometimes involved in the filling out of standard room report. The aim of the report is to ensure that the rooms are maintained and decorated to the highest standard. Room Status Report: The Front Office and the Housekeeping Department shall prepare at the same time, as frequent as needed by management, their room status reports, which lists, according to each department, the recent room status of each room in the hotel. Later, these two reports shall be cross-referenced and compared to detect room status discrepancies and correct them as soon as possible in order to maximize room revenue, detect skippers before it is too late… In the manual system, room status reports shall be reconciled at least each hour. This very frequency might increase as the business volume increases (i.e. in the high season)! In the semi-automated system, reconciliation shall be at least once per shift (preferably at the beginning of each shift)! Lastly under the fully automated system, since housekeeping and front office department‘s communication is ensured electronically on real time, reconciliation needs to be done only at the night shift by the night auditor 8.5 WALK IN GUEST In hospitality sector walk-in-guest refers to that person who has come to hotel without any prior reservation. Hotels do not have any sort of obligation to provide proper accommodation to walk-in-guest if there is no room available. On the other hand accommodating walk-in-guests can enhance sales and daily occupancy if it is managed properly. If the guest cannot be accommodated then he should refer him to the other hotel of that group or any nearby hotel. Guidelines to deal with walk-in-guest: 1. Treat the guest warmly with ready smile as like a registered guest. 2. Create such situation so that the guest does not feel hesitated. 3. Ask his desire, length of stay & room preference. 4. Check whether such room is available or not. 5. If not then offer other room. 6. Quote the room rate and room facilities. 7. If guest agrees then proceed for registration otherwise if guest want then send him to another hotel. 8.6 CALL ACCOUNTING Hotels make more sophisticated use of call accounting systems than many corporate entities. First, hotels require real-time processing from their call accounting systems. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 62
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Also, while corporate call accounting systems largely provide departmental chargeback, call accounting systems in hospitality provide more sophisticated chargeback and markup algorithms for revenue based resale of phone services to targeted visitors, staff, partners, and guests. Traditionally, hotel chains and management companies have suggested that properties keep their call accounting systems up-to-date and accurate. They have done this for four main reasons: (1) to recover the cost of long-distance calls, (2) to properly allocate, account for, and charge customers for their phone usage, (3) to generate revenue through the resale of phone calls, and (4) to track phone calls made to and from their property for marketing, planning and other purposes. However, given the low cost of telecommunications capacity available to the hoteliers today, the low phone usage rates in hotels, and the limited qualified staff available within individual hotel properties, such activity is increasingly problematic. 8.7 GUEST INFORMATION Front office management can better understand its clientele and determine guest trends when it develops and maintains a guest history file. It contains personal and financial data of the guest hence it is confidential and proprietary. It is the last step in check out and account settlement. Many hotels build guest history cards from expired registration cards. It has information about the guest‘s spouse, family etc. the information may help develop ads that appeal to the types of clientele the hotel is attempting to attract. Guest histories may also point out the need for new, supplementary or enhanced services 8.8 MESSAGES Receiving messages for in-house guests in their absence, recording them and communicating to the guests as soon as possible is an important function of the front desk staff. The efficiency and professionalism of the hotel and the attitude of the staff is reflected by the way this function is carried out by the staff. Usually when a guest goes out of his room he would leave his room key at the counter where the information clerk would put it in the appropriate pigeon hole of his room in the mail and key rack. The guest my leave a filled ―Location Form‖ indicating where he will be for the next few hours. There are only two ways that a person can contact an in-house guest. (1) In case of a phone call the telephone operator will connect it to the room of the guest. Since the guest is not in the room the call comes back to the operator who connects it to the Information Section of the Front Desk. After checking that the guest has left his key at the desk (as confirmed by the key being in the ―Mail and Key Rack‖) the telephone call is transferred to the ―Message Desk‖. The message clerk prepares the message slip in triplicate. It is important to read back the message to the caller and confirm the details before signing off. The top two copies are given to the Information Clerk who puts it the room no on the forms (from the Information Rack). The Top Copy is sent to the room to be slipped under the door. The Second Copy is put in the appropriate room no pigeon hole of the Mail and Key Rack. In addition, for further safety, an ―attention card‖ or a ―mail and message advice card‖ is put on the door knob of the room or ―message light‖ is activated in those hotels which use electronic systems. The message details may also Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 63
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First be fed into the computer and the guest may view it on the screen of the T.V. in his room. (2) In case of the visitor coming to the hotel, he is asked to first try the house telephones to contact the guest. When he finds the guest is not in his room he comes to the Information Desk and fills in the message slip in triplicate as given above. MESSAGE SLIP To___________________________Room No_______ Date________________Time__________ DURING YOUR ABSENCE Mr/Mrs/Ms___________________________________________ Of_____________________________________________________ Tel No__________________________ Called by Telephone Please call him/her Came to see you Will return Wants to see you Urgent MESSAGE_____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Received by__________________________________ 8.9 WAKE UP CALLS Wake up call is an in-house telephone call to a sleeping guest at an specific time to wake him up, predetermined by the guest. It is generally done in the morning, but a guest may require anytime of the day. It is the duty of telephone department to wake-up the guest but if the call will be made up for airline crews or group of guests the lobby personnel will take calls from local airline operators about the timing of the flight and they should forward the message to telephone operator. In case of airline or groups generally, the wake –up call should be done 45 min. or 1 hour before the pick-up time. In small hotels it is the duty of front desk agent to wake up guests, here are some tips you should follow: Give full attention to write proper room number, name and time to wake-up guest to avoid any mistake. Always insure that guest really wakes-up after your call. You can politely ask the guest then if he wants to have a second wake-up call or not. If no reply is received by the guest while you are calling or guest just hang up the phone and hardly give any reply then you should call him again. While calling you should start this way, ―Good morning, Mr. X It is 6 am in the morning, which is your wake-up call, have a nice day‖. If after second call guest does not respond at all then send the bell person to knock his door and wake him up. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 64
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 8.10 ENQUIRIES Guest‘s enquiries can easily be turned into sales. They also give you an opportunity to help guests & make them feel welcome. How to Handle Enquiries: 1. Know your product. Anticipate all the question people might ask about the hotel & locality. Learn as much possible about areas outside your own department. 2. When the guest you for information, smile & offer to help. 3. If you do not know the answer, find somebody who does. Never say, I don‘t know & leave it at that. Find out the information yourself or direct the guest to the person who can help. 8.11 RESERVATION Reservations are a contract of sorts between the hotel & the guest. In accepting a reservation, the hotel agrees to provide a room for a specific length of stay at a predetermined rate. In turn, the guest arrives on the chosen date & purchase the hotel room as per request in the reservation. The reservation area is critical to the success of a hotel. It is the area involved in selling rooms to future guest. In this sales capacity, reservation must work very closely with the marketing & sales department. The reservation department also cooperates with front office or as a division of the room function department. In large hotel, the reservation staff usually specialized in the telephone skills & a good sales person. The agreed-on terms are simple & generally include the following:  Rate, Date, Room type, Method of payment & guarantee, Guest name & address, Number of guests, Number of rooms, Applicable discounts, Special needs or requests 8.12 REGISTRATION The most highly visible duty of the front office is to register & check out guest. At first glance, few tasks may seem as simple as greeting people & making them feel welcome. Once the guest has arrived & has made it to the front desk, the registration process begins. It is the point where more guests have begun to create an impression of the hotel in their minds. The front desk personnel must continue to focus on guest satisfaction. Hotels that create a warm & inviting atmosphere around the front office are ensuring that the registration process goes smoothly. The purpose of registration process is to register guests with expediency & care, ensure their needs are met while following guidelines to ensure the hotel‘s profitability. 8.12.1 FUNCTIONS OF REGISTRATION Registration serves 3 main functions: 1. It satisfies the legal requirements Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 65
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 2. 3. It provides a record of actual arrivals It helps to confirm the guest‘s acceptance of the hotel terms & conditions 8.12.2 CHECK-OUTS The main duties of the front office at check out are: 1. Settlement of guest accounts 2. Up-dating front office records after guest departures 3. Creating good lasting impressions When checking out a guest, the front office staff should follow certain basic procedures: Greet guest and check their name and room number Check for late charges Produce master and guest folios for guest inspection Settle accounts Up-date front office records Role of Cashier during Check out: 1. Greet guest with a smile and always try to use his name and wish him the time of the day. 2. Confirm guest details (i.e. name and room number) against the guest‘s account. 3. Check whether late checkout charges should be applied. If the guest is leaving after the check out time and he is not a frequent guest then add the relevant late checkout charge to the account. 4. Check for late charges and in particular check breakfast or telephone charges. Give the guest the master and or guest folio for checking 8.13 SECURITY Security has always been a concern for hotels worldwide. Security of guest and his property and the hotel property as well is of great concern for the hotel. In India very few cases (hardly any) have been filed in the civil court asking for compensation for alleged security deficiencies whereas in the U.S. hundreds of cases of negligence leading to law suits for large sums (thousands of dollars) are filed. A hotel would always prefer to have an out-of-court settlement to not only avoid money and time wastage but also to keep itself from controversy and save its reputation. At any reasonable cost, the hotel management would want the complaint withdrawn. 8.14 THEFT In most hotels there is the possibility that dishonest staff will remove all hotel property, be it food, bed, linen, towel, etc. for their own use. The security of these hotel properties has the responsibility of each departmental head. A frequent stock taking and spot checks are essential not only to establish quantities of items in stock, but also to monitor unusual loses which might point to staff theft. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 66
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First In most hotels there is a staff entrance to the premises and a clock in system were by each staff is required to punch a card upon arrival and departure from his or her work showing the time of duty. The timekeeper will also act as a watchman to see that nothing expect the staffs personal property is removed. From the hotel and may have the right to check workers bag and basket to open parcels carried out of the hotel and to call the manager or security officer if necessary. 8.15 FIRE ALARM One of the major threats is that of fire. Although we have not had loss of life in hotels in India (perhaps as a result of our methods of construction and the absence of wall to wall carpeting) hotels here are also bound by law to take necessary fire safety precautions. A front office manager is duty bound to ensure that he is satisfied with a hotel‘s: ◘ Fire detection systems ◘ Fire control provisions ◘ Escape procedures ◘ Fire-fighting equipment 8.16 BURGLAR ALARM It is unfortunate that even the wealthiest of guests may have a tendency to pilfer a hotel‘s property as a souvenir. This normally happens at check out when a guest leaves the hotel with a variety of items – virtually anything that is not securely fastened down: soap, towels, mats, sheets, blankets, coat hangers, lamps, trouser presses, electric kettles, TV sets and even plumbing fixtures. 8.17 GUEST FOLIO A folio is a record of a business transaction and on this document financial data are recorded and summarized. The term guest folio from hotel point of view means knowledge of what is to be received from the guest and what is paid by the guest. To have updated information of the same, it is important that at all times during the guest cycle, an efficient system is used. Various systems such as manual, semi-automatic or fully automatic system may be used depending upon the size and type of the hotel. The objective of the guest folio procedures is as follows: · To maintain accurate and up-to-date guest accounts. · To ensure that payment is received promptly and in full. · To provide management with accurate and up-to-date financial reports. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 67
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 8.18 LESSON SUMMARY Registration is a mandatory requirement that all guests. The guests provide personal and financial information by filling-in the form and / or answering the questions. The information collected is recorded in a register or computer for providing better service to the guests. The registration process involves several steps which include collection of information, assigning right room, providing billing information, sale of rooms and completion of check-in. A typical registration record includes guest name and surname, guest address and telephone number, company affiliation (if applicable), expected arrival date, planned departure date or length of stay, required room rate, required room type, room number, method of payment, special requests (if any) and signature of the guest. Security can be classified under physical aspects, security of persons (guest and staff) and security of systems. The physical aspects o f security can further be subdivided into internal and external. Security aspects of persons can further be subdivided into staff and guests. Security aspect of systems in hotel is equally important to physical and persons‘ security. The objective of such security is to safeguard the assets of the hotel. One of the major threats is that of fire. The Front Office Manager must always have a watch on the fire detection systems, fire containment provisions, escape procedures and fire-fighting equipment of the hotel. Apart form the above, the hotel must provide safety and security from terrorist attacks, threats on privacy, threats on guests‘ property, confidence tricksters or conmen, misbehaving guests / staffs, theft, skippers or runners and immoral activities 8.19 KEY WORDS Tenor – meaning, sense, intention Warmth – affection, tenderness, kindness Hospitality- welcome, warmth, kindness Mandatory – obligatory, compulsory, binding Emphasize – highlight, stress, underline Discrepancies – inconsistency, difference, disagreement Consolidated – combine, unite, merge Reconciled – submissive, prepared to accept Glance - quick look, glimpse, look Expediency – convenience, practicality, usefulness Pilfer – steal, make off with, embezzle Souvenir – memento, reminder, keepsake Compensation – reward, reimbursement, payment 8.20 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is the role of Registration in Hotels? 2. What is guest Data? 3. What are the different reports prepared in Front office? 4. What is Walk-in-guest? 5. What is Call- Accounting? 6. What is guest Information? 7. Mention the procedure of Messages? 8. Mention the procedure of Wake up calls? Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 68
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 1. 2. 3. 4. Write short note on Enquiries in Front office? Write in short about Reservation & Registration in Front office? What are the procedures of Check-out? Write short notes on : a) Security b) Theft c) Fire Alarm d) Burglar Alarm e) Guest folio 8.21 REFERENCES 1. James A. Bardi , Hotel Front Office Management, Wiley. 2. Ahmed Ismail, Front office operations and management, Thomson Delmar Learning. 3. Michael L. Kasavana and Richard M. Brooks, Managing Front Office operations, Educational Institute of American Hotel & Motel. 4. S.K. Bhatnagar, Front Office Management, Frank Bros. & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 5. Abbott P. and Lewry S, Front Office: Procedures, social skills and management, Butterworth Heinemann. 6. Goetal, Human Resource Management in the Hospitality Industry, Wiley. 7. Kasavana M. and Brooks R., Managing Front Office Operations Fourth Edition, Educational Institute. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 69
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 70
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 71
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 72
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT -9 HOTEL GUIDE CONTENTS 9.0 Objectives 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Organization & History, Mission, Achievements. 9.2.1 FHRAI 9.2.2 IHA 9.2.3 ITDC 9.3 Lesson Summary 9.4 Key Words 9.5 Questions to Solve 9.6 References 9.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: •Organization and History of various group which helps hotel Industry, •An insight into the different aspects of Federation of Hotel & Restaurant Association of India, • IHA, International Hotel Association and, • ITDC, India Tourism Development Corporation. 9.1 INTRODUCTION There are various organizations which guides and support the hotels in development and other aspects. Some of which are discussed in this unit are Federation of Hotel & Restaurant Association of India(FHRAI), International Hotel Association (IHA) and above all India tourism Development Corporation . 9.2 ORGANIZATION & HISTORY, MISSION, ACHIEVEMENTS 9.2.1 FHRAI -The Federation of Hotel & Restaurant Associations of India, often known by the acronym, FHRAI, is the Apex Body of the four Regional Associations representing the Hospitality Industry. FHRAI provides an interface between the Hospitality Industry, Political Leadership, Academics, International Associations and other Stake Holders. FHRAI is committed to promote and protect the interests of the Hospitality Industry By actively seeking better privileges and more concessions for the Industry. FHRAI members are always kept abreast with the latest trade information and trends, statistical analysis and reports on various topics that have a direct impact on the Industry, Government notifications and circulars. FHRAI helps the Hospitality Industry to grow, prosper and keep in pace with the development in the International scenario. With more than 3691 members comprising of approximately 2358 hotels, 1178 restaurants, 155 associate members and the 4 regional associations, FHRAI is truly the Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 73
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First voice of the Hospitality Industry that brings several million dollars to the exchequer and employs more than 17 million direct workers. 9.2.2 IHA- is nonprofit organization found in 2002 by a group of experts to help members to be more competitive and successful in the hotel and restaurant industry. To promote hospitality industry standards and its related occupation standards. To provide current hospitality industry information and resources. To promote and share experiences on hospitality internationally. To provide professional training on hospitality industry. To provide professional consulting and services on hospitality industry. To host event to celebrate excellence. 9.2.3 ITDC- came into existence in October 1966 and has been the prime mover in the progressive development, promotion and expansion of tourism in the country. Broadly, the main objectives of the Corporation are: ◘To construct, take over and manage existing hotels and market hotels, Beach Resorts, Travelers‘ Lodges/Restaurants; ◘To provide transport, entertainment, shopping and conventional services; ◘To produce, distribute, tourist publicity material; ◘To render consultancy-cum-managerial services in India and abroad; ◘To carry on the business as Full-Fledged Money Changers (FFMC), restricted money changers etc; and To provide innovating, dependable and value for money solutions to the needs of tourism development and engineering industry including providing consultancy and project implementation The Corporation is running hotels, restaurants at various places for tourists, besides providing transport facilities. In addition, the Corporation is engaged in production, distribution and sale of tourist publicity literature and providing entertainment and duty free shopping facilities to the tourists. The Corporation has diversified into new avenues/innovative services like Full-Fledged Money Changer (FFMC) services, engineering related consultancy services etc. The Ashok Institute of Hospitality & Tourism Management of the Corporation imparts training and education in the field of tourism and hospitality. Presently, ITDC has a network of eight Ashok Group of Hotels, six Joint Venture Hotels, 2 Restaurants (including one Airport Restaurant), 12 Transport Units, one Tourist Service Station, 37 Duty Free Shops at International as well as Domestic Customs Airports, one Tax Free outlet and two Sound & Light Shows. Besides, ITDC is also managing a hotel at Bharatpur and a restaurant at Kosi on behalf of the Department of Tourism. In addition, it is also managing catering services at Western Court, Vigyan Bhawan, Hyderabad House and National Media Press Centre at Shastri Bhawan, New Delhi Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 74
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 9.3 LESSON SUMMARY The Federation of Hotel & Restaurant Associations of India, often known by the acronym, FHRAI, is the Apex Body of the four Regional Associations representing the Hospitality Industry. IHA is nonprofit organization found in 2002 by a group of experts to help members to be more competitive and successful in the hotel and restaurant industry ITDC came into existence in October 1966 and has been the prime mover in the progressive development, promotion and expansion of tourism in the country. 9.4 KEY WORDS Interface – boundary, edge, line Abreast - alongside each other, side by side Scenario – situation, state of affairs, circumstances Conventional – conservative, straight, usual Innovative – pioneering, inventive, original 9.5 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Mention the organization & History of FHRAI? 2. Mention the organization & History of IHA? 3. Mention the organization & History of ITDC? 9.6 REFERENCES 1. M. Zulfikar, Introduction to Tourism and Hotel Industry, Sangam Books Ltd. 2. S.K. Bhatnagar, Front Office Management, Frank Bros. & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 3. Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction. 4. Tom Powers, Clayton W. Barrows, Introduction to the Hospitality Industry, Wiley. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 75
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT-10 HANDLING OF GUEST MAIL, MESSAGES CONTENTS 10.0 Objectives 10.1 Introduction 10.2. Interdepartmental Communication 10.2.1 Housekeeping 10.2.2 Engineering and Maintenance 10.2.3 Revenue centers 10.2.4 Marketing & Public Relation 10.3 Handling of Keys, types of keys 10.3.1 Key control system 10.4 Handling of Mails & fax 10.5 Telephone Handling 10.6 Lesson Summary 10.7 Key Words 10.8 Questions to Solve 10.9 References 10.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: • Regarding the Interdepartmental Communication with other department, • Handling Keys and the different types of keys, • And, Handling of Mails & fax. 10.1 INTRODUCTION In this Unit one of the most critical aspect of departments is the Interdepartmental communication with various departments like Housekeeping, Engineering & maintenance, revenue centers, marketing & public relations. Another important feature of industry is handling of the keys, and types of keys. We have also discussed the importance of telephone handling as this help in creating a good impression with the guest. 10.2 INTERDEPARTMENTAL COMMUNICATIONS The front office generally exchanges the most information with personnel in housekeeping & in engineering & maintenance. 10.2.1 Housekeeping  Housekeeping & front office must keep each other informed of changes in room status to ensure that guests are roomed efficiently & without complications  The more familiar front office personnel are with housekeeping procedures- & vice versa- the smoother the relationship will be between the two departments 10.2.2 Engineering & Maintenance  Engineering & maintenance personnel begin each shift by examining the front desk log book for repair work orders Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 76
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First    Front desk staff use the log book to track maintenance problems reported by equipment, or broken furniture When the work is completed, the engineering & maintenance division informs the department that filed the work request order If a maintenance problem makes a room unsalable, the front office must know immediately when the problem is fixed so the room can be placed back in available inventory 10.2.3 Revenue Centers  Although hotels enjoy their greatest revenues through guestroom sales, additional services & activities may support a hotel‘s profitability  In addition to the rooms division, hotel revenue centers may include:  Coffee house, Snack bars & specialty restaurants  Bars, lounges & nightclubs  Room service  Laundry/ valet service  Vending machines  Gift shops, barber shops & newsstands  Banquet, meeting & catering facilities  Local & long distance telephone service  Health clubs, golf course & exercise rooms  Car rentals, limousine services & tours  Casinos, & gaming activities  Pay-per-view television movies  Valet parking & parking garages  Front desk personnel must be familiar with these facilities & services so they can answer guest questions in a positive & knowledgeable way  The transactions charged by guests at hotel restaurants, gift shops & other remote points of sale must be communicated to the front desk to ensure eventual payment 10.2.4 Marketing & Public Relations  A hotel‘s marketing & public relations effort depends on the participation & enthusiasm of front office personnel  Guest receptions, health & fitness programs, family events & even complimentary coffee in a hotel‘s lobby may provide settings for guests to socialize & can promote repeat business  Front office may contribute to hotel newsletters, guest history systems & customized registration & check out processes which help personalize hotel services for frequent guests. 10.3 HANDLING OF KEYS, TYPES OF KEYS. 10.3.1 Key Control Systems  Are used to ensure guest safety by changing the access to a guest room between guests  Eventually evolved into systems that were easier to replace called key cards Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 77
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First          These plastic keys resembled a playing card & were filled with small holes on one end that the door lock could read when inserted The drawback to key cards was that they had the room name printed on it Modern hotels today use computer-controlled key control systems A credit card type is assigned a special code when activated by the front desk This key is preprogrammed with a guest‘s arrival & departure information as well as specific guestroom information These cards will only work for the duration of the guest‘s stay & only in a specific room Upon departure, these cards can be reprogrammed for a new guest & new room If lost, the information can be erased easily Another benefit to these keys is that no guest room number is printed on them, therefore lost keys pose no security risk 1. EMERGENCY KEY Opens all guestroom doors, even when they are double-locked, that is, locked with both a standard door lock & a device operable only from within the guestroom. Their use should be strictly controlled & recorded. An emergency key should never be taken from the hotel property. 2. MASTER KEY Opens, all guestrooms that are not double-locked. When not in use on the property, a master key should be secured in a designated place for safekeeping. Only authorized personnel should have access to master keys. Keys are issued to personnel based on their need to use the key- not simply on their status. A written record should be maintained of which employees have received a master key. 3. GUESTROOM KEY Opens a single guestroom if the door is not double-locked. Front desk staff should not give a guestroom key just to anyone; the staff should check appropriate identification to ensure that the person who asks for the key is the guest registered to that room. In addition, the staff should remind guests to return keys at check out. 10.4 HANDLING OF MAILS,& FAX     In general, hotels time-stamp all guest mail when it arrives at the property as the evidence of when the mail was received in case any questions arises on how promptly the mail was delivered When mail arrives, front office records should always be checked immediately to see if the guest is either registered, due to check in, or has checked out Usually, mail for a registered guest is held in the appropriate room slot in a mail & message rack, or in alphabetical rack by the guests‘ last names The front desk staff should notify a guest as soon as possible that he or she has received mail Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 78
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First   If mail arrives for a guest who has not yet registered, a notation should be made on the guest‘s reservation card or record & the mail held until the guest arrives Guest mail that is not picked up or has arrived for a guest who has already checked out should be time-stamped a second time & returned to its sender Facsimiles  Front office personnel generally time-stamp any fax received at the property, hold the fax in the guest‘s mail or message rack, & notify the guest according to the property‘s procedures  Some hotels keep a log of every fax received  Information recorded in the fax log book may list the recipient, the sender, the time the fax was received & the total number of pages  Front desk staff may also record when the guest was notified, & when the guest picked up the fax  A similar record is kept of outgoing faxes if the property offers such service  The guest will be charged for the service 10.5 TELEPHONE HANDLING 1. Be prepared – Neither you nor the caller have time to waste while you search for a pencil or a misplaced schedule 2. Answer promptly – answer by the third ring if possible 3. Use proper identification – the hotel may have a set format for their employees to use when answering the phone. Identify yourself & ask the purpose of the call. For example, you might say; ―Front desk, good morning, Sylvia speaking, may I help you?‖ 4. Speak directly into the telephone – do not chew gum, smoke, or do anything else that interferes with clear speech 5. Relax & be yourself – An artificial personality is a noticeable by telephone as in person. It is easy to establish rapport if you are as sincere & personable on the phone as you are in person 6. Ask questions – if you are not sure you understand everything that is said, or if you feel you may have missed something, ask the caller to repeat the statement. Clear up any confusion or misunderstanding, so that it does not embarrass you later 7. Listen carefully – be an active listener. Limit your own talking, you can‘t talk & listen at the same time. Listen for ideas, not just words 8. Take notes if necessary – your written documentation of the call will help you remember important points 9. Use reflective phrases – when you would like the caller to elaborate on a point, use a reflective phrase, such as ―you said‖, ―you mentioned‖, or ―you described‖. After repeating the statement, follow through with a question 10. Keep call holds to a minimum – if it is necessary to place a guest on hold, check back every minute or so to reassure the guest he or she has not been forgotten. When you return to the line, thank the caller for waiting & explain the reason for the delay 11. End the call courteously – wish the caller a pleasant day Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 79
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 10.6 LESSON SUMMARY The front office generally exchanges the most information with personnel in housekeeping & in engineering & maintenance, so interdepartmental communication is of utmost importance. A system of key control is essential to the security of a lodging property. All keys whether metal or electronic should be adequately controlled. Most lodging establishments use emergency keys, master keys and guestroom keys. Metal keys are being replaced by electronically coded keycards. It is normally a flat, rectangular piece of plastic which stores a digital signature that is used to control locks. There are several popular types of key-cards in use, viz. hole-card, bar code card, magnetic stripe card, smart-card, etc. Handling mails & Faxes of guest is very important in the industry, and above all handling of telephones should be done in a professional way. 10.7 KEY WORDS Vending – transaction, deal, selling Enthusiasm – eagerness, interest, keenness Personable – friendly, pleasant, likable Courteously- politely, considerately, chivalrously 10.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Mention Interdepartmental communication with : a) Housekeeping, b) Maintenance & Engineering, c) Revenue centers, d) Marketing & Public relation 2. Write in detail types of Key and handling of keys? 3. Write in detail about Handling Mails / Fax of guest? 4. Write in detail about telephone Handling? 10.9 REFERENCES 1. Ellis, Raymond C. and Stipanuk, David M, Security and Loss Prevention Management, Lansing MI. 2. Joan C. & Lennox, Margaret Branson , Hotel Housekeeping Principles and Practice, Edward Arnold, London. 3. Rosemary Hurst, Housekeeping Management for Hotels and Residential Establishments, William Heinemann. 4. Louis A. Tyska, Lawrence J. Fennelly, Physical Security 150 Things You Should Know, Elsevier. 5. Bill Phillips, The Complete Book of Locks and Locksmithing, McGraw-Hill Professional Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 80
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT -11 VISITOR'S TABULAR LEDGER CONTENTS 11.0 Objectives 11.1 Introduction 11.2. Guest weekly Bill 11.2.1 Guest bill communication method 11.3 NCR Machines 11.4 Maintenance of cash book 11.4.1 Front office cash sheet 11.5 Night Auditor 11.5.1 Functions of Night Auditor 11.5.2 Role of Night Auditor 11.6 Lesson Summary 11.7 Key Words 11.8 Questions to Solve 11.9 References 11.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: • Regarding the guest weekly bill • NCR Machines, maintenance of cash book & FO cash sheet • And, Role & functions of a Night Auditor. 11.1 INTRODUCTION This Unit deals the guest weekly bill and various aspects of, guest bill communication method i.e. manual, mechanical, & fully automatic. We have also discussed the FO cash sheet & maintenance of cash book. Lately in this unit we have mentioned the role & functions of Night auditor. 11.2 GUEST WEEKLY BILL The guest bill is updated immediately as it is received from the various departments / sales outlets. It is very important to maintain and record all up to the minute details of the accounts of the guest. A person who checks into a hotel is usually entitled to credit facilities for his purchases of accommodation, food and beverages, telephone and other facilities. 11.2.1 Guest Bill Communication Methods Speed and accuracy in preparing and maintaining of guest account is very important so as to avoid any late charges. This is possible only when there is very effective communication system between the billing section and sales outlet. Depending upon the type of hotel the communication methods can be: 1. Manual In small hotels, a bell boy or a waiter or a person from the department where sale has taken place rushes to the billing counter for entry into the guest folio. 2. Mechanical Some medium or large sized hotels have pneumatic tubes (pressure suction tubes) for sending signed vouchers of the guest from the department or outlet selling the service or commodity to the billing counter. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 81
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 3. Fully Automatic System From the point of sale terminal (POS) the entry is made to the centralized computer server where the guest folio is updated and stored. This method is very efficient and convenient and is widely used today in almost all the medium sized and large hotels. 11.3 NCR MACHINES * Used to post, monitor, & balance the guest purchases charges Normally provides: ◘A standardized means of recording transactions ◘A legible guest account statement ◘A basis for cash & deferred payment sales activity ◘An audit trail of charge purchase transactions *Should be located near the front office folio tray & voucher rack *Have built-in tabulation devices that allow management to systematically audit current charge postings *Update account balances after each posting. 11.4 MAINTENANCE OF CASH BOOK The task of accurately & completely recording all transactions which affect guest ledger accounts rests with the front office. The front office also records all transactions-except collection-which affect non-guest accounts. The back office accounting division is responsible for collection of non-guest ledger accounts. 11.4.1 Front Office Cash Sheet The front office is responsible for a variety of cash transactions which may affect both guest & non-guest accounts Proper cash handling procedures & controls must be established, implemented & enforced Most non-automated or semi-automated operations require front office cashiers to complete a front office cash sheet that lists each receipt or disbursement of cash The information contained on a front office cash sheet is used to reconcile cash on hand at the end of a cashier shift with the documented transactions which occurred during the shift A front office cash sheet provides separate columns to record transactions affecting guest accounts, non-guest (or city ledger) accounts, & miscellaneous transactions Front office policy may also require the completion of a cash voucher as support documentation for cash transactions affecting front office accounts The most common entry on a front office cash sheet is the money collected from departing guests during check-out When guest pay on their accounts, the cashier typically records the amount paid, the room number & the folio number on the front office cash sheet If a guest has paid for his or her accommodations in advance of check-out, the front desk staff records this payment to offset room & tax charges posted afterward Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 82
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First The front desk staff‘s entry will frequently render a zero folio balance FO cash sheet also provides space for itemizing cash disbursement or paid-outs 11.5 NIGHT AUDITOR Since hotels operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week, the front office must regularly review & verify the accuracy & completeness of its accounting records. The audit is a daily review of guest account transactions against revenue center transactions which helps guarantee the accuracy & thoroughness of front office accounting. The front office audit is usually called the night audit because hotels generally perform it at night. 11.5.1 Functions of the Night Audit The main purpose of the night audit is to verify the accuracy & completeness of guest & non-guest accounts against departmental transaction reports. Specifically, the night audit is concerned with the following functions: Verifying posted entries to guest & non-guest accounts Balancing all front office accounts Resolving room status discrepancies Monitoring guest credit limitations Producing operational & managerial reports 11.5.2 The Role of the Night Auditor  Requires attention to accounting detail, procedural controls & guest credit restrictions  Should be familiar with the nature of cash transactions affecting the front office accounting system  Tracks room revenues, occupancy percentages & other standard operating statistics  Prepares a daily summary of the cash, check & credit card activities that took place at the front desk  Summarizes & reports the results of operations to management 11.5.3 Establishing an End of Day  The night auditor generally works the night shift, from 11.00pm to 7.00am, compiling, balancing & reviewing the transactions from the previous day  Each front office must decide what time will be considered the end of its accounting day  An end of day is simply an arbitary stopping point for the buisness day so that the audit can be considered complete through a specific point in time.  Usually the closing time of hotel revenue outlets determines the end of day  Hotels with 24 hour room service & restaurants, the official end of day is the time when the majority of outlets close  The business day ends when the night audit begins  The period from the night audit begins until the audit is completed is usually referred to as audit work time Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 83
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 11.6 LESSON SUMMARY Guest accounting means what is the amount that need to be received and what is the amount paid by the guest. To have updated information of accounts, it is important to have an efficient system of amount collection from the guests. Systems such as manual, semiautomatic or fully automatic system may be adopted depending upon the size and type of the hotel. The objective of the guest accounting procedures is to maintain accurate and up-to-date guest accounts, to ensure that payment is received promptly and in full and to provide management with accurate and up-to-date financial reports. Depending upon the size of the hotel, the communication methods for billing can be of type manual, mechanical or fully automated. The process of guest accounting is based on the financial transaction, creation and maintenance of accurate accounting details, making of necessary documents and recording of transaction on relevant documents, ensuring internal control, checking and establishing the accuracy of the recorded transaction and settlement of the accounts, which may be by cash payment or credit payment. The task of accurately & completely recording all transactions which affect guest ledger accounts rests with the front office. The front office also records all transactions-except collection-which affect non-guest accounts. The back office accounting division is responsible for collection of non-guest ledger accounts Since hotels operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week, the front office must regularly review & verify the accuracy & completeness of its accounting records. The audit is a daily review of guest account transactions against revenue center transactions which helps guarantee the accuracy & thoroughness of front office accounting. The front office audit is usually called the night audit because hotels generally perform it at night. 11.7 KEY WORDS Legible – readable, understandable, clear Transactions- dealings, connections, business Implemented – apply, execute, apply. Enforced – compulsory, forced, imposed Folio – sheet, piece of paper, side Render – make, provide, submit Arbitrary- illogical, subjective, uninformed Disbursement – payout, expense, costs 11.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is guest weekly bill & guest bill communication methods? What are NCR machines? Write about Maintenance of cash book & front office cash sheet? Write in short about night auditor? What are the roles & functions of a night auditor? Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 84
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 11.9 REFERENCES 1. Ahmed, M.N, Hotel Accounting, Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. 2. Peter Abbott, Sue Lewry , Front Office: Procedures, Social Skills, Yield and Management, Butterworth-Heinemann. 3. Michael L. Kasavana and Richard M. Brooks, Managing Front Office Operations, Educational Institute of American Hotel & Motel. 4. S.K. Bhatnagar, Front Office Management, Frank Bros. & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 1. Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction, Wiley. 2. James A. Bardi, Hotel Front Office Management, Wiley. 3. Ahmed Ismail, Front office operations and management, Thomson Delmar Learning. 4. Michael L. Kasavana and Richard M. Brooks, Managing Front Office Operations, Educational Institute of American Hotel & Motel. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 85
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT - 12 APPROVALS REQUIRED FOR HOTEL CONTENTS 12.0 Objectives 12.1 Introduction 12.2. Project Stage 12.3 Classification & Reclassification of Hotel 12.4 Lesson Summary 12.5 Key Words 12.6 Questions to Solve 12.7 References 12.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: • Approvals required at project stage of hotel. • And, regarding Classification and reclassification of hotel. 12.1 INTRODUCTION There are numerous norms for building a star classified hotel, especially at the project stage itself these norms has to be fulfilled in any condition. These guidelines are as per the Govt. of India, Department of Tourism. After the completion the next terms and condition is regarding Classification and reclassification of new and old hotels. 12.2 PROJECT STAGE 1. 2. 3. 4. The Department of Tourism approves hotels at project stage based on documentation, which enables the hotels to get certain benefits from the govt. as announced from time to time. The documents required for project approvals are listed below. Project approvals are valid for 5 years. Project approvals of the Govt. of India, Department of Tourism cease 3 months from the date that the hotel becomes operational even if all its rooms are not ready. The hotel must apply for classification within these 3 months. The Govt. India, Department of Tourism reserves the right to modify the guidelines / terms and conditions from time to time. Application form. This covers i. Proposed name of the hotel ii. Name of the promoters with a note on their business antecedents iii. Complete postal address of the promoters/tel./fax/email iv. Status of the owners/promoters 1. If Public / Private limited company with copies of Memorandum and Articles of Association. 2. If Partnership, a copy of partnership deed and certificate of registration. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 86
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. 3. If proprietary concern, name and address of proprietor / certificate of registration. Location of hotel site with postal address Details of the site 1. Area (in sq.meters) 2. Title – owned / leased with copies of sale / lease deed. 3. Copy of Land Use Permit from local authorities 4. Distances from Railway station, airport, main shopping centers (in Kms) Details of the project 1. Copy of feasibility report. 2. Star category planned. 3. Number of rooms and area for each type of room (in sq. ft.) 4. Number of attached baths and areas (in sq. ft.) 5. Details of public areas – Lobby / lounge, restaurants, bars, shopping, banquet / conference halls, health club, swimming pool, parking facilities. 6. Facilities for the physically challenged persons. 7. Eco – friendly practices and any other additional facilities (Please indicate area in sq. ft. for each facility mentioned above at 5,6 &7) 8. Date by which project is expected to be completed and operational. Blue prints / sketch plans signed by owners and architect showing 1. Site plan 2. Front and side elevations 3. Floor plans for all floors 4. Details of guest room and bathroom with dimensions in sq. ft. 5. Details of Fire Fighting Measures / Hydrants etc. 6. Details of measures for energy conservation and water harvesting. Air – conditioning details for guest rooms, public areas. Local approvals by 1. Municipal authorities 2. Concerned Police Authorities 3. Any other local authority as may be required. 4. Approval / NOC from Airport Authority of India for projects located near Airports The above mentioned approvals / NOCs are the responsibility of the promoters / concerned company as the case may be. The Department‘s approval is no substitute for any statutory approval and the approval given is liable to be withdrawn in case of any violations without notice. xi. Proposed capital structure 1. Total project cost a. Equity component with details of paid up capital b. Debt – with current and proposed sources of funding Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 87
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First xii. xiii. 5. 6. 7. 8. Letter of acceptance of regulatory conditions. Please indicate whether the promoter intends to give a few rooms or all rooms on a time – share basis. xiv. Application Fee In the event of any changes in the project plans, the approval must be sought afresh. Authorized officers of the Department of Tourism should be allowed free access to inspect the premises from time to time without prior notice. The hotel must immediately inform the Department of the date from which the hotel becomes operational and apply for classification within 3 months of this date. The fees payable for the project approval and subsequent extension, if required are: Star Category 5 – Star 4 – Star 3 – Star 2 – Star 1 – Star Heritage Category 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Amount in Rs. 15, 000 12, 000 8, 000 6, 000 5, 000 12, 000 The promoters must forward regular progress reports for each quarter failing which the project approval would be considered withdrawn. All documents must be valid at the time of application and a Gazette Officer or Notary must duly certify copies furnished to the Department. Documents in local languages should be accompanied by a translation in English / Official language and be duly certified. Projects, where it is proposed to let out part or whole of the hotel on time share basis will not be eligible for approval. For any change in the category the promoters must apply afresh with a fresh application form and requisite fees for the category applied for. Any changes in the project plans or management should be informed to the, Department of Tourism / Regional Directors Office (For 3,2 & 1 Star categories) (for 5 – D, 5,4 Star and Heritage categories) within 30 days otherwise the approval will stand withdrawn / terminated. Incomplete applications will not be accepted. 12.3 CLASSIFICATION & RECLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS 1. Classification for newly operational hotels must be sought within 3 months of completion of approved hotel projects. Operating hotels may opt for classification at any stage. However, hotels seeking re-classification should apply for reclassification one year prior to the expiry of the current period of classification. 2. If the hotel fails to reapply 1 year before the expiry of the classification order, the application will be treated as a fresh classification case. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 88
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 3. Once a hotel applies for classification / re-classification, it should be ready at all times for inspection by the HRACC. No requests for deferment of inspection will be entertained. 4. Classification will be valid for 5 (five) years from the date of issue of orders or in case of reclassification from the date of expiry of the last classification provided that the application has been received within the stipulated time mentioned above, along with all valid documents. Incomplete applications will not be accepted. 5. Hotels which propose to let out part of or all its rooms on time-share basis are not eligible to be classified. 6. Hotels applying for classification must provide the following documentation. a) Application Form detailing i) Name of the Hotel ii) Name and address of the promoters / owners with a note on their business antecedents. iii) Complete postal address of the hotel with tel.no/fax/email iv) Status of the owners / promoters. b).If Public / private limited company with copies of Memorandum and Articles of Association. c) If Partnership, a copy of partnership deed and certificate of registration. d) If proprietary concern, name and address of proprietor / certificate of registration. i) Date on which the hotel became operational. ii) Details of hotel site with postal address and distance from Airport / Railway Station / iii) City Centre / Downtown shopping area (in Kms) Details of the hotel a) Area (in sq. meters) with title – owned / leased with copies of sale / lease deed. b) Copy of Land Use Permit from local authorities. c) Star category being applied for d) Number of rooms and area for each type of room in sq. ft. (single / double / suites) e) Number of attached baths. f) Details of public areas – Lobby / lounge, restaurants, bars, shopping area, banquet / conference halls, health club, swimming pool, parking facilities, facilities for the physically challenged persons, Eco-friendly practices and any other additional facilities. g) The area for each facility should be indicated in sq. ft. h) Detail of guestroom and bathroom with dimensions in sq. ft. i) Details of Fire Fighting Measures / Hydrants etc. j) Details of measures for energy conservation and water harvesting and other eco – friendly measures and initiatives. k) Air – Conditioning details for guest rooms, public areas. l) Certificates / No Objection Certificate‘s (attested copies) m) Certificate / license from Municipality / Corporation to show that your establishment is registered as a hotel. n) Certificate / License from concerned Police Department authorizing the running of a hotel. o) Clearance Certificate from Municipal Health Officer / Sanitary Inspector giving clearance to your establishment from sanitary / hygienic point of view. p) No Objection Certificate with respect to fire fighting arrangements from the Fire Service Department (Local Fire Brigade Authorities) Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 89
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First All applications for classification or re-classification must be complete in all respects – application form, application fee, prescribed clearances, NOCs, certificates etc. – incomplete application is liable to be rejected. Hotels will qualify for classification as Heritage hotels provided a minimum 50% of the floor area was built before 1935 and no substantial change has been made in the façade. Hotels, which have been classified / re-classified under Heritage categories prior to issue of these Guidelines will continue under Heritage categories even if they were built between 1935 – 1950. The application fees payable are as follows: Star Category 1 – Star 2 – Star 3 – Star 4 – Star 5 – Star 5- Star Deluxe Heritage (Grand, Classic & Heritage categories) Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Classification / Re-classification fees in Rs. 6, 000 8, 000 10, 000 15, 000 20, 000 25, 000 15, 000 Page 90
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 12.4 LESSON SUMMARY The Department of Tourism approves hotels at project stage based on documentation, which enables the hotels to get certain benefits from the govt. Project approvals are valid for 5 years. Project approvals of the Govt. of India, Department of Tourism cease 3 months from the date that the hotel becomes operational even if all its rooms are not ready. The Govt. India, Department of Tourism reserves the right to modify the guidelines / terms and conditions from time to time. Classification for newly operational hotels must be sought within 3 months of completion of approved hotel projects. Operating hotels may opt for classification at any stage. However, hotels seeking re-classification should apply for reclassification one year prior to the expiry of the current period of classification. 12.5 KEY WORDS Cease – stop, finish, end Antecedents - past history, background, qualifications Memorandum – memo, note, communication Feasibility – viability, probability, practicability Notary - legal representative, attorney, public prosecutor Heritage- inheritance, tradition, custom 12.6 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What are the approval & norms to be met at project stage of a star hotel? 2. Mention the details for Classification & re classification of a hotel? 12.7 REFERENCES 1. M. Zulfikar, Introduction to Tourism and Hotel Industry, Sangam Books Ltd. 2. S.K. Bhatnagar, Front Office Management, Frank Bros. & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 3. Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction, Wiley. 4. Tom Powers, Clayton W. Barrows, Introduction to the Hospitality Industry, Wiley. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 91
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 92
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 93
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 94
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT - 13 TOURISM CONTENTS 13.0 Objectives 13.1 Introduction 13.2. History 13.3 Recent Development 13.4 Sustainable Tourism 13.5 Growth 13.6 Lesson Summary 13.7 Key Words 13.8 Questions to Solve 13.9 References 13.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: • Regarding tourism and its History • Recent developments in the tourism scenario •And in respect to sustainable tourism and its growth 13.1 INTRODUCTION Tourism is one of those industries which have always shown a growth. For some country, tourism is one of the important part of their economy. There had been recent developments in tourism in regard to the technological advances. Sustainable tourism can be seen as having regard to ecological and socio-cultural carrying capacities and includes involving the community of the destination. 13.2 HISTORY Wealthy people have always travelled to distant parts of the world, to see great buildings, works of art, learn new languages, and experience new cultures and to taste different cuisines. Long ago, at the time of the Roman Republic, places such as Baiae were popular coastal resorts for the rich. The word tourist was used by 1772 and tourism by 1811. In 1936, the League of Nations defined foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours". Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes". Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2010, there were over 940 million international tourist arrivals worldwide, representing a growth of 6.6% when compared to 2009. International tourism receipts grew to US$919 billion (€693 billion) in 2010, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.7%. As a result of the late-2000s Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 95
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First recession, international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, and ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. This negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists‘ arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. 13.3 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS There has been an up-trend in tourism over the last few decades, especially in Europe, where international travel for short breaks is common. Tourists have a wide range of budgets and tastes, and a wide variety of resorts and hotels have developed to cater for them. For example, some people prefer simple beach vacations, while others want more specialized holidays, quieter resorts, family-oriented holidays or niche market-targeted destination hotels. The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets, lowcost airlines and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable. On April 28, 2009 The Guardian noted that "the WHO estimates that up to 500,000 people are on planes at any time." There have also been changes in lifestyle, for example some retirement-age people sustain year round tourism. This is facilitated by internet sales of tourist services. Some sites have now started to offer dynamic packaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailor-made package requested by the customer upon impulse. There have been a few setbacks in tourism, such as the September 11 attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations, such as in Bali and several European cities. Also, on December 26, 2004, a tsunami, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, hit the Asian countries on the Indian Ocean, including the Maldives. Thousands of lives were lost including many tourists. This, together with the vast clean-up operations, stopped or severely hampered tourism in the area for a time. The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used critically, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists. 13.4 SUSTAINABLE TOURISM "Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity and life support systems." Sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 96
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Sustainable tourism can be seen as having regard to ecological and socio-cultural carrying capacities and includes involving the community of the destination in tourism development planning. It also involves integrating tourism to match current economic and growth policies so as to mitigate some of the negative economic and social impacts of 'mass tourism'. Murphy (1985) advocates the use of an 'ecological approach', to consider both 'plants' and 'people' when implementing the sustainable tourism development process. This is in contrast to the 'boosterism' and 'economic' approaches to tourism planning, neither of which considers the unfavorable ecological or sociological impacts of tourism development to a destination. However, Butler questions the exposition of the term 'sustainable' in the context of tourism, citing its uncertainty and stating that "the emerging sustainable development philosophy of the 1990s can be viewed as and extension of the broader realization that a preoccupation with economic growth without regard to its social and environmental consequences is self-defeating in the long term." Thus 'sustainable tourism development' is seldom considered as an autonomous function of economic regeneration as separate from general economic growth. 13.5 GROWTH The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts that international tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4 %. With the advent of e-commerce, tourism products have become one of the most traded items on the internet. Tourism products and services have been made available through intermediaries, although tourism providers (hotels, airlines, etc.) can sell their services directly. This has put pressure on intermediaries from both on-line and traditional shops. It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between tourism expenditure per capita and the degree to which countries play in the global context. Not only as a result of the important economic contribution of the tourism industry, but also as an indicator of the degree of confidence with which global citizens leverage the resources of the globe for the benefit of their local economies. This is why any projections of growth in tourism may serve as an indication of the relative influence that each country will exercise in the future. Space tourism is expected to "take off" in the first quarter of the 21st century, although compared with traditional destinations the number of tourists in orbit will remain low until technologies such as a space elevator make space travel cheap. Technological improvement is likely to make possible air-ship hotels, based either on solar-powered airplanes or large dirigibles. Underwater hotels, such as Hydropolis, expected to open in Dubai in 2009, will be built. On the ocean, tourists will be welcomed by ever larger cruise ships and perhaps floating cities Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 97
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 13.6 LESSON SUMMARY Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes". The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists Sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between tourism expenditure per capita and the degree to which countries play in the global context. Not only as a result of the important economic contribution of the tourism industry, but also as an indicator of the degree of confidence with which global citizens 13.7 KEY WORDS Successor – heir, descendant, Amended – alter, modify, revise Recreational - spare time, fun, entertaining Leisure – vacation, holiday, relaxation Influenza – flu, infection, respiratory tract infection Niche – role, slot, place, function Facilitated - make easy, ease, assist Envisaged imagine, foresee, predict 13.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in brief History of Tourism? 2. Write in detail about the recent developments in Tourism? 3. What do you understand by Sustainable Tourism? 4. Write in brief about the growth of Tourism? 13.9 REFERENCES 1. M. Zulfikar, Introduction to Tourism and Hotel Industry, Sangam Books Ltd. 2. S.K. Bhatnagar, Front Office Management, Frank Bros. & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. 3. Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction, Wiley. 4. Tom Powers, Clayton W. Barrows, Introduction to the Hospitality Industry, Wiley. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 98
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT- 14 GUEST SATISFACTION CONTENTS 14.0 Objectives 14.1 Introduction 14.2. Guest Satisfaction 14.3 Guest Satisfaction 14.4 Customer Relation 14.4.1 Service a two sided coin 14.5 Delivery of Psychological Service 14.6 Lesson Summary 14.7 Key Words 14.8 Questions to Solve 14.9 References 14.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: • Insight into guest Satisfaction & dissatisfaction • Customer relations and regarding the service •And, regarding delivery of psychological service 14.1 INTRODUCTION For any business to have a regular visit of clients, the most important thing is to look into the matters of guest satisfaction & dissatisfaction. For this there need to be customer relations. As per the guest needs we have to deliver the psychological service for a better growth in business. 14.2 GUEST SATISFACTION A hotel guest‘s significance can be seen from the fact that all activities and innovations in a hotel revolve around one term—guest satisfaction. Basically guest needs can be classified as follows. 1. Physiological needs: Related to protection against heat, cold, rain etc. in the form of room and related to his appetite/thirst and special food requirement. 2. Economic needs: Value for money i.e. is he getting returns worth the value of money spent by him? How much can he afford? 3. Social needs: Attending functions and gatherings, to meet others, going out with friends. 4. Psychological needs : Enhancement of self-pride, the need for variety 14.3 GUEST DISSATISFACTION This can be usually because of two reasons classified as follows. 1. Under the control of the hotel: Such as unhelpful staff, cramped conditions and lack of choice of product i.e. type of accommodation and other service available for offer to the guest. 2. Beyond the control of the front office of the hotel: Factors such as location, the weather, other customers and transport problems. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 99
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Guest satisfaction shall ensure repeat business, increased clientele and maximized revenue for the establishment. 14.4 CUSTOMER RELATIONS Better known as guest relation in hotel industry, it undoubtedly cannot be anything but providing hospitality to the guest of the hotel. It can be achieved by using procedures which will improve guest sales factor. It is important in this connection that we understand the basic principle that service is a two-sided coin and we must also understand their marketing concept which involves identification and satisfaction of guest needs. 14.4.1 SERVICE IS A TWO-SIDED COIN There are two sides to service: (i) Operational side, and (ii) People side. Most of the hospitality operations do understand the importance of providing basic levels of physical services such as good food (food to be served hot, etc.) clean rooms and standards facilities etc. But it is the ‗people side‘ where the major shortfall tends to be. For a serious understanding of marketing concept and hence satisfaction to guest it may be said that the service provider (staff) is some kind of an amateur psychologist. Human needs can be arranged according to priorities. Needs like hunger and thirst come first and must be taken care of first and other needs follow this. Coldness, rudeness or being ignored leaves some powerful human needs-the needs to be accepted, to belong to feel secure, to have status, to have recognition, and to the needs to the wanted unsatisfied. 14.5 DELIVERY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICE It requires understanding of: (1) customer‘s need for recognition (2) importance of smile (3) a positive attitude (4) genuineness and (5) an understanding of the importance of customer‘s expectation 1. Recognition of customer’s needs: It is vital to pay attention to customers and to demonstrate that you are paying attention. Aim at individualizing the customer, for example by the use of the customer‘s name. 2. Smile: Smile is contagious like anger. No Smile goes waste. No matter how bad you feel, you must keep smiling. Staff must be friendly. Hire right staff with right attitude for your customers. 3. Think positive: Make sure your staff has positive attitude. They take their lead from you. Treat your staff in a friendly and fair way. Don‘t tell your problems to your establishment 4. Genuineness: Genuineness can‘t be preached and taught. It comes from within like positive attitude. Wherever possible address the guest by name. Use selfinvolvement techniques such as address the guest by name, etc. Genuineness means accepting the guest for what he is without judgment or censor. 5. Customer’s expectation: It is a very important point because normally customer dissatisfaction is not related to the actual level of service provided but to the fact that the customer did not get what he expected and perceived. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 100
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 14.6 LESSON SUMMARY A hotel guest‘s significance can be seen from the fact that all activities and innovations in a hotel revolve around one term—guest satisfaction. Guest satisfaction shall ensure repeat business, increased clientele and maximized revenue for the establishment. Human needs can be arranged according to priorities. It requires understanding of: (1) customer‘s need for recognition (2) importance of smile (3) a positive attitude (4) genuineness and (5) an understanding of the importance of customer‘s expectation 14.7 KEY WORDS Innovations – novelty, improvement, advance Enhancement- improvement, development, enrichment Amateur - part-time, unpaid, layperson Genuineness – authenticity, realness, legitimacy 14.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in short about: a) Guest Satisfaction b) Guest Dissatisfaction c) Customer Relations 2. Explain ―Service is a two sided Coin‖? 3. What do you understand by , Delivery of Psychological services? 14.9 REFERENCES 1. Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction, Wiley. 2. James A. Bardi , Hotel Front Office Management, Wiley. 3. Ahmed Ismail, Front office operations and management, Thomson Delmar Learning. 4. Michael L. Kasavana and Richard M. Brooks, Managing Front Office Operations, Educational Institute of American Hotel & Motel. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 101
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT- 15 VALUE BASED EDUCATION IN HOSPITALITY CONTENTS 15.0 Objectives 15.1 Introduction 15.2. Exposure to cultural heritage of India 15.3 Values through learning and teaching 15.4 Lesson Summary 15.5 Key Words 15.6 Questions to Solve 15. 7 References 15.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: • Regarding the Exposure to cultural Heritage of India • And, values obtained through learning and teaching. 15.1 INTRODUCTION This Unit gives an exposure to the cultural heritage of India for the students to promote it through their career and which supports a management student for further growth. And the values the student gets through learning and teaching in Hospitality. 15.2 EXPOSURE TO CULTURAL HERITAGE OF INDIA The culture of India refers to the religions, beliefs, customs, traditions, languages, ceremonies, arts, values and the way of life in India and its people. India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food, and customs differ from place to place within the country. Its culture often labeled as an amalgamation of these diverse sub-cultures is spread all over the Indian subcontinent and traditions that are several millennia old. Regarded by many historians as the "oldest living civilization of Earth", the Indian tradition dates back to 8000 BC, and has a continuous recorded history since the time of the Vedas, believed variously to be 3,000 to over 5,500 years ago. Several elements of India's diverse culture, such as Indian religions, yoga and Indian cuisine, have had a profound impact across the world. Since independence, Indians have become keen on promoting their sense of rational identifies of cultural unity. There has been a revival of interest in music, dance and painting. India is rich in the spiritual aspect of life and we should not adopt the ill effects of western culture. We should pick and follow only the good points, and assimilate them in our social and cultural environment, for the sake of a better society and nation. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 102
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 15.3 VALUES THROUGH LEARNING & TEACHING Teaching-learning process Teaching and learning is aimed at training the student the process of teaching is the act by which the teacher shows educational content(knowledge, habits, skills) to a student within a context. The process of learning is the complementary process of teaching. Learning is the act, by which a student attempts to capture, understand and develop the content posted by Professor, but this does not apply only to student-teacher relationship, this applies to any person who is in the process of learning anything, either experimental or scientific. According to Vygotsky learning theory is divided into two levels first through interaction with others, and then integrating that knowledge into mental structure of the individual. HePiaget observed that learning could be through adaptation to the interaction with the environment. The imbalance occurs by assimilation of new experience, which adds to previous knowledge of the student to complement knowledge already learned. Ausubel thinks favorable to learning developed knowledge; you need a statement formally established. Ausubel takes into account two elements: • Student learning, ranging from the repetitive or rote to meaningful learning. • The strategy of education, ranging from the receptive to the teaching that is based on the discovery by the learner himself. Learning is meaningful when knowledge is incorporated into structures of knowledge already possessed by the individual. To produce this meaningful learning should be given the following conditions: The logical significance: refers to the logical sequence of processes and consistency in the internal structure of the material. Cognitive Psychology (previous knowledge): The student must have ideas that will act as a link between pre-existing cognitive structure of learners and new ideas. In professional education, learning by teaching designates currently the method created by Jean-Pol Martin that allows pupils and students to prepare themselves to teach lessons, or parts of lessons. Learning by teaching should not be confused with presentations or lectures by students, as students not only convey certain content, but they can do that and chose too, their own methods and educational approaches in teaching classmates that subject. Neither should it be confused with tutoring, because the teacher has intensive control of, and gives support for, the learning process in learning by teaching as against other methods. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 103
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 15.4 LESSON SUMMARY The culture of India refers to the religions, beliefs, customs, traditions, languages, ceremonies, arts, values and the way of life in India and its people. India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food, and customs differ from place to place within the country. Teaching-learning process Teaching and learning is aimed at training the student the process of teaching is the act by which the teacher shows educational content(knowledge, habits, skills) to a student within a context. The process of learning is the complementary process of teaching. In professional education, learning by teaching designates currently the method created by Jean-Pol Martin that allows pupils and students to prepare themselves to teach lessons, or parts of lessons. 15.5 KEY WORDS Beliefs – attitude, viewpoint, values Traditions – customs, way of life, society Amalgamation – merger, join up, mixture Rational – balanced, normal, based on reason Assimilate – incorporate, absorb, take in 15.6 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Explain, Exposure to cultural Heritage of India? 2. Explain, Values through Learning and Teaching? 15.7 REFERENCES 1. Alan T. Stutts, James Wortman, Hotel and Lodging Management: An Introduction, Wiley. 2. James A. Bardi, Hotel Front Office Management, Wiley. 3. Ahmed Ismail, Front office operations and management, Thomson Delmar Learning. 4. Michael L. Kasavana and Richard M. Brooks, Managing Front Office Operations, Educational Institute of American Hotel & Motel. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 104
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First UNIT - 16 APPLICATION OF MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES CONTENTS 16.0 Objectives 16.1 Introduction 16.2. Time Management 16.2.1 Basic principles of Time management 16.3 Manpower Management / Human Resource Management 16.4 Time and Motion Study 16.5 Conflict Management 16.6 Cost Benefit Analysis 16.7 Lesson Summary 16.8 Key Words 16.9Questions to Solve 16.10 References 16.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: • Time Management & the basic principles of time management • Human Resource Management & Time & motion study •And, for handling conflicts and regarding cost benefit analysis. 16.1 INTRODUCTION The time management system is a designed combination of processes, tools, techniques, and methods. Usually time management is a necessity in any project development as it determines the project completion time and scope. Now a days in any industry HRM is the most important department for dealing all kinds of problem of human resources. Time and motion study have to be used together in order to achieve rational and reasonable results. It is particularly important that effort to be applied in motion study to ensure equitable results when time study is used. Conflict management in a hospitality operation is an issue which every General Manager, Department Head or Line Manager of a hotel has to contend with at one time or another. Cost benefit Analysis (CBA) is a tool used either to rank projects or to choose the most appropriate option. The ranking or decision is based on expected economic costs and benefits.. 16.2 TIME MANAGEMENT Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity. Time management may be aided by a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals complying with a due date. This set encompasses a wide scope of activities, and these include planning, allocating, setting goals, delegation, analysis of time spent, monitoring, organizing, scheduling, and prioritizing. Initially, time management referred to just business or work activities, but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities as well. A time management system is a designed combination of Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 105
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First processes, tools, techniques, and methods. Usually time management is a necessity in any project development as it determines the project completion time and scope. 16.2.1 Basic Principles of Time Management 1. Each day, make a list at first to get the things done. 2. Set a priority level to each item of your list. Plan to do the toughest things first, and save the easier tasks for later in the day when you are low on energy. 3. Arrange your work schedule in best possible way so that you can take best advantage of the hours when you work best. 4. Always set aside a block of time when you can work without any disruptions. 5. Be flexible about changes in your schedule so that you can handle unexpected events and situations occurred, if any. 6. Set aside time in your daily schedule for exercise such as jogging, aerobics, or brisk walking. You'll find that the time spent is well worth it and may even increase your productivity. 7. Do not forget to keep some times each day or week in which you always do some planned leisure activity ~ after all, everybody needs a break 16.3 MANPOWER MANAGEMENT / HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training. The hotel business is one of the most cutthroat and competitive businesses in the world. Usually the human resources manager has his or her hands full all the time because of employee complaints and a very high turnover rate. However, there are a few human resources management tips for hotels that can eliminate some of the problems that plague most hotel human resources managers. Since one of the biggest problems that a human resources manager in the hotel industry faces is the issue of employee retention, many of the tips address that issue. 16.4 TIME AND MOTION STUDY A time and motion study (or time-motion study) is a business efficiency technique combining the Time Study work of Frederick Winslow Taylor with the Motion Study work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (not to be confused with their son, best known through the biographical 1950 film and book Cheaper by the Dozen). It is a major part of scientific management (Taylorism). After its first introduction, time study developed in the direction of establishing standard times, while motion study evolved into a technique for improving work methods. The two techniques became integrated and refined into a widely accepted method applicable to the improvement and upgrading of work systems. This integrated approach to work system improvement is known as methods engineering and it is applied today to industrial as well as service organizations, including banks, schools and hospitals. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 106
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First Time and motion study have to be used together in order to achieve rational and reasonable results. It is particularly important that effort to be applied in motion study to ensure equitable results when time study is used. In fact, much of the difficulty with time study is a result of applying it without a thorough study of the motion pattern of the job. Motion study can be considered the foundation for time study. The time study measures the time required to perform a given task in accordance with a specified method and is valid only so long as the method is continued. Once a new work method is developed, the time study must be changed to agree with the new method 16.5 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Conflict management in a hospitality operation is an issue which every General Manager, Department Head or Line Manager of a hotel has to contend with at one time or another- it is in essence unavoidable at times and is exacerbated by the stressful nature of hotel work. Managers in the traditional mould tend to view conflict as disruptive in nature. In truth, certain amounts of conflict are valuable for good work performance and lead to careful analyses of the goals of the business, and this is always a beneficial exercise. Conflict that is however at a high level for a relatively long period is destructive and may result in chaos and a failure on the part of a department to meet business objectives in both the long and short-term. The necessary is to manage conflict by improved communication skills and by developing an esprit d’corps amongst the employees across each of the departments in an operation. Conflict may be healthy to a degree. When conflict becomes problematic, a systematic approach to solving it is highly desirable. In this paper, types of conflict are identified and sources of conflict in hotels are analyzed. Various approaches and techniques to use in solving conflict in the workplace have been investigated and a technique to resolve conflict in hotels is suggested. Existing conflict management research is thus supported and extended. 16.6 COSTS-BENEFIT ANALYSIS Cost benefit Analysis (CBA) is a tool used either to rank projects or to choose the most appropriate option. The ranking or decision is based on expected economic costs and benefits. The rule is that a project should be undertaken if lifetime expected benefits exceeds all expected costs. The art of the analysis process comes in the measurement of these impacts, their adjustment for market failure, and for the effects of time, income distribution, incomplete information and potentially irreversible consequences. A principle of western economics since Adam Smith is that ‗the market knows best‘. In a perfect world, the market would ensure that land, labor and capital were allocated in a way that would maximize both profits, and the welfare of society. Ours is an imperfect world, but CBA is a tool that allows the analyst to mimic the welfare optimizing behavior of the market. Although complexities arise when costs and benefits are being measured and corrected, CBA is a simple tool with numerous uses and applications, especially in the environmental assessment sphere. Its use increases accountability and consistency in decision-making Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 107
    • Front Office Operation, Semester - First 16.7 LESSON SUMMARY Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity. Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. A time and motion study (or time-motion study) is a business efficiency technique combining the Time Study work of Frederick Winslow Taylor with the Motion Study work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Conflict management in a hospitality operation is an issue which every General Manager, Department Head or Line Manager of a hotel has to contend with at one time or another Cost benefit Analysis (CBA) is a tool used either to rank projects or to choose the most appropriate option. The ranking or decision is based on expected economic costs and benefits. The rule is that a project should be undertaken if lifetime expected benefits exceeds all expected costs. 16.8 KEY WORDS Conscious – aware, mindful, alert Encompasses – include, cover, take in Exacerbated – worsen, aggravate, intensify Conflict – disagreement, difference, clash Irreversible – irreparable , unalterable , permanent Complexities – difficulty, complication, intricacy 16.9QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Explain, Time Management? Explain Manpower Management? Explain Time & Motion Study? What is conflict Management? Write in short about Cost benefit analysis? 16.10 REFERENCES 1. Abbott P. and Lewry S, Front Office: Procedures, social skills and Management, Butterworth Heinemann. 2. Goetal , Human Resource Management in the Hospitality Industry, Wiley. 3. Kasavana M. and Brooks R., Managing Front Office Operations Fourth Edition, Educational Institute. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 108