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A BOOK ON F&B SERVICE

A BOOK ON F&B SERVICE

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    Food and beverage service  i Food and beverage service i Document Transcript

    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Food & Beverage- Service -I Diploma In Hotel & Hospitality Management First Semester Subject Code-HM-13 School of Distance Education Karnataka State Open University, Karnataka Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 1
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Copyright 2012, Karnataka State Open University All Rights Reserved Compiled and Printed By ECDL Educations Private Limited For, School of Distance Education Karnataka State Open University Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 2
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Preface In India, serving a guest , even if a stranger , who comes to home are welcomed with open arms , had been an age old Tradition. Those traditions have come of age and has developed into a more sophisticated in the Hospitality Industry. Service has varied styles with its professionalism. In this book we have tried to put across the updated information’s in the field of Hospitality. We hope these treasures of knowledge would help you to achieve the right attitude required for the Hospitality Industry…. ECDL… Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 3
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First CONTENTS BLOCK-I UNIT Topic 1 Introduction & Types of F & B Outlets 2. 3 4 UNIT 5 6. 7 8. Contents Page No. 1.1 Service aspects and skills, Origin of Hotel Industry 7 1.2 Definition of Hotel, Growth 8-10 1.3 Restaurants, Club : Lounge, Coffee Shops, Banquets and 11-12 Buffets, Room Service, Grill Room 1.4 Discotheques, Night Clubs, Bar / Pub, Garden Café, 13-14 Pool Side, Out Door Catering, Ice Cream Parlor Inter2.1 Cost Controls 17 Relationship 2.2 Engineering and maintenance 17 between F & B 2.3 Kitchen Stewarding/Wash up Area, Kitchen 18 & other 2.4 Stores, Accounts, Front Office, House Keeping, 18 department Personnel Duties and 3.1 F&B Manager, Restaurant Manager, Banquet Manager20 Responsibilities Duties & Responsibilities of F & B staff 3.2 Senior Captain, Captain, Waiter, Trainee 21 3.3 Wine waiter, Carver 22-23 Attributes of a 4.1 Personnel Hygiene, Knowledge of Food and Beverage 25 Waiter Steward 4.2 Local Knowledge, 26 4.3 Attitude to Customers, Sales Ability 26 4.1 Customers Satisfaction, Tackling Complaints. Conduct, 27 Memory: Honesty BLOCK –II Topic Contents Page No. Pantry - still 5.1 Silver room, 31 room, hot 5.2 Spare linen stores 32 section wash 5.3 Still Room or Pantry 33 up 5.4 Dispense Bar, Hot Plate, Wash up 34 Types of 6.1 Preparation for Service, Mise-en-scene, Mise-en-place, 36 services Side Board 6.2 Table Service, Assisted Service 37-38 6.3 Self Service Single Point Service: Specialized Service 39 6.4 American , Russian, French, Butler, English, Silver,: 40 Gueridon Cafeteria & Counter Service Menus 7.1 Origin of Menu 43 7.2, Classes of Menu 44-45 7.3 French Classic Menu 46-48 7.4 Menu Planning & Menu Merchandising 49-51 Beverages 8.1. Classification of Beverages 53 8.2 Alcoholic and Non Alcoholic , Appetizing -Nourishing: 54-56 Refreshing 8.3 Liquors 57-59 8.4 Basic Cocktails and recipes 60-63 Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 4
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 5
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 6
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First UNIT - 01 INTRODUCTION & TYPES FOOD & BEVERAGE OUTLET CONTENTS 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction to food & beverages industry 1.2. Service aspects and Skills 1.3 Origin of Hotel Industry 1.4 Definition of Hotel 1.5 Growth 1.6 Restaurants 1.7 Club: Lounge 1.8 Coffee Shop 1.9 Banquet & Buffets 1.10 Room Service 1.11 Grill Room 1.12 Discotheque/ Night Club 1.13 Bar/ Pub 1.14 Garden café 1.15 Outdoor Catering 1.16 Ice Cream Parlor 1.17 Lesson Summary 1.18 Key Words 1.19Questions to Solve 1.20 References 1.0 OBJECTIVES •Know in Detail about the catering industry. • Identify catering segments. •Define on-premise and off-premise catering. •Know in Detail about the type of food Outlet. • Identify the peculiarity of these outlets. •Define the specialty of these service areas. • Difference between Coffee shop & restaurant 1.1 INTRODUCTION Human beings, existence itself can be traced to the origin of hotel industry. Man did not leave his surrounding and go to another place, apart from the place where he lived for his livelihood and indeed he was happy from the situation but as the day progressed and brought about development in every aspect, man was forced to Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 7
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First leave the surrounding where he lived to various other place for the same reason of livelihood. This movement of man brought about the requirement of ―a home away from home‖. The reason why man traveled form one place to another was only because of the economical factor. It was keeping with time that man had to travel not only for economical reasons but also for social and later for leisure reasons, during this period the traveling was only by walking the distance as there was no development in the modes of transportation. With the advent of wheel, traveling became much more easier and people started traveling more conveniently and also for leisure reasons Food and Beverage Service consist of various outlets, especially according to cuisine there are some specialty outlets e.g. Chinese, French, and Indian. Some outlet gets its name from where it is served, e.g. Room service, Garden café, Rooftop etc. A place where beverages are served is called bar or Pub. Then catering done out of premises are Outdoor catering, and above all there are special entertainment places in hotels where dance on recorded or live music are conducted, i.e. Discotheque. 1.2 SERVICE ASPECTS AND SKILLS The food service industry (catering industry in British English) encompasses those places, institutions and companies that provide meals eaten away from home. This industry includes restaurants, schools and hospital cafeterias, catering operations, and many other formats, including ‗on-premises‘ and ‗off-premises‘ caterings. Catering is a multifaceted segment of the food service industry. There is a niche for all types of catering businesses within the segment of catering. The food service industry is divided into three general classifications: commercial segment, noncommercial segment, and military segment. Catering management may be defined as the task of planning, organizing, controlling a n d executing. Each activity influences the preparation and delivery of food, beverage, and related services at a competitive, yet profitable price. These activities work together to meet and exceed the customer‘s perception of value for his money. 1.3 ORIGIN OF HOTEL INDUSTRY When traveling had become more convenient with the advent of invention of wheel, the urge to travel was increased and due to which people required a place where they can receive food and shelter. Family ventures and specially husband and wife fulfilled this requirement of human being. These family ventures were termed as “Inns”. The first Inns go back to the 6th century B.C, which were family ventures and which provided descent place to relax and modest and wholesome food. Industrial revolution and transport facility had an enormous change in the inn keeping and Hospitality Industry Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 8
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Along with the development, emerging countries of Europe took up the lead in the Hotel Industry. Among the European countries Switzerland was the main and the real growth of Hotel Industry took place in United States of America. The Advent of wheel led to the invention of motorway and which indeed lead to the development of Inn to motels, which were on the motorways, and indeed which led to the growth of hotels. The first building which was erected for the purpose of hotel and which used the term hotel was in 1794 City Hotel in New York. After the IInd world war and the economic depression in1930 in America there has been drastic changes in the concepts of hotel, wherein various types of hotels have come into existence around the world and also various international chains of hotels. 1.4 DEFINITION OF HOTEL According to British law ―Hotel is a place where a bonafied traveler can receive food and shelter provided he is in a position to pay for it and is in a fit condition to be received‖. Hence a hotel must provide food, beverage and shelter and has the right to reject the guest if the guest is disorder, unkempt, drunk or is not in a position to pay for the services 1.5 GROWTH When the development took place with respect to the travel and tourism industry, which resulted people to come out of their house and dine in the catering sectors. When this was developing to a great extent the result was growth in catering sectors of both types primary and secondary sectors. Establishments, which are directly or indirectly concerned with the provision of food and beverage to customers, can be termed as catering sectors or operations. Catering sectors can be divided into two sectors. a) Primary Sector: - Primary sectors are those who are concerned with the provision of food and beverage b) Secondary Sectors: Secondary sectors are those who provide food and beverage in part of another business. For e.g.: Industrial catering, leisure attractions etc… Catering sectors can be classified and divided into the following sectors. 1. Hotels: This sector provides food and beverage along with the accommodation. These developed from Inns supported by the development in Transportation and increase in business and leisure related tourism. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 9
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 2. Restaurants: These catering sectors came out from hotels. The chefs and managers of hotels started up small place where provision of food and beverage was generally at high price due to the environment and mode of service. 3. Popular Catering: This catering outlet provided food and beverage at generally low or medium price with limited level of service. 4. Fast Food: Provision of food and beverages in a highly specialized environment, which was characterized by high investment, high labor cost and vast customer. These grew out from the combination of popular catering and takeaways, which was highly influenced by American companies. 5. Takeaways: The provision of food and beverage in the form of parcels for the convenience of taking away and eating at the place they wish to have. This catering operation was influenced by America and trend in food taste to great extent. 6. Retail Stores: Here the provision of food and beverages was provided as an adjacent to provision of retailing developed from prestigious stores wishing to provide food and beverages as part of retailing concept. 7. Banquets / Conference: Here the provision of food and beverages is done on a large scale usually pre booked. Usually originated from hotels but has now become major sector in its own. 8. Leisure Attractions: Increase in leisure time has made profit from food and beverage, which is provided at these places of leisure attractions. E.g.: Theme Park 9. Highway Service Station: Born in 1960‘s with the advent of motorway travels often in isolated locations. Provision of food and beverage together with retail and petrol service for motorway travelers. 10. Welfare Catering: Provision of food and beverage to people to people through social needs. E.g. Hospitals, School etc. 11. Industrial Catering: It was born out with the recognition that better fed workers work better, provision of food and beverages for people at work. 12. Entertainment Catering: Provision of food and beverage along with entertainment. These developed from dine and dance era. E.g. Night Clubs, Discotheque etc. 13. Members Club: Provision of food and beverages to restricted clientele. It originated from England in the 17th and 18th Century where members club were popular. 14. Casinos: Provision of food and beverages as an adjacent to gambling. Its origin can be traced back to 18th century of Europe Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 10
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 15. Transport Catering: Provision of food and beverage to people on move. It came out of need to meet requirement of traveling public. E.g. Railways, Airlines, Marine 16. Mobile Catering: Provision of food and beverage from vans, cravens etc. There developed from the awareness areas at different times. 17. Outdoor Catering: Provision of food and beverage away from home base. This developed to the need for providing at special events. 1.6 RESTAURANTS A restaurant is an establishment that serves the customers with prepared food and beverages to order, to be consumed on the premises. The term covers a multiplicity of venues and a diversity of styles of cuisine. Restaurants are sometimes also a feature of a larger complex, typically a hotel, where the dining amenities are provided for the convenience of the residents and for the hotel to maximize their potential revenue. Such restaurants are often open to non-residents also. 1.7CLUB: LOUNGE Lounges can be found in different hotels. Their main purpose is to offer Food & Drinks in relaxed surroundings. There are many kinds of Lounges, ranging from a Lounge in a lobby, Cocktail Lounge, Cigar lounge, to Executive & Club Lounge in Special Floors. 1.8COFFEE SHOPS A coffeehouse or coffee shop is an establishment which primarily serves prepared coffee or other hot beverages. It shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant, but it is different from a cafeteria. As the name suggests, coffeehouses focus on providing coffee and tea as well as light snacks. From a cultural standpoint, coffeehouses largely serve as centers of social interaction: the coffeehouse provides social members with a place to congregate, talk, write, read, entertain one another, or pass the time, whether individually or in small groups of two or three. 1.9 BANQUETS AND BUFFETS A banquet is a large meal or feast, complete with main courses and desserts. It usually serves a purpose such as a charitable gathering, a ceremony, or a celebration, and is often preceded or followed by speeches in honor of someone, Today banquets serve many purposes from training sessions, to formal business dinners. Business banquets are a popular way to strengthen bonds between businessmen and their partners. It is common that a banquet is organized at the end of an academic conference. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 11
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First A buffet is a system of serving meals in which food is placed in a public area where the diners generally serve themselves. Buffets are offered at various places including hotels and many social events. Sideboards are also known as buffets as they may be used to offer the dishes of a buffet meal to guests. 1.10 ROOM SERVICE One of the perks of staying in a hotel—in addition to having someone wake you up in the morning and make your bed—is being able to pick up a phone and have food delivered right to your door. Room service appeals to guests for many reasons: After a long day of meetings, you can unwind with your meal without having to get dressed for dinner; if you‘re traveling solo, you don‘t have to deal with a table for one in the dining room (next to a gregarious party of six, naturally). Room service is quick and easy, and who doesn‘t get just a little thrill when the waiter lifts that silver dome with a flourish 1.11 GRILL ROOM In this form of service various meats are grilled in front of the guest. The meats may be displayed behind a glass partition or well decorated counter so that the guest can select his exact cut of meat. The food comes pre-plated. 1.12 DISCOTHEQUES /NIGHT CLUBS A nightclub (also known as a discothèque, or simply a club or disco) is an entertainment venue which usually operates late into the night. A nightclub is generally distinguished from bars, pubs or taverns by the inclusion of a dance floor and a DJ booth, where a DJ plays recorded, hip hop, rock, reggae, and pop music. The music in nightclubs is either live bands or, more commonly, a mix of songs played by a DJ through a powerful PA system. Most clubs or club nights cater to certain music genres, such as techno, house music, heavy metal, hip hop, salsa, dancehall, Drum and Bass. Many clubs also promote playing the Top 40 which has most of the night playing the most broadcast songs of the previous week. 1.13 BAR / PUB A bar is a business establishment that serves alcoholic drinks — beer, wine, liquor, and cocktails — for consumption on the premises. Bars provide stools or chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Some bars have entertainment on a stage, such as a live band, comedians, go-go dancers. Bars which offer entertainment or live music are often referred to as music bars or nightclubs. Types of bars range from dive bars to elegant places of entertainment for the elite. Many bars have a happy hour to encourage off-peak patronage. Bars that fill to capacity sometimes implement a cover charge or a minimum purchase requirement during their Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 12
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First peak hours. Such bars often feature entertainment, which may be a live band or a disk jockey playing recorded music. The term "bar" is derived from the specialized counter on which drinks are served. Patrons may sit or stand at the bar and be served by the bartender, or they may sit at tables and be served by cocktail servers. The "back bar" is a set of shelves of glasses and bottles behind that counter. In some establishments, the back bar is elaborately decorated with woodwork, imprinted glass, mirrors, and lights. A public house, informally known as a pub, is a drinking establishment fundamental to the culture of Britain, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. There are approximately 53,500 public houses in the United Kingdom. This number has been declining every year, so that nearly half of the smaller villages no longer have a local pub. In many places, especially in villages, a pub can be the focal point of the community. The writings of Samuel Pepys describe the pub as the heart of England. Historically, public houses have been socially and culturally distinct from cafés, bars, and brewpubs. Most public houses offer a range of beers, wines, spirits, and soft drinks. Many pubs are controlled by breweries, so cask ale or keg beer may be a better value than wines and spirits. Traditionally the windows of town pubs were of smoked or frosted glass to obscure the clientele from the street but in the 1990s and after in the UK and other countries there has been a move towards clear glass, in keeping with brighter interior décors. 1.14GARDEN CAFÉ The garden cafe is places you can sit back relax and see some flowers, as you know it‘s very hard to see any flowers. It‘s a place where you can find the tranquility to enjoy your food. Where coffee actually taste like coffee. Picture this sea of flowers surround you as you are about to eat your sandwich a cool breeze comes by. And then realize that life is not that bad. Its a feeling of everything is ok.Its hard to explain but you should go to the garden cafe and sit outside or just come by and chat with the people there. 1.15 OUT DOOR CATERING This catering includes the provision of food and drink away from home base and suppliers. The venue is left to the peoples‘ choice. Hotels, restaurants and catering contractors meet this growing demand. The type of food and set up depends entirely on the price agreed upon. Outdoor catering includes catering for functions such as marriages, parties and conventions. 1.16 ICE CREAM PARLOR Ice cream parlors are places that sell ice cream, gelato, sorbet and frozen yogurt to consumers. Ice cream is normally sold in three varieties: soft-serve ice cream, which is typically dispensed by a machine with a limited number of flavors (e.g. chocolate, Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 13
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First vanilla, and "twist", a mix of the two) and regular ice cream (also called hard-packed ice cream) and gelato, both of which may be available in as many flavors as a parlor has room to display in its freezers. Gelato is Italian ice cream that typically has almost half the butterfat content of ice cream and a smoother texture. Sorbet is a frozen treat made fruit, syrup and ice. No milk or cream is used. Frozen yogurt is a common low-fat ice cream alternative with a smooth texture that is similar to soft serve ice cream. All of these frozen products may be sold in ice cream cones, cups, sundaes, and milkshakes. Some parlors may also sell ice cream cakes, ice cream bars and other pre-packaged frozen sweets. In addition to frozen dessert products, many modern ice cream parlors also sell a variety of hot fast foods. While some parlors remain open all year round (typically in warmer weather locations), many parlors colder climates stay open only during warmer months, particularly from March to November. Parlors in major metro areas, including those in colder climates, often remain throughout the year to satisfy high consumer demand for frozen ice creams, yogurts, and sorbets. Parlors vary in terms of environment, with some having only an order-up window and outside seating to others having complete indoor facilities. Some parlors have added drive through windows as well. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 14
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 1.17 LESSON SUMMARY The catering industry encompasses those places that provide meals to the customer at cost. Catering industry may be of ‗on-premises‘ and ‗off-premises‘ types. On-premises catering refer to the preparation and serving of food at the place where the function is held, whereas, off-premises involve producing food at a central kitchen and service provided at the client‘s location. The catering industry is divided into three segments, viz. commercial, noncommercial and military. The catering establishments are categorized by the nature of the demands they meet. Restaurants, transport catering (airline catering, railway catering, s hip catering, surface catering), outdoor catering, retail store catering, club catering, welfare catering, industrial catering and leisure catering are some of the types of catering establishments. There is no industry in the world which is not directly or indirectly, one way or the other, related to the catering industry. Commercial catering industry is the only industry that provides food, at a price, away from home. A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared food to customers. Service is generally for eating on premises, though the term has been used to describe take-out establishments and food delivery services. The term covers many types of venues and a diversity of styles of cuisine and service. Restaurants often specialize in certain types of food or present a certain unifying, and often entertaining, theme. For example, there are seafood restaurants, vegetarian restaurants or ethnic restaurants. Generally speaking, restaurants selling "local" food are simply called restaurants, while restaurants selling food of foreign origin are called accordingly, for example, a Chinese restaurant and a French restaurant. Restaurants can be classified by whether they provide places to sit, whether they are served by wait-staff and the quality of the service, the formality of the atmosphere, and the price range. 1.18 KEY WORDS Multifaceted - many-sided, versatile, all-around Advent – arrival, beginning, introduction Bonafied – Authentic, True. Leisure - free time, vacation, holiday Gambling – betting, gaming, gamble Congregate – gather together, collect, assemble, meet Gregarious – outgoing, expressive, extroverted Brewpubs - a restaurant or bar where the beer is made on the premises Tranquility – calm, quiet, silence Gelato - an Italian ice cream made from milk, gelatin, sugar, and fruit Sorbet - a frozen dessert, usually made with fruit syrup and sometimes egg whites, whisked until smooth Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 15
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 1.19 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in Detail the Origin of Hotel Industry? 2. What are the Service aspects and skills regarding Hotel Industry? 3. Explain the Growth aspect of the Hotel Industry? 4. Mention the different Catering Sectors? 5. What are the different types of F&B Outlet? 6. What are the difference between Restaurant and a Coffee Shop? 7. What are Banquets and buffets? 8. Write in short about Lounges, Grill Room & Room Service? 9. What is the difference between Discotheque/ night club & Bar/Pub? 10. Write in short on outdoor catering, garden café and Ice Cream parlor? 1.20 REFERENCES 1. Dennis R. Lillicrap, John A Cousins, Food and Beverage Service 2. Vijay Dhawan, Food and Beverage Service, 3. S. Medlik, Profile of the Hotel and Catering Industry. 1. Sudan Amrik Singh, Restaurant Management, Anmol Publications. 2. Dennis R. Lillicrap, John A Cousins, Food and Beverage Service, Elbs. 3. Loftus David, Restaurant Notes, Ryland Peters & Small. 4. Sudhir Andrews, Food and Beverage Service Manual, Tata McGraw Hill. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 16
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First UNIT -02 INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN F & B AND OTHER DEPARTMENT CONTENTS 2.0 Objectives 2.1 Introduction 2.2. Cost Controls 2.3 Engineering & Maintenance 2.4 Kitchen Stewarding/ Wash-up area 2.5 Kitchen 2.6 Stores 2.7 Accounts 2.8 Front Office 2.9 Housekeeping 2.10 Personnel 2.11 Lesson Summary 2.12 Key Words 2.13 Questions to Solve 2.14 References 2.0 OBJECTIVES •Know in Detail about the Interrelation of other departments with F&B. • Identifying the various aspects which department‘s coordinate. •Define the departments which relates in the day to day work of F&B. 2.1 INTRODUCTION The industry nowadays needs a sophisticated network and relation with other departments to run the show. Large establishments need more coordination in many aspects to do the work smoothly and efficiently. In this unit we have discussed the importance of relation with other departments in the day to day work in a hospitality Industry. 2.2 COST CONTROLS Food and beverage service department co-ordinates with cost control department for K.O.T analysis and various internal auditing. 2.3 ENGINEERING AND MAINTENANCE Engineering department is the department which is responsible for the supply of a/c or heating lighting and electrical functioning of any service equipment in the restaurant. 2.4 KITCHEN STEWARDING/WASH UP AREA Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 17
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First This department primarily controls the storage and issue of cutlery crockery, hollowware. This department is also responsible for washing soiled service ware and subsequently providing clean items. 2.5 KITCHEN It is this department, which provides food and beverage to food, and beverage service department to service the guest according to his/her order. In large hotels this department will have different sections to handle work. 2.6 STORES It is a source from where the food and beverage service staff can get supplies of sauces, order pads, pencils, bottle openers etc… 2.7 ACCOUNTS The representative of accounts department in food and beverage service department is the cashier who receives all cash and credit payments made for food beverage sales in a restaurant or bar. 2.8 FRONT OFFICE It is the central point where all cheques or bills of the hotel residence are collected and then recorded in their overall bill. The waiter can contact this department for guest name and room member confirmation. 2.9 HOUSE KEEPING This department is responsible for the hotel this also department is also the source of staff uniforms, restaurant lines and flowers. 2.10 PERSONNEL Food and beverage service department co-ordinates with personnel department for leave forms, appraisals staff welfare, staff problems, staff salary etc. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 18
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 2.11 LESSON SUMMARY Successfully carrying out the activities of Food & Beverage department is possible only by establishing effective relationships within the departments. The other departments with which F&B have interrelation to get the day to day work are Cost control, Maintenance, Kitchen, Kitchen Stewarding, Stores, Accounts, Front Office, Housekeeping, Personnel. These departments coordinate in many ways to run the department smoothly, and also for helping it to make the department maintain its standard. 2. 12 KEY WORDS Auditing- check, inspection, examination Confirmation – corroboration, verification, authentication Appraisals – assessment, evaluation, review 2.13 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. How does a cost control department help F&B Service? 2. How does a Kitchen & Kitchen stewarding help F&B Service? 3. How does an Accounts & Personnel help F&B Service? 4. How does a Front office & Housekeeping help F&B Service 2.14 REFERENCES 1. Sudan Amrik Singh, Restaurant Management, Anmol Publications. 2. Dennis R. Lillicrap, John A Cousins, Food and Beverage Service, Elbs. 3. Loftus David, Restaurant Notes, Ryland Peters & Small. 4. Sudhir Andrews, Food and Beverage Service Manual, Tata McGraw Hill. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 19
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First UNIT -03 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF F & B STAFF CONTENTS 3.0 Objectives 3.1 Introduction to hotel industry 3.2. Food & Beverage Manager 3.2.1 Budgeting 3.2.2 Compiling New Menus & wine list 3.2.3 Quality control 3.2.4 Manpower Development 3.3 Restaurant Manager 3.4 Senior Captain/ Maitre d‟ hotel 3.5 Captain / Chef De Rang 3.6 Waiters / Commis de Rang/ Steward 3.7 Trainee 3.8 Wine waiter/ Sommelier 3.9 Carver/ Trancheur 3.10 Lesson Summary 3.11 Key Words 3.12 Questions to Solve 3.13 References 3.0 OBJECTIVES In this lesson we shall discuss about the restaurants. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: • Staff organization • Duties and responsibilities of restaurant staffs 3.1 INTRODUCTION Eating is one of life‘s pleasure and pride – so is cooking and serving good food to others. A restaurant is a commercial outfit which specializes in the preparation of quality food and to serve them to satisfy the customer‘s demands. Their motto is ―Customers are our assets and satisfied customers are our source of wealth‖. Restaurants do have state of the art kitchens in their premises, where food items are prepared, following a fixed menu to serve the customers. Most restaurants are also equipped with infrastructure facilities, table settings, and dining halls of various sizes to cater to needs of small gatherings to grandiose banquets to suit customer demands and above all, trained personnel to provide a satisfactory service. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 20
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES OF: 3.2 F&B MANAGERThe food and beverage manager is the head of the food and beverage service department, and is responsible for its administrative and operational work. Food and Beverage Managers direct, plan and control all aspects of food and beverage services. Food and Beverage Managers require excellent sales and customer service skills, proven human resource management skills, and good communication and leadership skills. Desired knowledge for this position includes knowledge of the products, services, sector, industry and local area, and knowledge of relevant legislation and regulations, as well. Hence it is said that food and beverage manager is a Jack-of-all-trades, as the job covers a wide variety of duties. In general, food and beverage manager is responsible for: 3.2.1 Budgeting The food and beverage manager is responsible for preparing the budget for the department. He should ensure that each outlet in the department achieves the estimated profit margins. 3.2.2 Compiling New Menus and Wine Lists In consultation with the chef, and based on the availability of ingredients and prevailing trends, the food and beverage manager should update and if necessary, compile new menus. New and updated wine lists should also be introduced regularly. 3.2.3 Quality Control The food and beverage manager should ensure quality control in terms of efficiency in all service areas, by ascertaining that the staffs are adequately trained in keeping with the standards of the unit. 3.2.4 Manpower Development The food and beverage manager is responsible for recruitment, promotions, transfers and dismissals in the department. He should hold regular meetings with section heads, to ensure that both routine as well as projected activities of the department go on as planned. He must also give training, motivate and effectively control staff. 3.3 Restaurant Manager Restaurant Manager is responsible for directing and supervising all activities pertaining to employee relation, food production, sanitation, guest service and operating profits. The restaurant manager is either the coffee shop manager, bar manager or the specialist restaurant manager. The restaurant manager reports directly to the food and beverage manager and has overall responsibility for the organization and administration of a particular outlet or a section of the food and beverage service department. The restaurant manager's job includes: i) Setting and monitoring the standards of service in the outlets. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 21
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First ii) Administrative duties such as setting duty charts, granting leave, monitoring staff positions, recommending staff promotions and handling issues relating to discipline. iii) Training the staff by conducting a daily briefing in the outlet iv) Playing a vital role in public relations, meeting guests in the outlets and attending to guest complaints, if any. v) Formulating the sales and expenditure budget for the outlet. vi) Planning food festivals to increase the revenue and organizing advertisement campaign of the outlet along with the chef and the food and beverage manager. 3.4 Senior Captain or Maitre d‟ Hotel The senior captain has overall responsibility for operations. He prepares the duty charts in consultation with the outlet manager. He oversees the Mise-en-place, cleaning, setting up of the outlet and staffing to ensure that the outlet is always ready for service. The senior captain receives the guests and hands them over to the captain or station holder. He takes orders from guests if the captain is unable to do so. The senior captain should be an able organizer and also be prepared to take over the duties of any member of the staff as and when required 3.5 Captain / Chef De Rang This position exists in large restaurants, as well as in the food and beverage service department of all major hotels. The captain is basically a supervisor and is in charge of a particular section. A restaurant may be divided into sections called Stations, each consisting of 4 to 5 tables or 20 to 24 covers. A captain is responsible for the efficient performance of the staff in his station. A captain should possess a sound knowledge of food and beverage, and be able to discuss the menu with the guests. He should be able to take a guest's order and be an efficient salesperson. Specialized service such as gueridon work involves a certain degree of skill, and it is the captain who usually takes the responsibility to do this work. 3.6 Waiters / Commis de Rang / Server The waiters serve the food and beverage ordered by a guest and is part of a team under a station captain. They should be able to perform the duties of a captain to a certain extent and be a substitute for the captain if he is busy or not on duty. They should; also be knowledgeable about all types of food and beverages, so that they can effectively take an order from a guest, execute the order and serve the correct dish with its appropriate garnish and accompaniment. They should be able to efficiently coordinate with the other staff in the outlet. 3.7 Trainee / Commis De Barraseur The trainees work closely with the waiters, fetching orders from the kitchen and the bar, and clearing the side station in a restaurant. They serve water and assist the waiter. They Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 22
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First are mainly responsible for the mise-en-place, and stacking the side board with the necessary equipment for service. The debarrasseur is the ‗learner‘, having just joined the food service staff, and possibly wishing to take up food service as a career. 3.8 Wine Waiter / Sommelier Wine waiters have an important role to play in reputed establishments. Their job is to take orders for the service of wine and alcoholic beverages and serve them during the meal. Hence they should be knowledgeable about wines that accompany a particular dish and the manner in which they should be served. They should also be aware of the licensing laws prevalent in the city and should be efficient sales persons 3.9 Carver / Trancheur The carver is responsible for the carving trolley and the carving of joints at the table as required. The carver will plate up each portion with the appropriate accompaniment. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 23
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 3.10 LESSON SUMMARY Restaurants often specialize in certain types of food or present a certain unifying, and often entertaining, theme. For example, there are seafood restaurants, vegetarian restaurants or ethnic restaurants. Generally speaking, restaurants selling "local" food are simply called restaurants, while restaurants selling food of foreign origin are called accordingly, for example, a Chinese restaurant and a French restaurant. Restaurants can be classified by whether they provide places to sit, whether they are served by wait-staff and the quality of the service, the formality of the atmosphere, and the price range. Staff organization is basically concerned with matters such as the decision of tasks within the hotel, position of responsibility and authority and the relation between them. It helps in introducing the concepts of span of control, level of management and delegation. 3.11 KEY WORDS Grandiose - high-flying, extravagant, flamboyant Stacking – pile, load, mound Gueridon- a small usually ornately carved and embellished stand or table Garnish – decorate, dress up, beautify Debarrasseur - This person is commonly known as the busser or busboy. 3.12 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write the duties and responsibilities of an F&B Manager? 2. Write the duties and responsibilities of a restaurant manager? 3. What are the duties of Senior Captain & captain? 4. What are the duties of Waiter and Trainees? 5. What are the duties of Wine Waiter and Carver? 3.13 REFERENCES 1. Sudan Amrik Singh, Restaurant Management, Anmol Publications. 2. Dennis R. Lillicrap, John A Cousins, Food and Beverage Service, Elbs. 3. Loftus David, Restaurant Notes, Ryland Peters & Small. 4. Sudhir Andrews, Food and Beverage Service Manual, Tata McGraw Hill. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 24
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First UNIT - 04 Attributes of a Waiter I Steward CONTENTS 4.0 Objectives 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Attributes of a Waiter 4.2.1 Personnel Hygiene 4.2.2 Knowledge of F& B 4.2.3 Local Knowledge 4.2.4 Attitude to customers 4.2.5 Sales Ability 4.2.6 Customer Satisfaction 4.2.7 Tackling Complaints 4.2.8 Conduct 4.2.9 Memory 4.2.10 Honesty 4.3 Lesson Summary 4.4 Key Words 4.5 Questions to Solve 4.6 References 4.0 OBJECTIVES In this lesson we shall discuss about the status and attributes of a waiter. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: • Waiter and his duties • Attributes of the waiter. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Good waiters are necessary to the success and development of the hotel and catering industry. Waiters play an important part as, in effect, an efficient salesman of food, one who assists materially in merchandising and its accompanying services. Waiter is in direct contact with the guests and therefore much of catering establishment‘s success depends on the skills, interest and personable qualities of the waiter. The waiters are prompted to develop tact and initiative and by keeping their brains active and reveal their personality. 4.2 ATTRIBUTES OF A WAITER The product of food and beverage operation is not just food and beverage itself. Any staff coming in contact with the guest is also part of the product. No matter how good the quality of the food and beverage, décor and equipment, a poorly trained staff can Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 25
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First destroy the customer‘s satisfaction with the project. Listed below are the attributes necessary in food beverage service. 4.2.1Personnel Hygiene: A person working in food and beverage service area should maintain personal hygiene such as a) He Should take bath daily b) He should shave daily c) He should wear clean, well pressed uniforms d) He should polish his shoes daily e) He should trim his moustache and lairs as and when required 4.2.2 Knowledge of Food and Beverage The staff must have sufficient knowledge of all the items on the menu and wine list in order to advise or suggest to a guest. Moreover they should know how to serve correctly each dish, what its accompaniments are, what their appropriate garnishes are and also how to serve various types of beverage in the correct glasses and the right temperature. 4.2.3 Local Knowledge: In the interest of customers the staff should have certain knowledge of the area, in which they work so that they may be able to advice the guest on the various forms of entertainment offered etc. 4.2.4 Attitude to Customers: A careful watch should be kept on customers of all times during the service and without starring; care should always be taken when dealing with difficult customers. 4.2.5 Sales Ability: Food and beverage service personnel are technical salespersons; hence they should have a thorough knowledge of the proper presentation and service of all the food and beverages served in the establishment. Waiters should be kept informed by their superiors of deletions or additions to the menu. 4.2.6 Customers Satisfaction: The food and beverage service staff must see that the guest has all they require and are completely satisfied. 4.2.7 Tackling Complaints: The staff should have a pleasant manner showing courtesy and tact they should never displeasure even though at times things may be difficult. They should never argue with a customer. If they cannot deal with a situation, it should be refereed immediately to a senior member of the team. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 26
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 4.2.8 Conduct: The staff‘s conduct should be impeccable at all times especially in front of the customers. Rules and regulations of the establishment should be followed and respect shown to all senior member of staff. 4.2.9 Memory: This is an essential asset to food and beverage service staff. It may help them in various ways in their work, if they know the likes and dislikes of the guest. Where they like to sit in the service area, what are their favorite drinks and so on. 4.2.10 Honesty: This is all-important to the staff in dealing with both the guest and management. If there is trust and respect in the triangle of staff. Guest and management relationship, then there will be an atmosphere of work, which encourages efficiency and a good team spirit among the service operations. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 27
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 4.3 LESSON SUMMARY The waiter is also known as a Steward or Commis-de-Rang. The duties of waiter include preparing tables (table setting) for a meal, taking customers' orders, serving drinks and food, and cleaning up before, during and after servings in a restaurant. The quality of service staff in any establishment reflects the quality of the establishment itself. The important qualities of a waiter are: personal hygiene a n d appearance, good conduct, good memory, observation, concentration and skill, salesmanship, ability to assume responsibility, maximize revenue, punctuality, local knowledge, personality, attitude to customers, honesty, etc. 4.4 KEY WORDS Merchandising – goods, products, commodities Personable – amiable, friendly, pleasant, likable Initiative – proposal, plan, enterprise Impeccable – faultless, perfect, flawless 4.5 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What are the attributes regarding Hygiene and Knowledge of Food & Beverage? 2. What are the attributes regarding Local Knowledge & attitudes to customers? 3. What are the attributes of Sales ability & conduct? 4. What are the attributes of Customer Satisfaction & Tackling Complaints? 5. What are the attributes of Memory and Honesty? 6. What are the qualities necessary for a Waiter? 4.6 REFERENCES 1. A C Marshall, John Fuller, A J Currie, the Waiter, Barrie and Jenkins 2. Lora Arduser, The Waiter & Waitress and Wait staff Training Handbook: A Complete Guide, Atlantic Publishing Company. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 28
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 29
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 30
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First UNIT -05 Pantry - still room, hot section wash up CONTENTS 5.0 Objectives 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Silver Room 5.3 Spare linen store 5.4 Still room or Pantry 5.5 Dispense Bar 5.6 Hot Plate 5.7 Wash Up 5.7.1 Manual Tank method 5.7.2 Machine method 5.8 Lesson Summary 5.9 Key Words 5.10 Questions to Solve 5.11 References 5.0 OBJECTIVES In this lesson we shall discuss about the food and beverage service areas. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: • Stillroom, its staffs, provisions receivable and equipments available •Silver room stock-ups •Wash-up of soiled items •Hotplate point, use of cupboards and coordination between various units and • Spare linen store 5.1 INTRODUCTION The ancillary department of the restaurant area includes important units in the make-up of a catering establishment, acting as the link between kitchen or food preparation units and the restaurant or food service units. The service areas behind the scene can also be termed as ‗back-of-house‘. The service areas are stocked with appropriate equipment, depending on the style of operation. The service areas themselves are some of the busiest units of a catering establishment, especially during the service periods. In general, especially in large hotels, five main service areas can be distinguished: 1) Stillroom 2) Silver or plate room 3) Wash-up 4) Hotplate 5) Spare linen store Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 31
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 5.2 Silver room In the larger more luxurious establishment, the silver room or plate room as it is sometimes known is a separate service area. The silver room should hold the complete stock of silver required for the service of all meals, tighter with an alight surplus stock in case of emergency. The storage of silver is most important. The large silver such as flats, salvers, soup spoons will be stored on shelves, with all the flats of one size together and so on. All shelves should be labeled showing where each different items goes. This makes it easier for control purposes and for stacking when stacking silver the heavier items should go on the shelves lower down and the smaller and lighter items on the shelves higher up. All cutlery and flatware, together with the smaller items of silver such as ashtrays, cruet sets, and butter dishes are best stored in drawer lined with green baize. This helps to prevent noises and stops the various items sliding about the drawer when it is opened and closed and so becoming scratched and marked. 5.3 Spare linen stores Another back of house service area that is generally found within establishment is the spare lines cupboard. This is normally the responsibility of a senior member of the food service staff and is kept locked for control purpose. This spare lines stock is held near the food service care in case of emergency. The lines is changed when necessary on a basis of ―one clean for one dirty‖. 5.4 Still Room or Pantry The main function of stillroom is to provide items of food and beverage required for the service of a meal and not catered for by the other major departments in a hotel, such as the kitchen, larder and pastry. The staff in charge of the stillroom is known as stillroom supervisor. The person in charge is responsible for the compilation of work Rota for all stillroom staff so that all duties are covered and so that it is fully staffed from first thing in the morning until last thing in the night. Equipments used in stillroom or pantry a) Refrigerator b) Butter Machine c) Coffee Machine d) Tea Dispenser e) Salamander f) Hot Cupboard g) Storage Cupboard h) Coffee Grinding Machine Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 32
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First i) Double Gas range Provisions provided from stillroom or pantry a) All beverage such as coffee, Tea, Coffee, chocolate and other food drinks b) Assorted fruit juices: Orange, tomato, pineapple& grape fruit c) Milk and Cream d) Sugars, Preserves, Butter e) Rolls, Brioche, Croissants f) Breakfast toast g) Assorted breakfast cereals h) Pastries, gateaux and sand riches i) Porridges and boiled eggs. Etc. 5.5 Dispense Bar The term dispense bar is recognized to mean any bar situated within a food and beverage service area that dispenses only wine or other alcoholic drinks to be served to a guest consuming a meal. All alcoholic drinks are severed to guest consuming a meal. All alcoholic drinks are served by that member of the restaurant team known as the “sommelier or wine waiter‖ unless it is the custom for the food service waiter to serve his/her own guests with the drink they require. Equipments In order to carry out efficiently the service of all forms of drink requested, the bar should have available all the necessary equipment for making cocktails, decanting wine, serving wine correctly, and so on. Main items are: a) Cocktail Shaker b) Boston Shaker c) Mixing Glass d) Strainer e) Bar spoon f) Bar blender g) Drink mixer 5.6 Hot Plate The hotplate may be regarded as the meeting point between the food service staff and the food production staff. It is the most essential that there is active co-operation and a good relationship between the staff of this two-service area. This helps a great deal to ensure that the customer receives an efficient and quick service of the meal. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 33
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First This co-operation will also ensure that all the dishes served are well and attractively presented. At the time all orders written by the waiter must be legible to the Aboyeur so that there is no delay in calling up a particular dish. 5.7 Wash up The wash up is a must important service area and must be sited correctly so that the brigade can work speedily and efficiently when passing from the food service area to kitchens. The waiter should stock trays of dirties correctly at the sideboard, with all correct sized plates tighter, and tableware stacked on one of the plats with the blades of the drives running under the arches of the forks. The wash up service point should be the first section the waiter enters from the food service area. He deposits all the dirty plates, stacking them correctly and placing all the tableware in a special with basket or container in readiness for washing. The waiter must place any debris into the bin or bowl provided. All used paper serviettes, doilies or kitchen paper should be placed in a separate bin. Dishwashing Methods 5.7.1 Manual (Tank) Method The dirty china is placed into a tank of hot water containing a soap detergent. After washing the plates are placed into wire racks and dipped into a second sterilizing tank containing clean hot water. The rates are left to drain. This is therefore more hygienic. 5.7.2 Machine Method Many of the larger establishment has washing up machine. These are necessary because of the high turnover rate of chinaware. The instructions for use of a washing up machine are generally supplied by the manufacturer together with details of detergent to be used and in what quantity. These directions should be strictly adhered to the china itself has any debris removed and is then placed into either wooden or wine tracks. The racks are then passed through the machine, the china being washed, rinsed and then sterilized in turn. Having passed through the machine the china is left to drain for two to three minutes and is then stacked and placed on shelves until required for further use. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 34
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 5.8LESSON SUMMARY The equipment that may be found in still room includes coffee brewing machine, coffee bean grinding machine, tea dispenser, bread slicing machine, salamander, hot cupboard, s teamer and hot water boiler, refrigerators, work table and cutting board, general storage space, shelves and cupboards, s inks, washing machine, dish washers, etc. The silver room holds the stock of silver required for the service of meals. Cutlery, flatware, hollowware and other smaller items are usually stored in drawers lined with baize, as this helps to reduce noise, slipping and scratching. The wash-up area is one of the busiest sections. There are two methods of washing, viz. the tank method and the machine method. The hotplate is the contact point between the kitchen and the service staff. Hot cupboards can be used for keeping hot either food or plates. The Aboyeur is in charge, and controls the hotplate over the service period. The spare linen store is the service area where linen materials are stored in cupboards. 5.9 KEY WORDS Ancillary – auxiliary, subsidiary, supplementary Rota- roster, schedule, timetable Compilation – collection, set, assemblage Baize - a green woolen cloth, similar to felt. Use: tops of pool and card tables. Decanting – pour, transfer, empty Aboyeur – Announcer, Publiciste Publicitaire 5.10 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is a Silver room? 2. Write in short about Spare Linen room & Dispense Bar? 3. What is still room or Pantry? 4. Write in short about Hot Plate? 5. What is Wash-up? 5.11 REFERENCES 1. Ann Bulleid, Serving Food and Drink: Table & Function: Student Guide, Nelson Thornes. 2. Dennis R. Lillicrap, John A Cousins, Food and Beverage Service, Elbs. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 35
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First UNIT - 06 Types of Services CONTENTS 6.0 Objectives 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Preparation for Service 6.2.1 Mise en scene 6.2.2 Mise en Place 6.2.3 Side Board 6.3 Table service 6.4 Assisted Service 6.5 Self Service 6.6 Single Point Service 6.7 Specialized Service 6.8 American Service 6.9 Russian Service 6.10 French Service or butler Service 6.11 English Service or Silver Service 6.12 Guriedon Service 6.13 Cafeteria Service 6.14 Counter Service 6.15 Silver Service 6.16 Grill Room Service 6.17 Buffet Service 6.18 Banquet Service 6.19 Lounge Service 6.20 Indian Service 6.21 Lesson Summary 6.22 Key Words 6.23 Questions to Solve 6.24 References 6.0 OBJECTIVES In this lesson we shall discuss about preparing for service. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: •Preparing the restaurant before, during and after service •Mise-en-scene •Mise-en-place •Rules and points to remember while table laying. ◘ Styles of service ◘ Service techniques. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 36
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 6.1 INTRODUCTION Restaurants not only should attract potential customers but also should strive hard to entice them to become frequent and regular customers. This can be done in a number of ways, such as through the type of menu, the glamorous and attractive name of the place or atmosphere within the food service area. The customer‘s first impressions of a restaurant are the most important and these are largely determined by the professionalism of the service staff and their preparations prior to service. These pre-service preparations are known as mise-en-place and are vital in that they create the right and pleasing environment by the setting and controlling of temperature, lighting and equipment. Service is a term that is used to describe the manner and method in which food is served to guests in foodservice operations. In former times, this often constituted an elaborate and complicated procedure, much of which is no longer in style, notwithstanding that some technical terms are still in use today. 6.2 Preparation for Service The duties to the carried out before the service commence are many and varied according to the particular food and beverage service area concerned. The term mis-enplace is the traditional term used for all the duties that have to the carried out in order to have the room ready for service. The pre preparation for service can be mainly divided into 6.2.1 Mise-en-scene Mise-en-scene refers to preparing the environment of the area in order to make it pleasant, comfortable, safe, and hygienic for the waiter restaurant is the service area. Before each service session, the restaurant should be made presentable enough to accept guests. The supervisor or team of waiter should ensure the following mise-en-scene: a) Carpets are well brushed b) All tables and chairs are serviceable c) Table lights or wall lights have functioning bulbs d) Menu cards are presentable and attractive e) Tent cards or other sales material are presentable f) Doors and windows are thrown open for some time to air the restaurant. This should be followed by closing the windows and doors and setting the airconditioning or heating to a comfortable temperature. g) Exchange dirty lines for fresh linen. h) Table cloths and mats are laid on the tables i) Wilted flowers are discarded and fresh flowers requisitioned Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 37
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 6.2.2 Mise-en-place Mise-en-place means “putting in place” and is the term attributed to pre-preparation of a work place for ultimate smooth service. To ensure that restaurant is ready for service. A station comprises of a given number of tables, which are attended by a given team of waiters. Thus a restaurant may have several stations, each with a team of waiters. In large restaurants a captain or chef-de-rang may head each station. 6.2.3 Side Board A side board (or dummy waiter) is a piece of furniture with shelves and cupboards, Spacious enough to hold all linen, cutlery, crockery etc. for service to a particular number of covers. The smooth functioning of service in the given covers will depend on how thoroughly the sideboard has been prepared. Before a restaurant opens for service the sideboard must be equipped with the following items 1. Cold water in jugs with under plates and napkin to cover 2. All-important proprietary sauces as Worcestershire sauce, Tobascco sauce, tomato ketchup etc. 3. Toothpicks in toothpick holders 4. Sugar bowls with teaspoons for each 5. Straw holders 6. Pickles and chutneys 7. Bread Baskets or Boats 8. Ashtray‘s cleaned and polished 9. Service spoons and forks 10. Adequate number of cutlery used on the table normally 2 ½ times the no required for one sitting in the station 11. Salvers 12. Under plates 13. Half plates, quarter palate and large plates and sauces 14. A crumbing plate 15. Trays covered with napkin for service 16. Spare lines for restaurant 17. Paper napkins and doily papers 18. Butter dishes, finger bowls, water goblets 19. Cloth napkins are folded and kept ready for service 20. Cruet sets cleaned and filled with salt and pepper 6.3 Table Service Table service means a service to a customer when he enters into the area and is seated. The ordering of food and beverage is done from the menu. The staff does the service and clearance of food and beverage. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 38
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 6.4 Assisted Service This form of service is the combination of table service and self-service. In this type of service the guest is assisted by the waiter for service of food and beverage in certain occasions and also helped by the guest himself for the service of food and beverage 6.5 Self Service It is a service method where in food and beverages are usually displayed and the guest serves himself 6.6 Single Point Service This method of service signifies that the point of order and service of food and beverage is done from one single point only, and it is the guest‘s choice to take the food away from the premises. E.g. take ways, fast foods etc. 6.7 Specialized Service In this method of service it is the provision of food and beverages to the guest in area which are not primarily designed for the service If these five categories have to be further classified it can be done as following 6.8 American Service The other name by which this form of service is known that the food is served in the guest plate from the kitchen itself as it reduces the time taken for service and provide a faster service. This form of service developed for the requirement of faster service to the guest. 6.9 Russian Service This form of service was much more prevalent in the 16th and 17th century. It is always misunderstood or was confused by indicating it as gueridon or butler service. Originally Russian service was where in Table laid with food for customers to help they were carried down. 6.10 French Service or Butler Service In this form of service the presentation of food individually to customers by service staff for customers to serve themselves. In this form of service, the case of silverware items was more significant. 6.11 English Service or Silver Service This form of service is also known as „Host Service‟. In this form of service host plays an important role, as it is the host whose approval is required for the service of food. The food is presented and served to the customer by service staff from food platters or dish. 6.12 Gueridon Service Food is served on the customer‘s plate from the side table or trolley which may also include carving, cooking, flambéing, preparation of salads and dressings and final touch to the food. The food is partly cooked from the main kitchen and the final preparation is done in front of the guest and served to the guest. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 39
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 6.13 Cafeteria Service This service usually exists in Industrial canteen, colleges, Hospitals and hotel cafeteria. The menu is fixed and displayed on large board the guest may have to buy coupon in advance. Present them at the counter. Sometimes the food is displayed behind the counter and the guest may indicate their choice in the counter attendance. 6.14 Counter Service Tall stools are provided at the counter itself, so that the guest may eat food at the counter itself. In better organization the covers are laid on the counter itself. Food is displayed either behind the counter for the guest to choose from 6.15 Silver Service: This form of service requires the food to be served to guest plate from silver plates, the portioning of the dishes are done in the kitchen itself. All food is presented in silver dishes with elaborate dressings 6.16 Grill Room Service: In this form of service various cuts of meat are grilled, in front of the quest. The meat carcass is displayed behind the glass partition. So that the guest can select his/her cut of meat. The food comes pre-plated. 6.17 Buffet Service: A self-service by which food is displayed on the table. The guest takes his plate from the stakes of plates kept at alone of each table and either requires waiter behind the buffet tables or helps him. For sit down buffet, Tables are laid with crockery and cutlery as in restaurant 6.18 Banquet Service: This service mainly refers to functions. Cocktail parties, state lunch or dinner dishes, operations on certain occasions, a buffet or special request from the customer are entertained. 6.19 Lounge Service: The service takes place in the residential hotel and refers to the service of coffee, tea, sandwiches where residents can have generally for 24 hours service each day. 6.20 Indian Service The basic principle of Indian service is that the dishes are dished out from the front of the guest and either on a leaf or thaali; as the case may be, the water tumbler is generally placed on left hand side of guest. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 40
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 6.21 LESSON SUMMARY Restaurants not only should attract potential customers but also should strive hard to entice them to become frequent and regular customers. The customer‘s first impressions of a restaurant are the most important and these are largely determined by the professionalism of the service staff and their preparations prior to service. The service should follow a sequence and have a plan of action based on the practices of the professional catering industry. The service staff should perform many tasks before, during and after service. Before each service session, the restaurant should be made presentable enough to accept the guests. The supervisor or team of waiters should ensure the mise-en-scene such as, carpets are well brushed or hovered, all tables and chairs are serviceable, table lights or wall lights have functioning bulbs, menu cards are presentable and attractive, tent cards or other sales material are presentable, doors and windows are thrown open for some time to air the restaurant, exchange dirty linen for fresh linen, table cloths and mats are laid on the tables, wilted flowers are discarded and fresh flowers replaced. Service is a term that is used to describe the manner and method in which food is served to guests in foodservice operations. Five styles of services are internationally recognized which include French service or gueridon service, American service or plate service, English service, Russian service and Buffet service. French service differs from others in that all food is served from the gueridon. American service is usually called "plate service‖ because the food is already placed in the plate in the kitchen ready to be served to the guests. English service is known as "family style" service. In Russian service, the food is fully prepared and pre-cut in the kitchen and then neatly arranged on silver platters by the Chef. Buffet service is also called self service and is normally used in banquet functions and in some restaurants. During service the right and left hands have distinct functions. The left hand carries while the right hand works. Serving food with one hand technique is used only for platter service and involves the so-called long grip. Serving food with both hands technique is used when working at a side table or a buffet. 6.22 KEY WORDS Glamorous – exciting, enchanting, sensational Wilted – lifeless, sagging, drooping Requisitioned – demand, request, call for Attributed – credited, qualified, recognized Crumbing - clear away crumbs from something Complicated – complex, difficult, intricate Flambéing - to pour liquor over food and light it in order to burn off the alcohol and impart the flavor of the liquor to the food Carcass – corpse, remains, body, shell Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 41
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 6.23 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is Preparation of Service? 2. What is Mise-en-Scene and Mise-en- place? 3. How is the side board prepared before a service commences? 4. Write short notes on table, assisted, self, single point, and specialized service? 5. Difference between American & Russian Service? 6. Difference between French service & English Service? 7. Difference between Gureidon & Counter Service? 8. Difference between Cafeteria & Buffet Service? 9. Difference between Grill Room & Silver Service? 10. Difference between Banquet & Lounge Service? 6.24 REFERENCES 1. Ann Bulleid, Serving Food and Drink: Table & Function: Student Guide, Nelson Thornes. 2. Axler, Bruce H., Litrides, Carol Food and Beverage Service, John Wiley & Sons. 3. Casado, Matt A, Food and Beverage Service Manual, John Wiley & Sons. 4. Sondra J. Dahmer, Kurt W. Kahl, Restaurant Service Basics. 5. Lendal H. Kotschevar, Valentino Luciani, Presenting Service: The Ultimate Guide for the Foodservice Professional, John Wiley & Sons Inc. 6. Anthony J. Strianese, Pamela P. Strianese, Dining Room and Banquet Management, Thomson Delmar Learning. 7. Joseph Houston, Neil Glenesk, The Professional Service of Food and Beverage. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 42
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First UNIT – 7 Menus CONTENTS 7.0 Objectives 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Origin of Menu 7.3 Types of Menu 7.3.1 A la Carte Menu 7.3.2 Table d‟ hote menu 7.4 French Classical Menu 7.4.1 Hors d oeuvre 7.4.2 Potage (Soup) 7.4.3 Oeufs (Egg) 7.4.4 Farineaux (Rice & Pasta dishes) 7.4.5 Poisson (Fish) 7.4.6 Entrees 7.4.7 Sorbets 7.4.8 Releves 7.4.9 Roti (Roast) 7.4.10 Legumes (Vegetable) 7.4.11 Salads 7.4.12 Buffet froid (Cold Buffet) 7.4.13 Entremets (Sweet) 7.4.14 Savourex (Savories) 7.4.15 Fromage (Cheese) 7.4.16 Desserts (Fresh fruits & nuts) 7.4.17 Beverages 7.5 Menu Planning & Menu Merchandising 7.6 Lesson Summary 7.7Key Words 7.8 Questions to Solve 7.9 References 7.0 OBJECTIVES In this lesson we shall discuss about the menu. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: •Menu and the types of menu • Menu format and basic principles for organizing a menu • French classical menu • Food and their usual accompaniments Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 43
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 7.1 INTRODUCTION Menu is the statement of food and beverage items available or provided by food establishments primarily based on consumer demand and designed to achieve organizational objectives. It represents the focal point around which components of food service systems are based. The menu is designed carefully what the outlet wants to cater for, keeping in mind the type of clientele. The main advantage of a well-planned menu is that it leads to consumer satisfaction. It also helps to motivate the employees for a responsible and successful service 7.2 Origin of Menu Originally the bill of fare, as it is termed in English, or menu in French was not presented at the table. The banquet consisted of only two courses, each made up of a variety of dishes, anything from 10 to 40 in number. The first 10-40 dishes were placed on the table before the diners entered hence the word entrée and when consumed were removed or relieved by 10-40 other dishes hence the word relives and removes came into existence. It is said that in the year 1541 duke Henry of Brunswick was seen to refer to a long slip of paper, on being asked what he was looking at he said it was a form of programmed of the dishes, and by reference to it he could see what was coming and reserve his appetite accordingly. Thus we many presume that the menu developed from such an event. The bill of fare was very large and was placed at the end of the table for everyone to read. As time progressed the menu became smaller and increased in quantity allowing a number of copies per table. Depending on the establishment the menu may be plain or artistic in its presentation. The menu is the most important part of the caterers work and its compilation is regarded as an art only acquired through experience and study. The menu may link to a bridge linking the establishment to the customers and in part determining the turnover. Thus this important link should be compiled by a number of people in co-ordination with one another, namely the chef de cuisine, the maitre d‘ hote and the manager. In this way the menu should list a well-balanced, appetizing meal. 7.3 Types of Menu The menu are basically two 1. A la carte menu 2. Table d‟ hote menu Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 44
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Along with these two classes of menu even ‗Carte de jour‘ menu can also be included. This is a menu which indicates as ―today‘s special‖, which is usually inserted into table d‘ hote or a la carte menu. 7.3.1 A la Carte menu: The term a la carte may be translated as from the card. The following points may define this type of menu. a) This gives a full list of all the dishes that may be prepared by the establishment Each dish is priced separately A certain waiting time has to be allowed for many of the dishes. Some dishes are cooked to order b) c) d) 7.3.2 Table d‟ hote menu: The following point covers the definition of table d‘ hote menu. The menu has fixed number of courses There is a limited choice within each course The selling price of the menu is fixed The dishes provided will all be ready at a set time The set price is charged whether or not full menu is consumed 7.4 French Classic Menu The number of courses on a menu and dishes within each course depends on the size and class of the establishment. In an establishment where full food preparation and service brigaded are in full operation a full menu may be offered. In this case the course or sections of the menu may be divided as follows 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Hors – d‘oeuvres Potage – (Soup) Ouefs (Egg) Farineaux (Rice and Pasta) Poisson (Fish) Entrée Sorbet Releve Roti (Roast) Legumes (vegetables) Salades (salads) Buffet Froid (cold buffet) Entremets (sweet) Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 45
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 14. Savoureux (savory) 15. Fromage (cheese) 16. Dessert (fresh fruit) 17. Beverages An indication of the various courses and the dishes contained therein is given below. 7.4.1 Hors „d oeuvre Hors d‘ oeuvres are of a spicy nature in order to simulate the appetite. The term is accepted as meaning a variety of pickled or well seasoned food stuffs, from which the customer is able to make his / her choice. The Hors d‘ oeuvre are either served from rotating trolley or a tray, a small amount of each variety being placed on the plate to make up a portion. Examples: Anchovies, Beetroot, Bismarck herring, choux rougher (red cabbage), potato salad, fish mayonnaise, Egg mayonnaise, and cauliflower, a la grecrqe (cauliflower in cooking liquor) Russian salad (mixed vegetables salad) It must not be forgotten, however, that the term hors-d ‗oeuvre also covers any item to be served or listed on the menu before the soup, usually known as ‗horsd oeuvres substitutes. Examples of hors d‘ oeuvres substitutes: Caviar: - the roes of the sturgeon Shellfish cocktail: - prawns or shrimps on a bed of shredded lettuce and coated with tomato flavored mayonnaise Melon frappe: - Chilled melon Salmon fume: - Smoked salmon Huîtres: - oysters Escargots: - snails Cocktail Florida: orange and grapefruit segments presented in the form of a fruit cocktail 7.4.2 Potage (Soup) Soup may also act as an appetizer for the courses to come. Two soups are usually provided on the menu, one being a clear soup (consommé) and the other a thick soup. (Crème, veloute, puree) although there is a choice of clear or thick soup from the menu, only one would be offered at each function. The clear soup is always placed first on the menu. Examples of soups are: Torture Claire: - Clean turtle soup Consommé julienne: clear soup garnished with strips of root vegetables Consommé Celestine: clear soup garnished with strips of savory pancakes Petite marmite: Beef and chicken flavored consommé Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 46
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Crème de tomatoes: clear onion soup Bortsch: duck flavored consommé 7.4.3 Ouefs (egg) Examples of egg dishes are:Omelet espagnole: - flat omelets with onions, peppers and tomato Omelet aux tomatoes: - tomato omelet Omelet aux champignons: - mushroom omelet 7.4.4 Farineaux (Rice and Pasta dishes) Examples of farinaceous dishes are:Spaghetti napolitaine: spaghetti in a tomato and garlic flavored sauce Spaghetti bolognaise: - spaghetti blended with minced lean beef in a rich brown sauce. Ravioli: - noodle – type pasta filled with a variety of strutting such as chicken, beef and spinach Cannelloni: - rolls ravioli pasted filled with stuffing as for ravioli 7.4.5 Poisson (Fish) The method of cooking and type of fish used may vary to some extent but will normally be as follows Poached: salmon, trout, and turbot Cooked meuniere: sole, trout, salmon Fried: white bait, sole Hot shellfish: lobster, crayfish, and Dublin bay prawns Examples of fish dishes are Sole meuniere: sole shallow fried in butter Sole Colbert: sole flour, egg and bread crumbed and deep-fried. The fillets are rolled back of the backbone in preparation 7.4.6 Entrees Entrees are generally small garnished dishes, which come from kitchen ready for service. They are always accompanied by a very rich gravy or sauce. When a Releve follows the entrée then potatoes and vegetable are not served, with the later, if however a Releve does not follow the entrée then potatoes and vegetables would be served with the entrée. An entrée is the first meat course on the French classical menu Examples of entrée are: Poulet sauté chasseur – Sauté chicken in a rich brown sauce flavored with tomato and mushroom Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 47
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Supreme de volaille sur cloche – Breast and wing of chicken cooked under a cover in oven. Kebab oriental – Savouary items cooked on a skewer Steak Dianne – minute steak shallow fried and flavored with onion and mushrooms; sauce finished with red wine or cream Mixed grill – lamb cutlet, bacon, liver, kidney, tomato, mushroom and sausage 7.4.7 Sorbets Because of the length of the French classical menu, this course is considered to be the ‗rest‘ between courses, where the dinners may obtain their second wind. The sorbet therefore must be able to counteract the richness of dishes already served and stimulate the appetite for those to come. The sorbet is a water ice plus Italian meringue, flavored with champagne or liquor. At this stage of the meal cigarettes were passed, traditionally these were Russian cigarettes and sometimes the first speech is given. 7.4.8 Releves Releve‘s are normally larger than entries and take the form of butcher‘s joints, which have to be carved. These joints are either poled or roasted. A sauce or roast gravy and potatoes and green vegetables are always served with this course. Examples of Releve‘s are Centerfield de boeuf rote a la anglaise – boned and roasted sirloin of beef Carre ‗d agneau rote – roast best end of lamb. 7.4.9 Roti (Roast) Roast always consists of roast game or poultry, chicken turkey, duck, pheasant, quail; each dish is accompanied by its own particular sauce and gravy, with a green salad served separately on a crescent shaped dish. The latter is placed at the top left hand corner of the cover. 7.4.10. Legumes (Vegetables) At this stage of the meal the balance of the courses is gradually returning from heavy to light. We now have a vegetables dish served only with its accompanying sauce. Such vegetables are asparagus, artichokes, and corn on the cob, with hollandaise sauce or melted butter offered separately. Legumes to accompany a main course Puree de pommes: Pommes Sautee‘s - Creamed potatoes - Potatoes boiled in skins, peeled, sliced and shallow fried Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 48
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Pommes frits - deep-fried potatoes Pommes au four - backed jacked potato Champignons grille‘s - grilled mushrooms Tomatoes grilles - grilled tomatoes Haricots vert au beurre - French beans tossed in butter 7.4.11 Salades (Salads) Examples of salads are: Salad francaise - Lettuce, tomato, egg and vinaigrette dressing Salad vert - Lettuce, watercress, cucumber and given pepper 7.4.12 Buffet Froid (Cold Buffet) Examples of cold buffets item are: Poulet rÔti - roast chicken Caneton rÔti - roast duck Jumbo Froid - cold ham Mayonnaise d‘ hommard - lobster mayonnaise 7.4.13 Entremets (Sweet) The sweet may be hot or cold. Examples of such dishes are soufflés, crepes (pancakes), and coupes (ice-cream dishes). Examples are: Crepe suzette: pancakes in a rich orange juice and grand mariner flavored sauce and flamed with brandy, variety of cold sweets presented from the cold trolley such as gateaux, Bavaroise Bombes: - various ice-cream sweets. 7.4.14 Savoureux (Savories) Savories may take the form of savoring items served hot on toast or as a savory soufflé Examples of savories are:Welsh rarebit: cheese sauce flavored with ale on toast & gratinated Canapé Diane: chicken livers rolled in bacon and grilled, placed on warm toast Champignons sur croute : mushrooms on toast 7.4.15 Fromage (Cheese) All types of cheese may be offered together with the appropriate accompaniments. The ideal cheese board should combine hard, semi hard soft or cream, blue and fresh cheeses. Examples are: Red Cheshire hard England Cheddar hard England Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 49
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Edam Bride Caerphilly Gorgonzola Demisel Gruyere Gouda Ricotta hard Soft semi-hard blue Soft hard hard fresh Holland France walves Italy France Switzerland Holland Italy 7.4.16 Desserts (fresh fruits and nuts) All forms of fresh fruits and nuts may be served accompanied by castor sugar and salt. 7.4.17 Examples are: Coffee Cona Cafetiere Iced Filter Decaffeinated Specialty Beverages Tea Indian Ceylon Earl Grey Darjeeling Tisanes Orange Pekoe Note: In compiling menus, beverage are not counted as a course French Classical Menu (11 Course) 1. Hors d‘oeuvres 2. Potage 3. Poisson 4. Entrée 5. Releve 6. Sorbet 7. RÔti 8. Legumes 9. Entremets 10. Savoureux 11. Dessert 7.5 Menu Planning & Menu Merchandising Menu planning is defined as a simple process which involves application of the knowledge of food, nutrients, food habits, and likes and dislikes to plan wholesome and attractive meals. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 50
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First The caterer who is responsible for providing meals has to decide on various aspects such as: 1. Menu 2. Serving size 3. Food cost 4. Suppliers and quantities to be purchased. 5. Standardized recipes to be followed 6. Type of service 7. Meal timings 8. Clientele The aim of menu planning is to: 1. Meet the nutritional needs of the individuals who will be consuming the food 2. Plan meals within the food cost 3. Simplify purchase, preparation, and storage of meals 4. Provide attractive, appetizing meals with no monotony 5. Save time and money 6. Minimize overhead expenditure, i.e., fuel, electricity, water, labor. Menu planning is the most important aspect of planning and organization in the food industry. It is an advance plan of a dietary pattern over a given period of time. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 51
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 7.6 LESSON SUMMARY Menu is the statement of food and beverage items available or provided by food establishments, primarily based on consumer demand and designed to achieve organizational objectives. A successful menu depends upon composition; the right combination of foods, prepared perfectly, to the entire satisfaction of the customer. In a restaurant, there are two different types of menus which are differentiated by the manner in which they are priced. A menu may be a la carte or table d'hôte. An ―A La Carte Menu‖, is a multiple choice menu, with each dish priced separately. A table d'hôte is a fixed menu where multi-course meals with limited choices are charged at a fixed price. The classical French menu contains thirteen courses which include hors d'oeuvre, potage, oeufs, farineux, poisson, entrée, relevé, sorbet, roti – roast legumes, entremets, savoureux and desservir. Dinner menus can be of three-course dinner menu, fourcourse dinner menu, five-course dinner menu, six-course dinner menu, seven-course dinner menu and eight-course dinner menu. Accompaniments are highly flavored seasonings of various kinds offered with certain dishes. Eg. Apple sauce with roast pork. Many dishes have separate accompaniments and as they are not always mentioned on the menu, the waiter must know them. 7.7 KEY WORDS Banquet – feast, dinner, formal meal Clientele – customers, patrons, clients Appetite - desire for food, craving Wholesome – healthy, nutritious, nourishing 7.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in detail about Origin of Menu? 2. Mention the classes of menu? 3. Write in Detail about French Classical menu? 4. What do you mean by Menu Planning & Menu Merchandising? 7.9 REFERENCES 1. Casado, Matt A, Food and Beverage Service Manual, John Wiley & Sons. 2. Victoria Luckett, Leah La Plante, The Menu Dictionary: Words and Ways of the International Restaurant World, Sweetwater Press. 3. Ann Hoke, Restaurant Menu Planning, Hotel Monthly Press. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 52
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First UNIT - 8 Beverages CONTENTS 8.0 Objectives 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Classification of Beverages 8.2.1 Alcoholic Beverages 8.2 .2 Non Alcoholic Beverages 8.2.3 Stimulating 8.2.4 Appetizing, Nourishing, Refreshing 8.3 Basic Cocktail Recipe 8.4 Lesson Summary 8.5 Key Words 8.6 Questions to Solve 8.7 References 8.0 OBJECTIVES In this lesson we shall discuss about the beverages. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand: • Beverages and their classification • Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages • Preparation of non-alcoholic beverages. 8.1 INTRODUCTION Beverages are potable drinks which have thirst-quenching, refreshing, stimulating and nourishing qualities. By refreshing, one means the replenishment of fluid loss from the body due to perspiration. Simulation results in increase of the heart beat and blood pressure. This is due to the intake of spirits (alcohol) or tea (caffeine) and coffee (caffeine). Nourishment is provided by the nutrients in the beverages, especially fruit juices 8.2 Classification of Beverages BEVERAGES AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION A beverage is a liquid formulation specifically prepared for human consumption. The word ―Beverage‖ has been derived from the Latin word ―bever‖ meaning rest from work. After work, one tends to feel thirsty due to fluid loss through perspiration and one is inclined to drink water or other potable beverages to compensate fluid loss. Beverages can be broadly classified into two. They are Alcoholic Beverages and Nonalcoholic Beverages. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 53
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 8.2.1 Alcoholic and Non Alcoholic Alcoholic Beverages Any potable liquid containing from 1 % to 75 % of ethyl alcohol by volume is known as an alcoholic beverage. Governments have set certain definite standards, as to what constitutes alcoholic beverages. Whereas some beers which contain as little as 2 % of alcohol by volume are taxable, certain bitters and medicinal compounds, which often contains 40 % alcohol and above are not taxable, because they are not considered as alcoholic beverage. a. Fermented and Distilled Fermentation: Fermentation is a process in which sugar and yeast react with each other to produce alcohol, and carbon dioxide Distillation: Distillation is a process of segregating alcohol from alcohol containing liquid by taking advantage of different evaporating temperatures. Under this category the following can be discussed 1. Whisky or Whiskey: The word whisky is usually taken to mean Scotland‘s smoky flavoring scotch. The word whiskey is derived from Irish Celtic term ―uisgebauh‖ or the Scottish Celtic term ―uisgebeatha‖ both the Celtic terms means ―water of life‖. Whisky is a distilled spirit obtained from the fermented mash of cereal grains such as barley, corn, rye etc. Each producer has a special recipe and technique for each particular product. Irish Whisky, American whisky (Bourbon, Rye whiskey, Canadian whiskey) 2. Brandy: Brandy originated from the Dutch word ―Brandewign‖ which means burnt wine, as distillation was referred to as a burning process. Brandy is obtained from the distillation of wine or fermented fruit juice and suitably aged in wood ‗Cognac is the world‘s most famous brandy and takes its name from the grapes (predominantly ugni blanc) grown vinified & distilled in the cognac region. 3. Gin: The word gin originates from the French word ―genievre‖ which stands for ―Juniper Berries‖ the principal flavoring agent in Gin. Gin is produced form barley, malt, corn, and rye. Fermented mash and distilled in pot still method. There are two styles of Gin available today. Holland‘s Gin & London dry Gin 4. Tequila: Tequila comes from the city of tequila in southwest Mexico. Tequila is made from the sap of the wild mescal plant (similar to cactus) and is produced near the city of Tequila where the mescal plant is found in abundance. The mescal is fermented and distilled the end product being tequila. 5. Vodka: Vodka was produced in Poland and Russia in the twelth century and has been a favorite. From a fermented mash of grain in the making of genuine vodka, nothing is added to the neutral spirit. The drink has now gained popularity as a good cocktail mixer. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 54
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 6. Rum: ―Rum bullion‖ meaning ―rumpus‖ was the drink of the slaves on plantations in British, West Indies as early as the 17th century and from this came the drink we know as rum today. Rum is a sprint distilled from the by-products of sugar cane known as ―Molasses‖. 7. Sake: This rice wine is a traditional Japanese drink and is usually served warm in small cups called ―sakazuki‖ and poured from a narrow mouthed bottle called ―Tokkuri‖. Its colour can vary from clear to pale amber with each brand having a distinctive character and taste. 8.Fruit Wines: Wine is an alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of the juice of freshly gathered grapes. It can be classified into the following. i) Table/Natural or Still Wines: These include Red, white and rose wines and are referred to as still wine as they lack carbonation. These are the wines, which normally accompany a meal. The alcoholic content of these wines is between 14 and 16%. ii) Sparkling wines: Wines, which have Co2 to make it fizzy. Champagne is the monarch in this category. Alcoholic content is less than 14%. These wines are drunk on festive occasion and throughout a meal. iii) Fortified wines: These are wines fortified by addition of alcohol either during or after fermentation. This increases the alcoholic content from 15 to 21%. E.g. Sherry, port. iv) Aromatised Wines: These are fortified and aromatized wines. 9. Beer: Beer is a potable alcoholic beverage fermented from cereals and malt and flavored with hops. Beer is known to be a very refreshing drink especially in summer. 10. Liquers : Liquers are defined as sweetened and flavored spirits. For instance, a brandy Liquers is a liqueur with brandy as a basic ingredient. E.g. is Cherry Brandy, Crème de cacao. 8.2.2 Non Alcoholic Beverages Non alcoholic beverages are those beverages which does not contain any form of alcoholic content in them. This can be further classified into the following. a)Water Aerated Water : These beverages are charged or aerated with carbonic gas artificial aerated waters are by far the most common. The charging with carbonic gas beverages. The flavorings forced in different aerated waters are imparted from various essences. Some examples of these aerated waters are as follows Soda Water Tonic Water Dry Ginger : colorless and taste less : colorless and quinine flavored : golden straw colored with a ginger flavor Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 55
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Bitter Lemon: pale cloudy colored with a sharp lemon flavor Nature Spring Waters / Mineral Waters Today we live in an era increasingly concerned with health and diet, so as a result, mineral and natural spring waters are back in vogue Europe may be said to be birthplace of bottled waters. In selection, the emphasis should be placed on the right water for the right occasion, for instance. * Perrier from France and Apponnaris from Germany * Other good pure still table waters, internationally recognized, are Evian and vittel from France, Panna from Italy and font vella from Spain. The EEC has divided water into two main types. Mineral water has a mineral content (which is strictly controlled) while spring waters have a fewer regulating a part from those concerning hygiene. Natural spring waters are obtained from nature springs in the ground, the waters themselves being impregnated with the natural minerals found in the soil and sometimes naturally charged with an artily gas. The Mineral waters are usually classified according to their chemical properties, which are as follows. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Alkaline waters Aperients waters Chalybeate waters Lithilated waters Sulphurous waters Table waters: These waters are recognized to be, much less highly mineralized than other natural spring waters, and are mainly alkaline. They may be taken between meals or at a mealtime, either alone or mixed with light or spirits. Stimulating Tea : Tea was discovered by accident over 5000 years ago when leaves from a tea bush accidentally dropped into some boiling water and delicately flavored the liquid. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 56
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Tea is prepared from the leaf and top leaves of a tropical evergreen bush called camellia sinuses. It produces what is regarded as a healthy beverage containing approx only half the caffeine of coffee and at the same times it aids muscle relaxation and stimulates the central nervous system. Tea Producing Countries: China, Ceylon (Srilanka), India, and Kenya The tea which comes to the market for sales to the public may be composed of a variety of different teas to produce one marketable tea acceptable to the average consumer palate, for instance what is sometimes termed as a standard tea may contain somewhere in the region of its different teas. Making of Tea : The type of tea served should always gore the style of service. Indian or Ceylon : This type of tea may be made either china or metal teapots, remembering that simple rules of tea preparation must always be adhered to usually both are offered with milk in this country. Sugar would be offered separately China: This is made from a special blend of tea, which is more delicate in flavor and perfume than any other tea but lacks body. Less dry tea is required than for making. Indian or Ceylon tea. It is made in a normal way and is best made in china pots china tea is normally drunk on its own, but may be improved, according to taste, by the addition of a slice of lemon. Slices of lemon would be offered on a doily on a side plate with a small dessert china tea is rarely served with milk. Sugar may be offered. Russian or Lemon: This may be brewed from a special blend; similar to china tea, but more often than not is made from either Indian or Ceylon tea. It is made in the normal way and is usually served with a slice of lemon. Iced: Make strong tea and chill well. This iced tea, may turn be strained, and stored chilled until required. It should be served in a tumbler, on a doily on a side plate and with a teaspoon. A slice of lemon may be placed in the glass and some lemon should be served separately as for Russian tea. Multi – Pot: There are many occasions when tea has to be produced in bulk. Such occasions might be a reception tea, or functions catering for large numbers. Coffee Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 57
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Coffee is a natural product gown in a many countries of the tropical and sub tropical belt in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Coffee is looked upon as an international drinks consumed throughout the world. Brazil is the world‘s largest grower of coffee, Columbia is second, the Ivory Coast third and Indonesia fourth. There is evidence to suggest that coffee trees were cultivated about 1000 years ago in Yeomen. The first coffee house in England was opened in oxford in 1650. Coffee spread from Britain to America, but it was not until 1773 and the resultant, Boston Tea party that the American plate changed from drinking tea as a beverage to coffee. It is still their favorite beverage today. The trees, which produce coffee, are the genus coffee, which belongs to the rubrics family. There are somewhere in the region of 50 different species although only two of there are commercially significant. There are known as coffee Arabia and coffee camphor, which is usually referred to as robust. The coffee tree is an evergreen should which reaches a height of two to three meter when cultivated. The fruit of coffee tree is known as the cherry and these are about 1.5 cm in length, have a along shape. Companies who sell coffee have their own blending exports whose task it is ensure that the quality and taste of their product brand is consistent. Most brands of coffee sold in shops are intact a blend of two or more, batches of beans. Because they have no smell or taste, green beans have to be roasted in order to release the coffee aroma and flavor. The correct roasting should give a uniform color. The common degrees of roasting are ◘Eight or plate roasting suitable for mild beans to presence their delicate aroma ◘Medium roasting give a stronger flavor and our often flavored for coffee with well defined color ◘Full roasting popular in many Latin countries and have a bitter flavor ◘High roasted coffee the stronger bitter aspects of coffee Roasted coffee must be ground before it can be used to make the brew; coffee is ground to different grades of fineness, which suits the many different methods of brewing. The most suitable grinds for some common methods of brewing coffee are Method Grinding Grace 1. Filter / Dip 2. Jug 3. Tarnish Fine to Medium Coarse Pulverized Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 58
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 4. Cafetiere 5. Vacuum Infusion 6. Espresso 7. Percolator Medium Medium fine to fine Very fine Medium Characteristic of Good Coffee 1. 2. 3. 4. Good flavors Good aroma Good colour with milk or cream-net grays Good body Method of Coffee Mixing 1. Instant: This may be made in individual coffee or teacups or in large quantities. It involves the mixing of soluble coffee solids with boiling water. This form of coffee may be mad very quickly, immediately after it is required, by pointing freshly boiled water onto a measured quantity of coffee power, stir well. Hot or cold milk, cream and sugar may be added to taste. 2. Saucepan or Jug Method: This is an American method of makes of coffee move often used in the home than in catering establishments. 3. Cafeteria (coffee or tea maker): la cafeteria makes coffee simply and quickly by the infusion method and to order. This in turn that the flavor and aroma of the coffee are preserved, adding to the guests enjoyment at the conclusion of a meal. La caffeine comes in the form of a glass container with a lid held in a gold or chrome finished holder and sealed with a lid. 4. Percolator Method: This method is again used more in the home than commercially. As equal quantity of coffee grounds are placed in the percolator, which is then filled with freshly drown water. The water upon reading boiling point rise up through a tube and percolates the coffee grounds, extracting the full flavor, color and strength, hot or cold milk, cream and sugar may be added to taste. 5. Vacuum Infusion (Cona): This method of making coffee has considerable visual appeal in the restaurant, and has the advantage that the coffee served is always fresh, as only limited quantities are made at one time. It also avoids making too much coffee and therefore presents wasting or serving old, flat, bitter coffee deeding another food service period. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 59
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First The method of making coffee is similar to the percolator method. The lower bowl is filled with cold water or, to speed up the operation, hereby heated but not boiled water, up to the water level. The filer is placed in the upper bowl, ensuring it is securely fixed and the required quantity of ground coffee is added according to the amount of water being used. The upper bowl is then set in the lower bowl, making sure it is securely in place and the water is heated. As the water reaches boiling point, it rises up the tube into the upper bowl, mixing with ground coffee. As it rises in the upper bowl, it is often best to stir the mixture gently to ensure that all coffee grounds infuse with the liquid. At the same time care must be taken that the filter is not knocked as this may cause grains to pass into the lower bowl. On reducing heat the coffee liquid passes back into the lower bowl leaving the grounds in the upper bowl. The upper bowl and filter is then removed. The lower bowl will contain coffee, which is ready for use. 6. Espresso: this method, Italian in origin, came to Britain in the 1950‘s. The machines used in making this form of coffee can provide cups of coffee individually in a matter of seconds, Some machines being capable of making 300 to 400 cups of coffee per hour. The method involves passing steam through the finally ground and infusing under pressure. The coffee is served black and is known as espresso and is served in a small glass cup. If milk is required it is heated for each cup by a high-pressure steam injector and transfers and transforms a cup of black coffee into cappuccino. 7. Decaffeinated: coffee contains caffeine, which is a stimulant. Decaffeinated coffee is made from beans after the caffeine is being extracted. The coffee is made in the normal way. 8. Iced: strong black coffee is strained and chilled well until required, it may be with equal quantity of cold milk, Served in tall glass with ice cubes. Appetizing -Nourishing: Refreshing Squashes: squashes may be served on their own, mixed with spirits or cocktails or used as the base for such drinks as fruit cups For e.g.. Orange, lemon, grape fruit, limejuice. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 60
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First Juices: the main type of juice held in stock in the dispense bar is bottled or canned. For e.g.: orange, grape fruit, lemon juice etc. Syrups: the main use of these concentrated, sweet, fruit, flavorings is as a base for cocktails, fruit cups or mixed with soda water as a long drink. The main ones used are Grenadine (pomegranate), Cassis (black currant), and Citronelle (lemon) Basic Cocktails and recipes A cocktail is an alcoholic mixed drink that contains two or more ingredients—at least one of the ingredients must be a spirit. Cocktails were originally a mixture of spirits, sugar, water, and bitters. The word has come to mean almost any mixed drink that contains alcohol. A cocktail today usually contains one or more kinds of spirit and one or more mixers, such as soda or fruit juice. Additional ingredients may be sugar, honey, milk, cream, and various herbs Cock-tail is stimulating liquor, composed of spirits of any kind, sugar, water, and bitters—it is vulgarly called bittered sling, and is supposed to be an excellent electioneering potion, inasmuch as it renders the heart stout and bold, at the same time that it fuddles the head. It is said, also to be of great use to a democratic candidate: because a person, having swallowed a glass of it, is ready to swallow anything else. Brandy Alexander Ingredients 2 Centiliters Gin 2 Centiliters Crème de Cacao (White) 2 Centiliters Cream Instructions Put all ingredients with ice in a shaker and shake then strain into a Cocktail Glass. Garnish with nutmeg and serve. Bronx Ingredients 3 Centiliters Gin Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 61
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 1.5 Centiliters Vermouth (Sweet) 1 Centiliter Vermouth (Dry) 1.5 Centiliters Orange Juice Instructions Pour all ingredients into a shaker with ice then shake and strain into a cocktail glass. Garnish with an orange slice and serve. Daiquiri Ingredients 9 Parts Rum (Light) 4 Parts Lime Juice 1 Teaspoon Sugar (Powdered) Instructions Shake all the ingredients together with ice in a shaker then strain into a cocktail glass. Garnish with a lime slice and serve. Rob Roy (dry) Recipes: o Cocktails | o Cocktail Glass Similar Drinks Rob Roy Manhattan Manhattan (dry) Description First appearing in New York City around 1890, the Rob Roy is a cocktail similar to a Manhattan. The drink is named for the Scottish folk hero Robert Roy Macgregor. The Rob Roy is made with Scotch whisky, while the Manhattan is traditionally made with Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 62
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First rye and today commonly made with bourbon or Canadian whiskey. The Rob Roy owes its existence partially to the introduction of Dewars Scotch Whisky to the United States, as well as the New York City premiere of the operetta of the same name composed by Reginald de Koven. Like the Manhattan, the Rob Roy can be made sweet, dry, or perfect. The standard Rob Roy is the sweet version, so there's no need to specify a sweet Rob Roy when ordering. A dry Rob Roy is made by substituting dry vermouth for the sweet vermouth. A perfect Rob Roy is made with equal parts sweet and dry vermouth. The Rob Roy is usually served in a cocktail glass and garnished with a lemon twist (for the perfect and dry versions), or maraschino cherry (for the sweet version). Ingredients 4.5 Centiliters Scotch 2.5 Centiliters Vermouth (Dry) 1 Dash Angostura Bitters Instructions Stir ingredients with ice, strain into a chilled cocktail glass and serve. Brandy Manhattan Ingredients 5 Centiliters Brandy 2 Centiliters Vermouth (Sweet) 1 Dash Angostura Bitters Instructions Stir brandy and vermouth with ice then strain into a cocktail glass, Garnishing with a cherry and serve. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 63
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 8.4LESSON SUMMARY Beverages are potable drinks which have thirst-quenching, refreshing, stimulating and nourishing qualities. Most of the beverages supply energy in the form of sugar or alcohol. Beverages can be broadly classified into two, viz. alcoholic beverages and nonalcoholic beverages. An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Lowalcohol-content drinks (beer and wine) are produced by fermentation of sugar or starchcontaining products, and high-alcohol ones (brandy, rum, vodka, whisky, etc.) are produced by distillation of these low alcohol products. Distilled beverages with added flavorings and relatively high sugar content are generally referred to as compound beverages. E.g. Liqueur, gin, etc. A non-alcoholic beverage is a beverage that contains no alcohol. Such drinks are generally drunk for refreshment, or to quench people's thirst. Nonalcoholic beverages can be mainly classified as hot and cold beverages. E.g. for nonalcoholic beverages (cold) include beverages aerated with carbonic gas, spring water, mineral water, squash, juice, syrup, etc. E.g. for non-alcoholic beverages (hot) include tea, coffee, cocoa, etc. The most popular non-alcoholic beverage, tea, is a stimulating and refreshing drink. The principle flavor components of tea are caffeine, tannin yielding compounds and small amounts of essential oils. Caffeine provides the stimulating effect, tannin the color, body and taste. The four types of tea are: black, green, oolong and white. 8.5 KEY WORDS Perspiration - a saline fluid secreted by the sweat glands Fermented- change brought by ferment, as yeast enzymes, which convert grape sugar into ethyl alcohol. Distilled- condense, purify, extract Vinified - to change (grapes) into (wine) by a fermentation process Genus – type, sort, class 8.6 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Define, Classification of Beverages? 2. Write in detail about Alcoholic Beverages? 3. Write in detail about Non Alcoholic Beverages? 4. Define the classification of Wine? 5. Write in detail about Tea? 6. Write in detail about Coffee? 7. What is cocktail, and mention some basic cocktail recipe? Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 64
    • Food and Beverage Service-I, Semester- First 8.6 REFERENCES 1. Andrew Durkan, John Cousins , The Beverage Book, Hodder Arnold H&S. 2. Costas Katsigris, Chris Thomas , The Bar and Beverage Book, John Wiley & Sons Inc. 3. Wallace Rande, The Beverage Service World, Valentino Luciani , Prentice Hall. 4. Mary Lou Heiss (Author), Robert J. Heiss, Hot Drinks:Cider, Coffee, Tea, Hot Chocolate, Spiced Punch, and Spirits, Ten Speed Press. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Pvt. Ltd. Page 65