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A BOOK ON FOOD & BEVERAGE PRODUCTION

A BOOK ON FOOD & BEVERAGE PRODUCTION

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    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Food and Beverage Production Diploma In Hotel & Hospitality Management Subject Code-HM-11 School of Distance Education Karnataka State Open University, Karnataka Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 1
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Copyright 2012, Karnataka State Open University All Rights Reserved Compiled and Printed By ECDL Educations Private Limited For, School of Distance Education Karnataka State Open University Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 2
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Preface Food is an essential part of human existence, as we all have heard of the same old story of cooking, after the discovery of Fire. But, with advent of Eating out in Hotels, restaurants, and the modernization has brought a big change in the eating habit of Humans. Today’s Food business is billion dollar industry, and with demands on the increase, it needs more skilled and technically educated persons. We have put across the latest developments in the food & food Industry, which would help you to gain the excellence in achieving success in the field of Food & Beverage Production ECDL… Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 3
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester CONTENTS BLOCK –I UNIT 1. 2. 3. 4. UNIT 5 6. 7. 8. UNIT 9. 10. Topic Aims & Objectives of cooking food Contents 1.1 Foundation ingredients, Raising agents 1.2 Methods of Cooking, Salt- Flavoring and Seasonings 1.3 Washing, peeling, Scrapping, cutting of vegetables 1.4 Method of mixing foods, methods of cooking foods Stock & Sauces 2.1 Meaning, uses, ) Types of stock 2.2 Uses of stock, Basic preparation method 2.3 Sauces, Thickening agents used in sauces 2.4 Mother sauce, Derivatives of Mother sauces Salami, 3.1 Meaning of Salami, ingredients of salami Sausages, 3.2 Manufacturing of Salami, varieties 3.3 Sausages 3.4 Types of Sausages Commodities 4.1 Cereals, ) Types of Cereals 4.2 Pulses, Types of pulses 4.3 Yoghurt, Varieties of Yoghurt 4.4 Cream, Types of Cream BLOCK –II Topic Contents Kitchen 5.1 Kitchen equipment‘s equipment 5.2 Large equipment, mechanical equipment. 5.3 Utensils & small equipment 5.4 Cooking fuels Kitchen 6.1 The type of establishment organizations 6.2 Kitchen Brigade in star grade hotel 6.3 Duties and responsibilities of kitchen staff 6.4 Modern Kitchen organization. Herbs, Spices, 7.1 Herbs & its uses. condiments 7.2 Varieties of Herbs 7.3 Meaning of spices, condiments and uses 7.4 Varieties of Spices & condiments Sandwiches 8.1 sandwiches 8.2 Types of Sandwiches 8.3 Types of Spread & filling 8.4 Preparation of Sandwich BLOCK –III Topic Contents Vegetable, 9.1 Vegetables, Types of Vegetables Fruit & nuts 9.2 Cooking of Vegetables 9.3 Fruits, Types of Fruits 9.4 Nuts, Variety of Nuts Hors d‘ oeuvre 10. 1 Introduction Hors d‘oeuvre 10.2 Types of Hors d‘oeuvre Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. Page No. 9 10-12 13-14 15-16 19 20-22 23-24 25-26 29 30 31 32 34 35-37 38-39 40-41 Page No. 47 48-49 50 51-52 54 55 56-57 58 60 61-62 63-64 65 67 68 69 70 Page No. 75 76-79 80-83 84-87 89 90-91 4
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 11. 12. UNIT 13. 14. 15. 16. 10.3 Canapés, Snack food , Dumpling 10.4 Recipes of Hors d‘ oeuvre Soups 11.1 Soups, 11.2 Types of soups 11.3 Thick soup, thin soup 11.4 Garnishing of Soups Fish , Chicken 12.1 Classification, cuts, Selection, cooking of fish & Egg cookery 12.2 Chicken- Selection procedures, cuts, and preparation 12.3 Introduction to egg cookery, Structure of an egg 12. 4 Selection of egg, Uses of egg in cookery BLOCK –IV Topic Contents Butchery 13.1 Meat, Mutton & Lamb, Beef & Veal, cuts 13.2 Game, By region 13.3 Cooking of game birds or animals 13.4 Meaning of fillet, steak sirloin steak. Bacon, ham, gammon International 14.1 Chinese cuisine-characteristics, ingredients used Cuisines 14.2 Thai cuisine: Characteristics, ingredients used, 14.3 Italian cuisine: Characteristics, ingredients used 14.4 Arabic cuisine: characteristics, ingredients used Bakery 15.1 Equipment‘s, Identification, Uses and handling Ingredients - Qualitative and quantitative measures 15.2 Hot & Cold Desserts 15.3 Bread making, Cakes, cookies 15.4 Indian Sweets Storage & 16.1 Food storage Reheating 16.2 Storage life of foods 16.3 Various methods of food storage 16.4 Rechauffe or reheating of food Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 92-93 94 96 97 98 99 101-102 103-104 105-106 107 Page No. 113 114-115 116 117 119 120-121 122-123 124 126-127 128-130 131-134 135-138 140 141 142 143 5
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 6
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 7
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 8
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-1 AIMS & OBJECTIVES OF COOKING FOOD CONTENTS 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Foundation Ingredients-Fats, Oils & their uses 1.3 Raising Agents-Their uses & types 1.4 Sweetening Agents 1.5 Salt & uses 1.6 Thickening Agents 1.7 Flavoring & Seasoning 1.8 Preparation of Ingredients 1.9 Cutting of Vegetables 1.10 Method of mixing food 1.11 Method of cooking food 1.12 Lesson Summary 1.13 Key Words 1.14 Questions to Solve 1.15 References 1.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Aims and objectives of cooking food ◘ Advantages of cooking food ◘ Cooking materials ◘Food constituents ◘ Effects of cooking food on food constituents ◘ Effects of cooking food on various ingredients 1.1 INTRODUCTION Cooking is an art through which an unpalatable food is made tastier and above all facilitate and hasten digestion for human digestive system, to be subsequently assimilated by body as nutrients & other vitamins. This varies according to the process of cooking. Cooking process changes the Texture, color, and adds flavor to the food. To cook food heat must be introduced. The heat breaks down the cellulose in the plant, softens tissues in the meat, transform and blends flavors within the food, destroys bacteria and makes food suitable for human consumption. The aim or the intention of cooking is to see that the food is cooked, undergoes a physical change sometimes a chemical change and whether the food is acceptable or not. 1. Cooking helps to make food digestive 2. Cooking enhance flavor 3. Cooking partly sterilizes food Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 9
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4. Cooking makes food more palatable 5. Cooking makes food item attractive in appearance 6. Cooking introduces variety 7. Cooking helps to provide a balance meal. 1.2 FOUNDATION INGREDIENTS- FATS, OILS AND THEIR USES Fats and oils are nutritionally useful and an economical source of energy. They also contribute to the flavor and texture of food. They are popularly used as the medium of cooking. Fats are solids at ordinary temperature and melt when heated and oils are liquids at ordinary temperature. Various fats used in liquids are: a. Lard: pig fat b. Suet: fat around kidneys of lamb or beef c. Dripping: beef fat d. Butter e. Ghee f. Margarine g. Hydrogenated fat Oils are extracted from: a. Coconut b. Palm c. Olive d. Peanuts e. Mustard f. Corn g. Sunflower Uses of fats and oils a. Spreads b. Shortenings c. Salad dressing d. Frying e. Tempering 1.3 RAISING AGENTS- THEIR USES AND TYPES Raising or leavening increases the surface of a batter by creating gas bubbles which puff up, thus increasing the volume and making it light. The expansion of these gases during baking increases the volume of the product and gives a desirable porous structure. The aeration of flour products is effect by the following. a. b. c. d. Biochemical Chemical Mechanical Lamination : : : : Yeast Baking powder Beating or whisking Folding or rolling 1.4 SWEETENING AGENTS Sweetening Sweetening is used to enhance or improve the combine sensation of order and flavor of the dish produced. It also adds its own sweetness. Sweetening is available in various forms. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 10
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester a. Granulated b. Fine grained c. Powdered d. Solution forms Sugars very in their sweetening quality and are available in following forms: a. Granulated sugar b. Castor sugar c. Icing sugar d. Lactose e. Cane syrup f. Honey Uses of sweetening a. It gives a good flavor b. It gives good color c. It helps in fermentation d. It helps in food preservation 1.5 SALT AND USES. Salt It brings out the flavor of other ingredients. Salts are found in two types, i.e., rock salt and sea salt. Salts having a distinctive taste make a dish wonderful and it should be used skillfully because too much of it would spoil the dish. Salt is available in three forms, i.e., table salt, freezing salt. Uses of salt a. It improve the flavor of the dish b. Cauliflower when put in salted water makes the insects come out. c. It controls fermentation d. It helps in color retention e. It helps in preserving items f. It is essential for good health. 1.6 THICKENING AGENTS Thickening and binding agents The thickening agents are starch, eggs, gelatin, coconut, tamarind, curd, onion paste, etc. Thickening agents give consistency and palatable for the dish. They also improve the nutritive value of the dish. 1.7 FLAVORING AND SEASONINGS Flavoring and seasonings Spices and herbs give flavorings and seasonings to the dishes. Seasoning should bring out the natural flavors of main ingredients and should blend with them. Seasonings have no nutritive value but they give variety to the dishes and have medicinal value. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 11
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Uses of seasonings and flavorings a. Helps in digestion b. Used for medicinal purposes c. Enhance flavor d. Improve appearance e. Improve palatability f. Acts as preservatives. 1.8 PREPARATIONS OF INGREDIENTS Many methods are used for food preparations before cooking and they are done according to the requirements of various dishes. This helps to improve appearance, texture, flavor and palatability. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Washing This is necessary to remove the superficial dirt‘. Meat, fish, vegetables and fruits are washed in cold water before any preparation. Peeling Spoiled, solid and inedible portions are removed. Skins of vegetables or fruits are either peeled or scabbed. The outer layer can be stripped. Paring Removing the surface layer, in circular motion by pressure, of a knife-edge all round the object. Cutting Reducing, by means of knives into small pieces. Chopping Chopping food item with a chopping knife into small pieces is known as chopping Mincing Cutting into very fine pieces. Shredding Cutting into long narrow pieces by means of knife or shredder. E.g.: Cabbage. Slicing Cutting into thin pieces but not so fine as shredding. E.g.: Onion Slitting Making a slit in the middle lengthwise. E.g.: Ladies finger, Green chilly. Grating Reducing to small particles by rubbing on a grater. E.g.; Cheese Mashing This is a method of breaking up of soft food with a masher by using pressure. E.g. Potato Grinding Reducing to fragments by crushing or grinding. Pressing Separating liquid portions, from solids by using weights or mechanical pressure. E.g.: Removing water from paneer. Dripping Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 12
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Separating, fat from connective tissues by heat. 1.9 CUTTING OF VEGETABLES Batons ―Sticks‖ of vegetables around 12mm/½ -inch thick and up to 7.5cm/3-inches long. Usually cut before cooking. Brunoise A very fine dice up to 2mm/¹/12th inch square. Usually cut before cooking. Often used as a garnish. Chips/French Fries/Crisps Chips and Fries are ―sticks‖ of vegetables between 5cm/2-inches and 10cm/4-inches long and up to 2.5cm/1-inch thick. Crisps are very thin slices no thicker than 6mm/¼inch. Both are cut before cooking and are usually deep fried until crispy. Chunks A piece of cut vegetable larger than 3.75cm/1¾-inches. Usually cut before cooking. Cubes Pieces of vegetables from 12mm/½ -inch to 36mm/1½-inches square, Can be cut before or after cooking. Dice Pieces of vegetables between 6mm/¼-inch and 12mm/½ -inch square, Can be cut before or after cooking. Grated Thin pieces of vegetables created using a grater. They can be any length depending on the vegetable used but are always wafer thin. Julienne Strips of vegetables usually 3mm/ ⅛- inch square up to 5cm/ 2 inches long standard. Often a mandolin is used for accuracy. Often used as a garnish. Mashed Vegetables which have already been cooked until soft then further broken down with a fork or masher. Matchsticks Thin ―sticks‖ of vegetables no thicker than 6mm/¼-inch square and 5cm/2-inches long. Paysanne Very thin slices of vegetables no larger than 6mm/¼-inch square. Most often used as a garnish. Purée Vegetables which have usually already been cooked until soft then mashed then made smooth by rigorous beating or passing through a sieve. With some vegetables a food processor can be used. Shred Vegetables cut into thin strips generally no wider than 6mm/¼-inch, usually done before cooking. Slices Vegetables cut into similar size flat pieces. Can be lengthways or width ways, from 6mm/¼-inch to 2.5cm/1-inch thick. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 13
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Sulfrino Balls Sulfrino vegetable balls are made with a very small melon scoop, sometimes called a Parisienne scoop, up to 12mm/½-inch in diameter. Most usually used for garnishes. 1.10 METHOD OF MIXING FOODS Food preparation often involves the combining and mixing of different foods or food materials. 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Blending Mixing two or more ingredients thoroughly. E.g. Milk and roux for béchamel sauce. Cuttings Usually this is a process of incorporation of fat in flour and other dry ingredients with a knife. E.g. Pastry. Creaming Softening fat by friction with a spoon usually followed by gradual incorporation of sugar. Eg: Cake making Folding Mixing materials, with a palate knife or wooden spoon by careful lifting and dropping motion. Kneading Manipulating by alternating pressure, with folding and stretching as in kneading bread. Marinating Coating the surface of food materials, which is usually a mixture of oil and acid. Stirring Mixing materials with an appropriate tool such as spoon by a circular motion. E.g. White sauce. Whipping Rapid beating with a wire eggbeater or mechanical beater usually to incorporate air. E.g. Whipping egg whites. 1.11 METHODS OF COOKING FOODS Various methods of cooking food are: 1. Boiling It means immersing the food in a pan of liquid. Basic rules of boiling a) A food should be completely immersed. b) The flavor of meat and poultry is enhanced by the addition of herbs and vegetables to the cooking liquor. c) Scum that arises during the boiling must be removed. d) Pot liquor, which contains flavor, should not be thrown but should be used for gravies or sauces. e) Fast boiling should be done to green vegetables as it preserves the green color and prevent excessive loss of vitamins and mineral salt. f) Root vegetables should be placed in cold water to boil. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 14
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. g) Stocks, soups and sauces should be simmered gently. h) Always poach fish and never boil otherwise a fish will breakup. Poaching Poaching is cooking gently in water, which is just below boiling point, i.e., 93oC to 95oC. Basic rules for poaching a. Food items should be completely emerged in the liquid and left in it through out the cooling process. b. As soon as the liquid with the food item being to boil, lowers the temperature to allow poaching. c. Adding vinegar and salt helps in quicker coagulation. d. It is important that fresh eggs should be used for poaching. Steaming Steaming is cooking by moist heat. Steaming may be direct or indirect. Indirect steaming is done when the food it placed in a closed pan. Direct steaming is placing the article in a perforated container or on a covered plate over a saucepan of water. Basic rules of steaming a. Small items should always be steamed b. Vegetables are not suitable for steaming c. Steaming should be done by covering the food item by greaseproof paper. Stewing Stewing is gently simmering in a small quantity of water, stock or sauce until the cut food items are tender and both liquid and food are served together. It is done in covered saucepan at a low temperature. Basic rules of stewing a. While stewing the liquid should cover the food items. b. The liquid should not reach too high a temperature. Braising This is a combined method of roasting and stewing. This is usually done in a pan with a tight fitting lid. It is a long method of cooking. The meat is first browned in its own fat or small amount of hot fat. This seals the pours and thus the juices are retained. Basic rules of braising a. Braising pan size should be selected according to the size of food items to be braised. b. It should be done slowly. c. Fresh vegetables and herbs should be used. d. Items such as meat, poultry and game suitable for braising are those of a tuff nature. Roasting Roasting is cooking of large pieces of meat on a turning spit oven or open fire. Basically there are four types of roasting. 1. Pot roasting 2. Oven roasting 3. Spit roasting Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 15
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 7. 8. 9. 10. 4. Tandoori method Pot roasting Cooking is done in a covered pot or pan. Only good quality meats are used for pot-roasting. Oven roasting It is cooking in a roasting tray in an oven by using fat. Good quality meat, poultry and vegetables are used. Spit roasting It is the original form of roasting. It is cooking by direct head basted with fat. Tandoori method It is a special type of roasting. Here roasting is done in a tandoori oven which is made of mud. Coal is used to heat the oven. Basic rules of Roasting a) Meat, poultry, games should be tender and of top quality. b) The juices from the process of roasting meat, poultry and game must be used to make the accompanying gravy. Grilling The food is placed on grill bars and subjected to the action of radiated heat, which could be below or above. The source of heat may be from coal, charcoal, coke, gas or electricity. The grilling equipment is called salamander. Basic rules for grilling a) Items must be small in size and top quality. b) Items should be oiled and seasoned. c) Grill bars should be cleaned and oiled Baking It is cooking of food by dry heat in an oven. Basic rules of baking a) Food items should be placed in the right position in the oven. b) Correct temperature should be maintained according to the baked items. Frying It is the process by placing the food item in fat or oil at a sufficiently high temperature. There are two types of frying. Deep fry It is cooking food by immersing it in fat completely. E.g. Vada, Puri, Pakavada. Shallow fry Cooking in a little fat on a hot plate. E.g. Poratha, dosha. Griddling or Broiling It is cooking by direct heat and it is similar to grilling. The pan or grill is oiled slightly to prevent sticking. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 16
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 1.12 LESSON SUMMARY Culinary art is a form of art through which, the aims and objectives of cooking is achieved by various cooking process. By cooking the food not just becomes appetizing but is safe for human consumption by making it more digestible for human system. For cooking, various medium is used which does not even makes cooking possible but adds nutritive value. Some of the cooking or baking needs food to be raised to make it porous and softer for eating, which is done through various raising agents and leavening agent‘s i.e. yeast, baking powder, whisking, etc. In cooking some of the dish needs thickening of the gravy which gives consistency, and makes it palatable. To enhance the taste of the dish sweetening is added for giving it flavor, color and above all for preservation. Salt is also a more important cooking material for improving flavor, control fermentation, color retention, for preserving and above all for good health. Last but not the least, the flavoring & seasoning through various herbs & spices brings out the natural flavors of main ingredient, helps in digestion, used for medicinal purposes and of course for improving appearance. Food preparation often involves the combining and mixing of different food or food material. The combining and mixing methods such as beating, blending, creaming, kneading, whipping, whisking, folding, marinating and stirring. Cooking is the process of preparing food by use of heat. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions. Cooks themselves also vary widely in skill and training. Cooking can also occur through chemical reactions without the presence of heat. Preparing food with heat or fire is an activity unique to humans, and some scientists believe the advent of cooking played an important role in human evolution. Most anthropologists believe that cooking fires first developed around 250,000 years ago. The development of agriculture, commerce and transportation between civilizations in different regions offered cooks many new ingredients. New inventions and technologies, such as pottery for holding and boiling water, expanded cooking techniques. Some modern cooks apply advanced scientific techniques to food preparation 1.13 KEY WORDS Unpalatable - Inedible, Indigestible. Facilitate - make easy, smooth the progress of. Hasten - Speed up, accelerate. Margarine - Butter with less fat, cooking oil Porous - spongy, absorbent Enhance - improve, add to, boost Medicinal - medical, curative Incorporation – Integration, merger, absorption Friction - rubbing, abrasion Manipulating- control, maneuver, operate Coating - outside layer, shell, covering Immersing – dip, submerge Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 17
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Scum – froth, foam, crust Coagulation - to group together as a mass, 1.14 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What are the aims and objectives of cooking? 2. Discuss the advantages of cooking? 3. Explain the different Foundation ingredients? 4. What are the uses of Fats and Oils? 5. Mention the types of raising agents and their uses? 6. Write about Salt and Sweetening in food preparation? 7. Write in short about thickening agents, Flavors & seasoning? 8. What are the different methods of mixing foods? 9. Mention the various methods of cooking? 10. Difference between deep frying & shallow frying? 11. Difference between Baking & Roasting? 12. Discuss the dry heat methods of cooking? 1.15 REFERENCES 1. Thangam E. Philip- Modern cookery Vol.-I from Orient Longman. 2. Krishna Arora - Theory of Cookery from Frank Bros & Co. 3. Auguste Escoffer – The complete guide to the art of Modern cookery, from Heineman. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 18
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-2 STOCK AND SAUCES CONTENTS 2.0 Objectives 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Meaning & uses 2.3 Types of Stock 2.3.1 White Stock 2.3.2 Brown Stock 2.3.3 Remouillage 2.3.4 Broth (Bouillon) 2.3.5 Fumet (Essence) 2.3.6 Estouffade 2.3.7 Court Bouillon 2.4 Uses of Stock 2.5 Basic Preparation Method 2.6 Sauces 2.7 Thickening agents used in Sauces 2.8 Role of Sauces 2.9 Mother Sauces 2.9.1 Bechamel Sauce 2.9.2 Espagnole Sauce 2.9.3 Veloute Sauce 2.9.4 Hollandise sauce 2.9.5 Tomato Sauce 2.9.6 Mayonnaise sauce 2.10 Derivatives of Mother Sauces 2.11 Lesson Summary 2.12 Key Words 2.13 Questions to Solve 2.14 References 2.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Stock categories, types and uses ◘Stock - basic preparation method & preparation of stocks ◘ Sauces and their importance ◘Thickening agents used in sauces ◘ Mother Sauces & preparation methods 2.1 INTRODUCTION Stocks form the basis of most sauces and soups. Stock is a broth liquid containing the juices of meat, bones or vegetables that have been extracted by long, slow cooking. Stocks are the foundation for many soup recipes, and are a wonderful way to use leftover meats and vegetables. Flavor, body and clarity are the characteristics of a good stock and of the three; flavor is the most important. To get a good flavor a high proportion of ingredients to water is Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 19
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester used. The most flavorful stock is achieved by just covering the bones, shell, or vegetables with water. Chicken and Vegetable stocks are the easiest to prepare and are the mildest in flavor and have become one of the most popular stocks. The word "sauce" is a French word that means a relish to make our food more appetizing. Sauces are liquid or semi-liquid foods devised to make other foods look, smell, and taste better, and hence be more easily digested and more beneficial. Because of the lack of refrigeration in the early days of cooking, meat, poultry, fish, and seafood didn't last long. Sauces and gravies were used to mask the flavor of tainted foods. Sauces are one of the fundamentals of cooking. 2.2 MEANING, USES Stocks are nutritious strongly flavored liquid. They are important foundation liquid that are used in the preparation of various dishes such as soups, sauces, gravies, stews, curries, rice etc. The flavors and soluble nutrients of meats, herbs and vegetables are extracted by prolonged and gentle simmering. This usually takes between six and eight hours. The exception to this rule is fish stock, which only takes 20 minutes. There are two basic methods of making meat stocks either white stocks or brown stock. The meat used to flavor the stock will depend on what the final stock is to be used for. Brown beef stock would be used for brown beef stews as white lamb stock would be used for white lamb stews. Not all meats are used for stocks. 2.3 TYPES OF STOCK Stocks are flavorful liquids produced by simmering bones, meat trimmings, vegetables and other aromatic ingredients in water. Stocks are further categorized as white stock or brown stock, both of which are discussed below. They are used as the foundation for soups, stews and sauces. They are not served "as is", however. Categories and Types of Stocks 2.3.1 White Stock - it is made from the meaty bones and trims from veal, beef, poultry, some types of game, and fish. The bones are frequently blanched in order to remove any impurities that might cloud or discolor the finished stock. Ordinary white stock is classically prepared from veal meat and bones, with the addition of poultry carcasses. A white beef stock (sometimes referred to as a "neutral stock") is often prepared by first simmering the stock at higher temperature than would be used for most stocks for several minutes. The aim is to produce a stock with a nearly neutral flavor. It is often flavored for use in vegetable soups or bean dishes. White beef stock can contribute a significant body to these dishes, while still allowing the flavor of the major ingredient to predominate. 2.3.2 Brown Stock - one of the most commonly called-for stocks in the classic and contemporary repertoire of any kitchen is likely to be brown veal stock (fond de veau brun). Brown stocks are prepared by first cooking meaty bones and meat trim to a deep Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 20
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester brown color, as well as the mirepoix and a tomato product, before they are simmered. This changes both the flavor and color of the finished stock. Brown stocks are especially valuable in sauce cookery, as they are used as the foundation for brown sauce, demiglace and pan gravies. 2.3.3 Remouillage - the word translates as a "rewetting", which is a good way to think of the way that remouillage is made. Bones used to prepare a "primary stock" are reserved after the first stock is strained away from the bones. The bones are then covered with water, and a "secondary stock" is prepared. Some chefs argue that, if the first stock was made properly and simmered for the correct amount of time, there will be little if anything left in the bones to provide either flavor or body in the remouillage. Others feel that this second generation of stock can be used as the basis for other broths or as the cooking liquid for braises and stews. The food being prepared will provide the majority of the flavor in the finished sauce, and a first-rate stock can be reserved for use in dishes where its role is more significant. 2.3.4 Broth (or Bouillon) - it shares many similarities with stocks. They are prepared in essentially the same fashion. Meaty bones (or in some cases, the entire cut of meat, bird or fish) are simmered in water (or remouillage or a prepared stock) along with a variety of vegetables and other aromatic ingredients. Many meatless dishes are prepared with a vegetable broth. Some chefs may refer to this preparation as a vegetable stock. Those stocks made from meat or fish bones will reach a state of clarity and body through the extraction of proteins found in bones and meat. Vegetable broths vary greatly in the degree of body and clarity that they may achieve. 2.3.5 Fumet (or Essence) - the most common fumet is one prepared by sweating fish bones along with vegetables such as leeks, mushrooms and celery, then simmering these ingredients in water, perhaps with the addition of a dry white wine. The end result is generally not as clear as a stock, but it is highly flavored. Fumets and essences can be prepared from such ingredients as wild mushrooms, tomato, celery or celery root, ginger and so forth. These essences, nothing more than highly flavored infusions made from especially aromatic ingredients, can be used to introduce flavor to other preparations, such as consommés or broths and a variety of "small sauces". 2.3.6 Estouffade - the classic formula for estouffade set down by Escoffier is virtually identical to what was then known as a brown stock. There are some differences to note, however. Estouffade is prepared by simmering together browed meaty veal bones, a piece of fresh or cured pork, and the requisite vegetables and other aromatics. Contemporary kitchens tend to prepare a brown stock that does not include pork. Today, estouffade is less widely used as a basic preparation, although it is still regarded as a classic preparation. 2.3.7 Court Bouillon - a "short broth" is often prepared as the cooking liquid for fish or vegetables. The basic components of a court bouillon include aromatic vegetables and herbs, an acid such as vinegar, wine or lemon juice, and water. A court bouillon may be prepared as part of the cooking process or it may be prepared in large batches and used as required, in much the same manner as stocks and broths are prepared. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 21
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2.4 USES OF STOCK The three major uses of Stock are: ● As base for Sauces & Soups. ● As base for Stews & Braises. ● As a cooking medium for Vegetables & Grains. 2.5 BASIC PREPARATION METHOD General rules about the preparation and cooking of stocks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Always use fresh bones and vegetables Never use unsound meat or bones or rotten vegetables Fats and scum should be skimmed as soon as they form the stock an unpleasant flavor and greasy taste. Stock should always simmer gently Salt should never be added to stock as it will become too concentrated through the prolonged cooking process and spoil the flavor. Stock for storage should be strained, re boiled, rapidly cooled then placed in a refrigerator until required. Bouquet- garni should be removed 2.6 SAUCES A sauce is a liquid accompaniment, which goes with a dish. A basic sauce is made from a liquid (stock/milk) and a thickening agent sauces has a keen sense of small, delicate sense of taste, colorful appearance, velvet texture and has a definite taste. It has a natural flavor. 2.7 THICKENING AGENTS USED IN SAUCES 1. Corn flour It is diluted in water and added to a boiling stock for thickening purpose. 2. Beurre Manie This is prepared by equal quantities of butter and flour kneaded to a smooth paste and mixed into a boiling liquid. 3. Blood Blood is used for game cooking, it also gives particular flavor, and e.g. it is used in jugged hare 4. Egg yolks The eggs yolks are whisked to the ribbon stage. 5. Glazes Fish or meat glazer can be made into sauces by adding butter or cream. 6. Roux Made with butter and flour 7. Vegetable or fruit purees A vegetable or fruit purees are known as caulis. 8. Meat/poultry Usually used as small dices or juliennes. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 22
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2.8 ROLE OF SAUCES 1. It enhance flavor 2. It gives color 3. It helps in digestion 4. It moisten dry food 5. It enhance nutritional value 6. It lend a name to dish 7. It gives a balanced taste 8. It is served as an accompaniment. 2.9 MOTHER SAUCE Sauces are liquid or semi-liquid mixtures. A keen sense of smell, delicate sense of taste, a light, strong hand for the blending – all contribute to a perfect sauce. A perfect sauce has a colorful appearance, is glowing in its rich smoothness, and has a velvety texture, a definite taste and a natural flavor. It complements the food it accompanies, rather than mask its taste. It provides moisture, color, and shine to food In the early 19th century, the chef Antonin Carême created an extensive list of sauces, many of which were original recipes. It is unknown how many sauces Carême is responsible for, but it was estimated to be in the hundreds. In the late 19th century, and early 20th century, the chef Auguste Escoffier consolidated Carême's list to five mother sauces. They are: Sauce Béchamel, milk based sauce, thickened with a white roux. Sauce Espagnole, a fortified brown veal stock sauce. Sauce Velouté, white stock based sauce, thickened with a roux or a liaison. Sauce Hollandaise, an emulsion of egg yolk, butter and lemon or vinegar. Sauce Tomate, tomato based sauce. 2.9.1 Béchamel sauce, also known as white sauce, is one of the mother sauces of French cuisine and is used in many recipes of Italian cuisine, for example lasagne. It is used as the base for other sauces. Béchamel sauce is the base for a number of other classic sauces with additional ingredients added including: Mornay sauce (cheese) Nantua sauce (crayfish, butter and cream) Crème sauce (heavy cream) Mustard sauce (prepared mustard seed) Soubise sauce (finely diced onions that have been sweated in butter) Cheddar cheese sauce (Cheddar cheese, dry mustard, Worcestershire sauce) 2.9.2 Espagnole sauce is one of the mother sauces that are the basis of sauce-making in classic French cooking. In the late 19th century, Auguste Escoffier codified the recipe, which is still followed today. Espagnole has a strong taste and is rarely used directly on food. As a mother sauce, however, it serves as the starting point for many derivatives, such as Sauce Africaine, Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 23
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Sauce Bigarade, Sauce Bourguignonne, Sauce aux Champignons, Sauce Charcutière, Sauce Chasseur, Sauce Chevreuil and Demi-glace. There are hundreds of other derivatives in the classical French repertoire. The basic method of making Espagnole is to prepare a very dark brown roux, to which veal stock or water is added, along with browned bones, pieces of beef, vegetables, and various seasonings. This blend is allowed to slowly reduce while being frequently skimmed. The classical recipe calls for additional veal stock to be added as the liquid gradually reduces but today water is generally used instead. Tomato paste or pureed tomatoes are added towards the end of the process, and the sauce is further reduced. 2.9.3 A velouté sauce, along with Tomato, Hollandaise, Béchamel, and Espagnole, is one of the sauces of French cuisine that were designated the five "mother sauces" by August Escoffier in the 19th century, which was a simplification of the "Sauce Carême" list of Marie-Antoine Carême. The term velouté is from the French adjectival form of velour, meaning velvety. In preparing a velouté sauce, a light stock (one in which the bones used have not been previously roasted), such as chicken, veal or fish stock, is thickened with a blond roux. Thus the ingredients of a velouté are equal parts by mass butter and flour to form the roux, a light chicken, veal, or fish stock, and salt and pepper for seasoning. Commonly the sauce produced will be referred to by the type of stock used e.g. chicken velouté Sauce velouté is often served on poultry or seafood dishes, and is used as the base for other sauces. Sauces derived from a velouté sauce include: Sauce Vin Blanc: By adding white wine and heavy cream to fish velouté. Allemande sauce: By adding a few drops of lemon juice, egg yolks, and cream Bercy: Shallots, white wine, lemon juice and parsley added to a fish velouté Poulette: Mushrooms finished with chopped parsley and lemon juice Aurore: Tomato purée Hungarian: Onion, paprika, white wine Sauce ravigote: The addition of a little lemon or white wine vinegar creates a lightly acidic velouté that is traditionally flavored with onions and shallots, and more recently with mustard. Normandy: Mushroom cooking liquid and oyster liquid or fish fumet added to fish velouté, finished with a liaison of egg yolks and cream Suprême sauce: By adding a reduction of mushroom liquor (produced in cooking) and cream to a chicken velouté 2.9.4 Hollandaise sauce: is an emulsion of lemon juice and butter, by way of egg yolk. In appearance it is light yellow and opaque, smooth and creamy. The flavor is rich and buttery, with a mild tang added by the lemon juice, yet not so strong as to overpower mildly-flavored foods. Hollandaise is one of the five sauces in the French haute cuisine mother sauce repertoire. It is considered notoriously difficult to make, because yolks tend to scramble when Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 24
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester heated. It is so named because it was believed to have mimicked a Dutch sauce for the state visit to France of the King of the Netherlands. Hollandaise sauce is well known as a key ingredient of eggs Benedict, and is often paired with vegetables such as steamed asparagus. Being a mother sauce, Hollandaise sauce is the foundation for many derivatives created by adding or changing ingredients. The following is a non-exhaustive listing of such minor sauces. The most common derivative is Sauce Béarnaise. It can be produced by replacing the acidifying agent (vinegar reduction or lemon juice) in a preparation with a strained reduction of vinegar, shallots, fresh chervil, fresh tarragon and (if to taste) crushed peppercorns. Alternatively, the flavorings may be added to a standard Hollandaise. Béarnaise and its children are often used on steak or other "assertive" grilled meats and fish. o Sauce Choron is a variation of béarnaise without tarragon or chervil, plus added tomato purée. o Sauce Foyot (a.k.a. Valois) is béarnaise with meat glaze (Glace de Viande) added. o Sauce Colbert is Sauce Foyot with the addition of reduced white wine. o Sauce Paloise is a version of béarnaise with mint substituted for tarragon. Sauce au Vin Blanc (for fish) is produced by adding a reduction of white wine and fish stock to hollandaise. Sauce Bavaroise is hollandaise with added cream, horseradish, and thyme. Sauce Crème Fleurette is hollandaise with crème fraîche added. Sauce Dijon, also known as Sauce Moutarde or Sauce Girondine, is hollandaise with Dijon mustard. 2.9.5 A tomato sauce is the same as marinara sauce. Tomato sauce is any of a very large number of sauces made primarily from tomatoes, usually to be served as part of a dish (rather than as a condiment). Tomato sauces are common for meat and vegetables, but they are perhaps best known as sauces for pasta dishes. Tomatoes have a rich flavor, high liquid content, very soft flesh which breaks down easily, and the right composition to thicken into a sauce when they are cooked (without the need of thickeners like roux). All of these qualities make them ideal for simple and appealing sauces. The simplest tomato sauces consist just of chopped tomato flesh (with the skins and seeds optionally removed), cooked in a little olive oil and simmered until it loses its raw flavor, and seasoned with salt. 2.9.6 Mayonnaise Sauce, abbreviated as mayo, is a food spread. It is a stable emulsion of oil, egg yolk and either vinegar or lemon juice, with many options for embellishment with other herbs and spices. Lecithin in the egg yolk is the emulsifier. Mayonnaise varies in color but is often white, cream, or pale yellow. It may range in texture from that of light cream to thick. In countries influenced by French culture, mustard is also a common ingredient. In Spain and Italy, olive oil is used as the oil and mustard is never included. Numerous other sauces can be created from it with addition of various herbs, spices, and finely chopped pickles. Where mustard is used, it is also an emulsifier. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 25
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2.10 DERIVATIVES OF MOTHER SAUCES White sauce Espagnole Veloute Mornay Demi glace Fish Chicken Meat Cheese Madere Normande Allemande Supreme Cream Diable Vin Aurore Chivry Scotch egg Robert Diplomat Poulette Ivory Mustard Chaud froid Shrimp Fine herbs Riche Parsley Lyonnaise Joinville Caper Chaudfroid Soubise Piquante Curry Ravigote Anchovy Bercy Onion sauce Basic sauces and their derivatives Hollandaise sauce Tomato sauce Mayonnaise sauce Bearbause Barbecue Combridge Noisette Italienne Gloucester Mustard Chaud Froid Remoulade Maltaise Milanaise Tartare Foyot Tomated Vincent Choron Bretonne Cocktail Rachel Portugaise Thousand island Grimod Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 26
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2.11 LESSON SUMMARY Stock is a flavored liquid made by gently simmering bones or vegetables in a liquid to extract their flavor, aroma, color and nutritive value. Stocks are the foundation for many soup recipes, and are efficient & economic way to use leftover meat and vegetables. Stocks are used as base for sauces and soups, as base for stews & braises and as a cooking medium for vegetables and grains. A good stock is evaluated by flavor, aroma color, and clarity. The preparation of stocks calls for understanding, care, and astute taste. Long, slow simmering of food and cold water used for stock (except for fish stock) is required to draw out the flavor and nutrients into liquid. The six mother sauces are Béchamel sauce that is made of milk and pale roux. Common sauces in this group include crème, Mornay and soubise. Espagnole sauces that are brown stock based, such as brown sauces. Common sauces in this group include bordelaise, chasseur, lyonnaise, etc. Mayonnaise sauce is made by combining lemon juice or vinegar with egg yolks & then adding oil drop by drop as the mixture is rapidly whisked, common sauces in this category are Remoulade, Gloucester, Tartare, Cocktail Combridge. Tomato sauce is tomato based sauces; common sauces in this category include spaghetti sauce, marinara & a wide variety of tomato sauces. Veloute sauces are made with white stock and roux. Common sauces in this category include allemande, ravigote, supreme, & white bordelaise. Hollandaise sauce is an emulsion of butter & lemon juice using egg yolks as the emulsifying agents, usually seasoned with salt or cayenne pepper. Common sauces in this category include Mustard, Rachel, Foyot, Grimod, and Maltaise. 2.12 KEY WORDS Nutritious - nourishing, wholesome, healthy Contemporary - present-day, current, existing Repertoire – range, collection, collection Carcasses – remains, skeleton, shell Aromatic - sweet-smelling, perfumed Mirepoix- A mirepoix can be a combination of celery (either common pascal celery or celeriac), onions, and carrots. There are a lot of regional mirepoix variations. Demi-glace- It is a rich brown sauce in French cuisine used by itself or as a base for other sauces. Scum- a film or layer of foul or extraneous matter that forms on the surface of a liquid. Blending – combination, joining together, unification Velvety – smooth, soft, like velvet Strainer – sieve, colander, filter. Sauté – cook, stir fry, fry up Consistency – constancy, evenness, uniformity Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 27
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2.13 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is a stock, and discuss its uses? 2. What are the different types of stock? 3. What is the role of stock in food preparation? 4. What are the different ingredients for preparing various stocks? 5. List six major mother sauces? 6. Name the derivatives of Béchamel sauce? 7. Mention the derivatives of Espagnole sauce? 8. What are the derivatives of Mayonnaise sauce? 9. Name the derivatives of Tomato sauce? 10. Name the derivatives of Veloute sauce? 11. Name the derivatives Hollandaise sauce? 2.14 REFERENCES 1. Thangam E. Philip- Modern cookery Vol.-I from Orient Longman. 2. Krishna Arora - Theory of Cookery from Frank Bros & Co. 3. Auguste Escoffer – The complete guide to the art of Modern cookery, from Heineman 4. Petersons James, Sauces, John Wiley & sons 5. Mc Gee Harold, On Food and Cooking, Macmillan Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 28
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-3 SALAMI, SAUSAGES CONTENTS 3.0 Objectives 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Meaning of Salami, Ingredients of Salami 3.3 Manufacturing of Salami 3.4 Varieties of Salami 3.5 Sausages 3.6 Types of Sausages 3.6.1 Cooked Sausages 3.6.2 Cooked Smoked Sausages 3.6.3 Fresh Sausages 3.6.4 Fresh Smoked Sausages 3.6.5 Dry Sausages 3.7 Lesson Summary 3.8 Key Words 3.9 Questions to Solve 3.10 References 3.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Sausages ◘ Types of sausage ◘ Salami ◘ Salami ingredients and manufacturing process ◘ Varieties of salami 3.1 INTRODUCTION The word sausage originally comes from the Latin word salsus, which means salted or preserved. In the olden days people did not have refrigeration to preserve their meat and so making sausage was a way of overcoming this problem. Sausage making evolved as an effort to economize and preserve meat that could not be consumed fresh at slaughter. In sausage making, quality standards are maintained while using most parts of the animal carcass. Salami is a cured sausage, fermented and air-dried. Salami may refer specifically to a class of salumi (the Italian tradition of cured meats), where an individual sausage or style of sausage (e.g. Genoa) would be referred to with the singular Italian form salame. Alternatively, in general English usage, salami may be singular or plural and refer to a generic style or to various specific regional styles from Italy or elsewhere, such as France or Germany. The name comes from the Latin/Italian root sal-, meaning 'salt'. 3.2 MEANING OF SALAMI, INGREDIENTS OF SALAMI Salami is cured sausage, fermented and air-dried meat, originating from one of a variety of animals. Historically, salami has been popular among Southern European peasants because it can be stored at room Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 29
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester temperature for periods of up to 10 years, supplementing a possibly meager or inconsistent supply of fresh meat. Varieties of salami are traditionally made in Italy, France, Hungary, Germany, Spain, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Greece, Romania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Poland and Turkey The word originates from the word Sale (salt) with a termination -ame used in Italian as an indicator of collective nouns; the original meaning was thus all kind of salted (meats). The Italian tradition of cured meats including several styles, the word salame soon specialized to indicate only the most popular kind, made with ground, salted and spiced meat forced into animal gut with an elongated and thin shape, then left to undergo some kind of fermentation process A traditional salame, with its typical marbled appearance, is made from one or more of the following meats: Pork, or less commonly, especially in Kosher and Halal salami, beef (particularly veal), venison, poultry (mostly turkey because of dietary limitations, but also goose salami is traditional in some areas of Northern Italy), and horse, also swordfish and sometimes shark in southern parts of Japan. Additional ingredients may include: salt spices, usually white pepper garlic minced fat wine various herbs vinegar The raw meat mixture is usually allowed to ferment for a day, then the mixture is either stuffed into an edible natural or inedible cellulose casing and hung to cure. Heat treatment to about 104°F (40 °C) may be used to accelerate further fermentation and start the drying process. Higher temperatures (about 140°F (60 °C)) are used to stop the fermentation when the desired pH is reached, but the product is not fully cooked (167°F (75 °C) or higher). The casings are often treated with an edible mold (Penicillium) culture as well. The mold is desired as it imparts flavor and prevents spoilage during the curing process. 3.3 MANUFACTURING OF SALAMI, Though completely uncooked, salami is not "raw" per se; they have been prepared via curing. The term salame cotto refers to salami cooked or smoked before or after curing and it is typical of Piedmont region in Italy. This is done to impart a specific flavor but not to cook the meat. Before curing, a cotto salame is still considered raw and is not ready to be eaten. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 30
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Salami is cured in warm, humid conditions to encourage growth of the bacteria involved in the fermentation process. Sugars (usually dextrose) are added as a food source for the bacteria during the curing process, although it tends not to be added to horse meat because of the latter's naturally high levels of glycogen. Lactic acid is produced by the bacteria as a waste product, lowering the pH and coagulating and lowering the waterholding capacity of the meat. The acid produced by the bacteria makes the meat an inhospitable environment for other, pathogenic bacteria and imparts a tangy flavor that distinguishes salami from machine-dried pork. The flavor of salami relies just as much on how these bacteria are cultivated as it does on quality and variety of other ingredients. Originally, the bacteria were introduced into the meat mixture with wine, which contains other types of beneficial bacteria; now, starter cultures are used. The whole process takes about 36 weeks, although some age it more for additional taste and some can cut it down to about 24 weeks for a sweeter taste. The drying and curing process is determined by the climate of the curing environment and the size and style of casing. After fermentation, the sausage has to be dried. This changes the casings from being water-permeable to being reasonably airtight. A white covering of either mold or flour helps prevent the photo-oxidation of the meat and rancidity in the fat. Nitrates or nitrites are added to provide the cured meat color and inhibit growth of harmful bacteria from the genus Clostridium. Salt, acidity, nitrate/nitrite levels and dryness of the fully cured salami combine to make the uncooked meat safe to consume. It is important that high quality, fresh ingredients are used; otherwise, deadly microorganisms and toxins can develop. 3.4 VARIETIES OF SALAMI Varieties of salami include: Cacciatore (Cacciatora, Cacciatorini) "Hunter" salami. Italy. Spegepølse (Danish, means salted and dried sausage) Milanese Genovese Fegatelli Felino, Province of Parma Finocchiona, typical of southern Tuscany Pepperoni Sopressata, typical of Calabria Ciauscolo, typical of Marche Nduja Saucisson sec (French "dry sausage") Winter salami (Hungarian Téli Szalámi) German Salami Kulen spicy salami characteristic of Balkans and parts of Hungary Chorizo also spicy Iberian variant Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 31
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 3.5 SAUSAGES The word sausage originally comes from the Latin word salsus, which means salted or preserved. In the days of old people did not have refrigeration to preserve their meat and so making sausage was a way of overcoming this problem. Dry sausage was born as a result of the discovery of new spices, which helped to enhance, flavor and preserve the meat. Different countries and different cities within those countries started producing their own distinctive types of sausage, both fresh and dry. These different types of sausage were mostly influenced by the availability of ingredients as well as the climate. Some parts of the world with periods of cold climate, such as northern Europe were able to keep their fresh sausage without refrigeration, during the cold months. They also developed a process of smoking the sausage to help preserve the meat during the warmer months. The hotter climates in the south of Europe developed dry sausage, which did not need refrigeration at all. Basically people living in particular areas developed their own types of sausage and that sausage became associated with the area. For example Bologna originated in the town of Bologna in Northern Italy, Lyons sausage from Lyons in France and Berliner sausage from Berlin in Germany. 3.6 TYPES OF SAUSAGES 3.6.1 Cooked Sausage - Made with fresh meats and then fully cooked. The sausage is either eaten immediately after cooking or must be refrigerated and is usually reheated before eating. Examples include Braunschweiger, Veal sausage and Liver sausage. 3.6.2 Cooked Smoked Sausage- Much the same as cooked sausage, but it is cooked and then smoked, or smoke-cooked. It can be eaten hot or cold, but is stored in the refrigerator. Examples include Wieners, Kielbasa and Bologna. 3.6.3 Fresh Sausage- Made from meats that have not been previously cured. This sausage must be refrigerated and thoroughly cooked before eating. Examples include Boerewors, Italian Pork sausage and Fresh Beef sausage. 3.6.4 Fresh Smoked Sausage- This is fresh sausage that is smoked. After smoking, the sausage can then be refrigerated and cooked thoroughly before eating. Examples include Mettwurst and Roumanian sausage. 3.6.5 Dry Sausage- Made from selected meats. These are the most complicated of all sausages to make, as the drying process has to be carefully controlled. Once produced this type of sausage can be readily eaten, and will keep for very long periods under refrigeration. Examples include Salami‘s and summer sausage. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 32
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 3.7 LESSON SUMMARY The word salami is a cured (fermented and air dried) sausage of Italaian tradition. The name comes from the Italian verb salame, meaning to salt. Traditional salami is made from a mixture which may include the following: chopped beef, pork, donkey, wine (not always) salt and various herbs and spices. The word sausage originally comes from the Latin word salsus, which means salted or preserved. In the olden days people did not have refrigeration to preserve their meat and so making sausage was a way of overcoming this problem. 3.8 KEY WORDS Meager - not enough, too little, insufficient Elongated - stretched out, lengthened, extended Tangy – pungent, spicy, flavorful 3.9 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is Salami? 2. What are the Ingredients to make salami? 3. Explain the Manufacturing process of Salami? 4. Name the different varieties of Salami? 5. What is a sausage? 6. What are the different types of Sausage? 7. What prompted Salami & sausage making? 3.10 REFERENCES 1. Jessica Souhami , Sausages, Frances Lincoln Ltd. 2. Campbell- Platt.G and Cook.P, Fermented Meats, Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow. 3. Thangam E. Philip- Modern cookery Vol.-I from Orient Longman Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 33
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT- 4 COMMODITIES CONTENTS 4.0 Objectives 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Cereals 4.3 Types of Cereals 4.4 Pulses 4.5 Types of Pulses 4.6 Yoghurt 4.7 Varieties of Yoghurt 4.8 Cream 4.9 Types of Cream 4.10 Lesson Summary 4.11 Key Words 4.12 Questions to Solve 4.13 References 4.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Cereals and their varieties ◘ Pulses and their varieties ◘ Yoghurts and its varieties ◘ Creams and type of cream ◘ Storage of creams 4.1 INTRODUCTION Staple foods are those which are eaten regularly as part of the daily diet and nearly always include cereals and / or pulses. Rice, for example, is widely consumed in Asia, whereas beans, maize, cassava, potato, banana, etc. are more popular stable food in many African, Latin American and Caribbean countries. Pulses are considered as poor man‘s meat due to their high protein content ranging from 20 to 40% and this makes them important in human food from nutrition point of view. Both cereals and pulses are nutritionally important since they usually provide the bulk of the diet and energy needs. They are also relatively cheap sources of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals. Although there are no records available regarding the origin of yoghurt, the belief in its beneficial influence on human health and nutrition existed in many civilizations over a long period of time. Cream is also a dairy product that is composed of the higher butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. In the industrial production of cream this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, cream is sold in Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 34
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester several grades depending on total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets. 4.2 CEREALS Cereals are grasses (members of the monocot family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae) cultivated for the edible components of their grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore staple crops. In their natural form (as in whole grain), they are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils, and protein. However, when refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate and lacks the majority of the other nutrients. In some developing nations, grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. The word cereal derives from Ceres, the name of the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. 4.3 TYPES OF CEREALS. RICE Unpolished Brown Polished Rice rice Botanical name: Oryza sativa (There are more than 8000 different types of rice). Rice is a staple food for large part of the worlds' population especially Latin American, East, South and South-Eastern Asia and is the second most consumed cereal grain second to only maize. Nutritional values: The chief consumption of rice is as a food substance, but it should never be forgotten that the large and continued consumption of the white, polished rice is likely to be injurious to the health. The nations of which rice is the staple diet eat it unpolished as a rule, when it is brownish and less attractive to the eye, but much more nutritious as well as cheaper. Having no laxative qualities, rice forms a light and digestible food for those in whom there is any tendency to diarrhea or dysentery, but it contains less potash and vegetable acids than potatoes. Brown rice is rich in vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B6, as well as manganese, iron, selenium, magnesium, phosphorus and trace minerals. Also, brown rice is a source of good quality proteins (in terms of amino acid quantity) and gamma-oryzanol (an extract of rice bran oil that has been used to treat digestive, menopausal and cholesterol problems) Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 35
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Health benefits: Comparable to whole wheat, brown rice is quite nutritious as far as calories, vitamins and minerals are concerned. Protein 8.6% and, Fibre content 3.5% WHEAT -Botanical name: Triticum aesativum Nutritional values: Please note that wheat products such as pasta, noodles, breads, and biscuits use flour that undergoes a process in which 60% of wheat grain is removed. Of this 60% lost are the most nutritious aspects of the wheat : the bran and the germ and as a result more than 50% of the B vitamins, folic acid, zinc, copper, phosphorous, calcium and iron are removed! Whole meal wheat supplies the following nutrition: Good supply of dietary fibre and manganese, Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and E and folic acid plus calcium, phosphorus, zinc, copper, protein, magnesium, manganese and iron. Wheat germ is the vitamin and mineral rich embryo of the wheat kernel that is removed during the refining process to make the "white" wheat flour. 4.4 PULSES A pulse is an annual leguminous crop yielding from one to twelve seeds of variable size, shape, and color within a pod. Pulses are used for food and animal feed. Archaeologists have discovered traces of pulse production around Ravi River (Punjab), the seat of the Indus Valley civilization, dating around 3300 BC. Meanwhile, evidence of lentil cultivation has also been found in Egyptian pyramids and dry pea seeds have been discovered in a Swiss village that are believed to date back to the Stone Age. Archaeological evidence suggests that these peas must have been grown in the eastern Mediterranean and Mesopotamia regions at least 5,000 years ago and in Britain as early as the 11th century. The term "pulse", as used by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), is reserved for crops harvested solely for the dry seed. This excludes green beans and green peas, which are considered vegetable crops. Also excluded are crops that are mainly grown for oil extraction (oilseeds like soybeans and peanuts), and crops which are used exclusively for sowing (clovers, alfalfa). However, in common use these distinctions are not clearly made, and many of the varieties so classified and given below are also used as vegetables, with their beans in pods while young cooked in whole cuisines and sold for the purpose; for example black eyed beans, lima beans and Toor or pigeon peas are thus eaten as fresh green beans cooked as part of a meal. Pulses are important food crops due to their high protein and essential amino acid content. Like many leguminous crops, pulses play a key role in crop rotation due to their ability to fix nitrogen Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 36
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4.5 TYPES OF PULSES Mysore dhal Green gram Toor dhal Bengal gram Pulses grams and beans are leguminous crops providing various kind of grains used for food and animal feed. They play a role in crop rotation due to their ability to fix nitrogen in the soil. They are important food crops due to their high protein and essential amino acids content. They are the most important source of vegetable protein in almost all countries. Their use ranges from baby food to delicacies of the rich and poor. These include varieties of lentils, varieties of grams and varieties of beans. In the lentils group we have yellow lentils (Mysore dhal), green gram (Pasi payaru) and toor dhal. Lentils are low in fat and high in protein and fibre. They also contain folate, vitamin B1 and minerals. Lentils are one of the best sources of iron. They also cook easily. Almost every home will have some kind of lentils cooked for their main meal. Usually it is either yellow lentils or green gram. Toor dhal is used as an ingredient in sambar dishes and also as curry dish. In some homes invariably lentils may be the only curry made to eat the rice with. Lentils also go with other food like bread etc. Also they are used in the making of short eats or snacks (Payatham paniyaram). Lentils contain 20 to 25 percent by weight protein and due to this reason they are sometimes called poor man's protein. Not only the lentils contain much protein, the digestibility of that protein is also high. The lentils are the most important source of protein and iron to the vegetarians. These are available in plenty throughout the world. In the grams varieties, black gram is extensively used in dishes like Dosa, Idli and vadai. Also it is an ingredient of papad. Bengal gram and channa dhal are used in the making of snacks. Bengal gram as well as channa dhal are very nutritious and is recommended for diabetics as other pulses. These grams have no effect on blood glucose levels and this is important for diabetics and to other people as well. Chick peas are nutty flavored pulse packed with vitamins, protein and minerals and soluble fibre which reduces the cholesterol levels. They are used to make curries with and sometimes they are soaked in water and deep fried and eaten as a snack. They are a source of zinc, folate and protein. They are also very high dietary fibre and is a source of carbohydrates for diabetics. They contain 64% carbohydrates, 23% protein, 5% fat and fibre. In the beans group, the commonest available vegetable is long beans. Long beans is a plant that grows very easily in the gardens and after the rains, plant seeds from older crops and they grow very swiftly bearing numerous long beans which are then used for curries. This is a crop that is locally cultivated too. Long beans are good source of Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 37
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester protein, Vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, iron, phosphorous, potassium, vitamin C, folate and magnesium. There are other types of beans but long beans are a local produce. Urid dhal Chick Peas Long Beans 4.6 YOGHURT Yogurt or yoghurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and its characteristic tang. Worldwide, cow's milk is most commonly used to make yogurt, but milk from water buffalo, goats, sheep, camels and yaks is also used in various parts of the world. The milk is first heated to about 80 °C (176 °F) to kill any undesirable bacteria and to denature the milk proteins so that they set together rather than form curds. The milk is then cooled to about 45 °C (112 °F). The bacteria culture is added, and the temperature is maintained for 4 to 7 hours to allow fermentation. 4.7 VARIETIES OF YOGHURT Plain Yogurt Plain yogurt is regular yogurt that is made by fermenting pasteurized milk. It does not contain added sugar or flavoring to enhance its flavors. It has a silky and smooth consistency, and is not too thick or custard like. It has a natural tart flavor and it is used in the preparation of many dishes. Fruit Yogurt Fruit yogurt is simply plain yogurt in which one or many types of fruit have been incorporated. Generally fresh and pureed fruits are added to make such yogurt and it is one of the most popular types of yogurt among consumers. But the downside of such fruit flavored yogurt is that it contains high amounts of sugar and calories as compared to regular yogurt, and as such is not an ideal choice of yogurt for people who are watching their weight. Swiss Style or Custard Yogurt This type of yogurt has custard like almost pudding consistency. It is available in both plain and flavored form. To stabilize the consistency of Swiss style yogurt, a stabilizer like gelatin, pectin or agar is used in it. It is also creamier than regular yogurt. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 38
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Frozen Yogurt frozen yogurt is a kind of soft ice cream that is consumed as an alternative to regular ice cream. Because of the freezing process, most of the live and beneficial bacteria in the yogurt are destroyed. Most manufacturers who make frozen yogurt, market it as low fat and low sugar. But you need to check the labels before you buy frozen yogurt as an alternative to ice cream. In most cases, frozen yogurt contains as much sugar and milk fat as regular ice cream. European Style Yogurt European style yogurt is characterized by its smooth and creamy texture. This type of yogurt is made by pouring warm cultured milk in a big vat which is then stirred periodically with a long ladle. This mixture is then poured into cups and consumed. Sometimes fruits and other flavorings are added into the vat of cultured milk to make flavored European style yogurt. Greek Yogurt Greek yogurt is a very thick yogurt that is made by removing the whey from the yogurt by a straining process. It is a very smooth yogurt that has a thicker consistency than plain yogurt and is used in cooking many Mediterranean dishes. Because excess water or moisture is strained from this type of yogurt, Greek yogurt has higher amount of butterfat than plain yogurt. Low-fat Yogurt Low-fat yogurt, which is a favorite among the calorie and health conscious people, is made from skimmed milk or reduced fat milk. Low fat yogurt can be both plain and flavored. It contains around 0.5-2% milk fat compared to 3-5% milk fat contained in regular yogurt. These were the different types of yogurt that are available. Yogurt contains high levels of vitamins, calcium, iodine, and potassium, which are required for the proper functioning of the body. It is also an excellent source of protein. Whichever kind of yogurt you choose, try to incorporate at least three to four servings of yogurt per week in your diet 4.8 CREAM Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. In the industrial production of cream this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, cream is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets. Cream skimmed from milk may be called "sweet cream" to distinguish it from whey cream skimmed from whey, a by-product of cheese-making. Whey cream has a lower fat content and tastes more salty, tangy and "cheesy". Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 39
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Cream produced by cattle (particularly Jersey cattle) grazing on natural pasture often contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this gives the cream a slight yellow tone, hence the name of the yellowish-white color, cream. Cream from goat's milk, or from cows fed indoors on grain or grain-based pellets, is white. 4.9 TYPES OF CREAM Types of Cream Type Butterfat Content Uses Half and Half Cream 12% fat (range 10.5-18%) In the United States, half and half is a mix of 1/2 whole milk and ½ cream, typically used as a cream in coffee. Half-and-half does not whip, but it can be used in place of whipping (heavy) cream in many recipes for less fat cooking. Single Cream 20% Cream with a low fat-content, which does not thicken when beaten. Used in both sweet and savory dishes. Also know as light cream. Light Cream 20% fat (range 18-30%) Pretty much the same as half and half. Also know as coffee cream or table cream. Will whip if it contains 30% butterfat but will not be very stable. Generally contains only 20% butterfat. Also know as single cream. Light cream is not available everywhere. 30% Cream with enough butterfat in it to allow it to thicken when whipped. Does not whip as well as heavy cream but works well for toppings and fillings. Almost all whipping cream is now ultra-pasteurized; a process of heating that considerably extends its shelf life by killing bacteria and enzymes. Heavy Cream or Heavy Whipping Cream 36 to 38% This cream whips denser than whipping cream. Whips up well and holds its shape. Doubles in volume when whipped. Double Cream 48% Double cream is the British term for heavy or whipping cream in the United States, but it is a little thicker than our whipping cream. It contains about 48% butterfat. Double cream is so rich, in fact, that it is easy to over whip it and get it too thick. Whipping Cream Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 40
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Clotted Cream Creme fraiche 55 to 60% Also know as Devonshire or Devon Cream. It is a thick, rich, yellowish cream with a scalded or cooked flavor that is made by heating un-pasteurized milk until a thick layer of cream sit on top. The milk is cooled and the layer of cream is skimmed off. Traditionally served with tea and scones in England. It is a matured, thickened cream that has a slightly tangy, nutty flavor and velvety rich texture. The thickness can range from that of commercial sour cream to almost as solid as room temperature margarine. In France, the cream is un-pasteurized and therefore contains the bacteria necessary to thicken it naturally. In America, where all commercial cream is pasteurized, the fermenting agents necessary can be obtained by adding buttermilk or sour cream. It is used as a dessert topping and in cooked sauces and soups, where it has the advantage of not curdling when boiled. Pasteurized and Ultra-pasteurized: Creams will generally be labeled pasteurized or ultrapasteurized. Pasteurized cream will provide a better flavor, will whip up fluffier, and will hold up longer. As ultra-pasteurized whipping cream has been heated to above 280 degrees F. to extend its shelf life, it is more temperamental when it comes to whipping. Ultra-Pasteurized Heavy Cream "will not work" if peaks or frothing are required in your recipe. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 41
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4.10 LESSON SUMMARY Cereal crops or grains come from grass family cultivated for their edible grains or fruit seeds. The word ‗cereal‘ derives from ‗Ceres‘, the name of pre- Roman goddess of Harvest and agriculture. The term ―Pulses‖ is limited to crops harvested solely for dry grain, thereby excluding crops harvested green for food (green peas, green beans etc.) which are classified as vegetable crops. Also excluded are those crops used mainly for oil extraction (e.g. soybean & groundnuts) and leguminous crops (e.g. Clover) Pulses contain carbohydrates, mainly starches (55-65 percent of the total weight) Proteins including essential amino acids (18-25 percent, and much higher than cereals) and fat (1-4 percent), the reminder consists of water and edible substances. Yoghurt or yogurt is a diary product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. Fermentation of the milk produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt, its texture and its characteristics. Yoghurt can be made from sheep‘s, cows, goats or even Soya milk. Natural whole meal yogurt has a similar nutritional value to boiled milk, being rich in protein and minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus. Cream is also a diary product that is composed of the higher butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un- homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. All cream, unless ultra pasteurized (briefly heated to 149 deg. C/300 deg. F and then cooled), is highly perishable and should be kept in the coldest part of the refrigerator. 4.11 KEY WORDS Staple- main, principal core Kernel - essential part, seed, core Bacteria – microorganisms, microbes, germs Enzyme - any complex chemical produced by living cells that is a biochemical catalyst Vat – container, holder, tub Pudding- a sweet cooked dessert with a smooth creamy texture, typically consisting of flour, milk, eggs, and flavoring Centrifuges- a device that rotates rapidly and uses centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities 4.12 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in detail about Cereal and types of Cereals? 2. Write in detail about Pulses and types of Pulses? 3. Write in short about nutritional value of Rice and wheat? 4. What is the difference between Yoghurt & cream? 5. What are the different types of Yoghurt? 6. What are the different types of Cream? Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 42
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4.13 REFERENCES 1. Thangam E. Philip- Modern cookery Vol.-I from Orient Longman. 2. Krishna Arora - Theory of Cookery from Frank Bros & Co. 3. Auguste Escoffer – The complete guide to the art of Modern cookery, from Heineman. 4. David .A.V. Dendy, Cereals and Cereal Products, Springer 5. Henry Leffmann, Analysis of Milk & Milk Products, Read Books 6. Joseph A Kurmann, Encyclopedia of Fermented Fresh milk products. Springer Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 43
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 44
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 45
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 46
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-5 KITCHEN EQUIPMENT CONTENTS 5.0 Objectives 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Kitchen Equipments 5.3 Large Equipment, Mechanical Equipment 5.4 Utensils & small equipment 5.5 Cooking Fuels 5.6 Lesson Summary 5.7 Key Words 5.8 Questions to Solve 5.9 References 5.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Kitchen equipments and cooking fuels. 5.1INTRODUCTION Technological advances during industrialization brought major changes to the kitchen. Iron stoves, which enclosed the fire completely and were more efficient, appeared. Gas pipes were first laid in the late 19th century, and gas stoves started to replace the older coal-fired stoves. The trend to increasing gasification and electrification continued at the turn of the 20th century. A trend began in the 1940s to equip the kitchen with electrified small and large kitchen appliances such as blenders, toasters, and later also microwave ovens. Following the end of World War II, massive demand in Europe for low-price, high-tech consumer goods led to Western European kitchens being designed to accommodate new appliances such as refrigerators and electric/gas cookers. 5.2 KITCHEN EQUIPMENT‘S Various types of equipment are used in a kitchen. The type, amount and size of equipment will depend on the type of menu being provided and number of people to dine. Kitchen equipment may be divided into three categories: 1) Large equipment – cooking ranges, electric ovens, microwave ovens, steamers, boiling pan, deep fat-fryers, sinks, tables. 2) Mechanical equipment – peelers, mincers, mixers, refrigerators, dish-washers. 3) Utensils and small equipment – pots, pans, whisks, bowls, spoons and ladles. 5.3 LARGE EQUIPMENT, MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT The service equipments used in hotel industry are: 1. Bain - Marie It is used to keep soups, sauces and cooked foods hot prior to or during service. 2. Hot cupboards Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 47
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 3. It is principally used to keep the service plates hot. These are having cabinets which are directly heated either by a burner sited bellow, indirectly by hot gases conducted round the cabinet through channels or by steam generated in a well in the base. It is also used to keep cooked food hot during the delay between cooking and service. General purpose and roasting ovens These are used for all oven works, i.e., roasting and baking. There are two principal methods of heating. a) Internal heating It means the flames are visible inside the oven, similar to domestic cooker. b) Semi-internal heating It has a burner placed under a metal plate called the sole. The hot gases enter into the oven round the edges of the sole plate. 4. Boiling tables It can be used for all boiling of top operations. It is having a series of ring burners. 5. Stock pot stoves By their low height it is suitable for larger utensils. It is having low level boiling tables, generally 610mm (24 inch) height usually with an openring burner, although a solid top version is available. 6. 8. Ranges A range is a composite unit made up of a boiling table (hot plate) and a general purpose oven occasionally with the addition of a grill fitted in the pot rack at eye level. It is used for all cooking purpose. 7. Brat pans It is also known as tilting fryers. It is mainly used for multiple purpose, i.e., for shallow fry, deep fry or boiling. They are capable of handling up to 200 average portions an hour. For E.g.: a) Shallow frying- Trout (A fish of mountain streams, lakes, rivers) - 36 in 4 minutes. b) Dry frying- Egg - 30 at a time, About 600 an hour, Bacon 100 portions in 10 minutes. c) Poaching- Egg - 800 an hour, Fish - 200 portions an hour d) Stewing- 27-32 liters (6-7 gallons) e) Sautéing-27 kg of meat an hour. Forced convection ovens A forced convection oven is suitable for all normal roasting and baking. With its even temperature distribution the full capacity oven may be used and cooking times reduced. 9. Pastry ovens These ovens are used for large outputs baking of pastry, cakes. They are purpose built, externally heated with an oven height from 127mm to 135mm (5 inch to 5 ½ inch). An important feature is the even temperature throughout the oven. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 48
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 10. Grillers Grillers are of main two types, i.e. a) Under fried grillers These are sometimes known as flare grills with the source of heat. Burners are located underneath. b) Over fried grillers It is also known as salamanders. Here the source of heat is above. 11. Griddle plates These are sometime known as dry plates. A gas bar burner heats this from below. They are used for fast or continuous frying of eggs, bacon, liver, steak, chops, etc. or hamburgers and pancakes. Griddle is chosen according to menu requirements but is particularly useful for call order cooking in snack bars and grillrooms. Microwaves Microwave cookery takes place in a specially designed electrical oven. Microwaves are transferred to the food by electro-magnetic radiation. These waves travel through the air and because food is poor conductor of energy, the wave passes into the food causing the water molecules in the food to vibrate and heat up very quickly. Food counters In recent years there has been an increasing tendency towards assisted or selfhelp counter service operations which has developed because of the need to serve large numbers of peoples quickly and efficiently. Almost any type of food can be displayed on an electrically (based) controlled service counted. For e.g.: Soups, roasts, vegetable dishes, cooked desserts along with choice of cold meats, salads, fruits and pastries, etc. Refrigerators A refrigerator is very need equipment for storing wine, chilled meat, vegetables, fish, frozen foods. 12. 13. 14. 5.4 UTENSILS & SMALL EQUIPMENT - POTS AND PANS The pots and pans used in cooking are as under: 1. Sauté use- This is a shallow long handled vessel with slopping sides and a wide surface area, made of tin lined copper. It is used in the preparation of sauces in which evaporation is required. It is available in various sizes. E.g.: 20 cm (8 inch) diameter and 7 cm (2 ¾ inch) deep 2. Plat a'sauter- This is a shallow, long handled vessel, made of tin lined copper or aluminum with straight copper or aluminum with straight sides and a wide surface area. It is used for sautéing purpose like meat sautéing where the food juices are incorporated as an integral part of finished product. It is available in various sizes. E.g.: 15 cm (6 inch) diameter. 3. Frying pan- Frying pans are solid based pans, made of iron, steel, aluminum or stainless steel with shallow sloping sides and a wide surface area to heat for frying foods. E.g.: 15 cm (6 inches) base diameter Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 49
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Friture- Whether round or oval, single or double handled a friture has a wire basket that fits into the pan. This type of pan can be used for all deep fat frying and small quantities frying. Stock pot- This deep, lidded, double handled pan has a tap near the bottom for 'letting off' stock and is made from heavy-duty aluminum. Stockpots are used on top of the stove only for making large quantities of stock. Stew pan (or) sauce pan - This type of aluminum pan is either single or double handled with a lid. The single handled type is used on the top of the stove only, where as the double handled type is also used in the oven. Both types are used for all boiling and stewing. Boiling pan- This aluminum pan has two handles and a lid and is available in a wide range of sizes, i.e., 2-65 liters and is used on top of stove or in the oven for all boiling and stewing. Braising pan- This type of pan is same like boiling pan but shallower and available in a similarly wide range of sizes, i.e., 11-30 liters. It is used for braising vegetables or main meal items on top of the stove. Omelets pan- It is made from aluminum copper or steel. This type of pan is shallow, round and single handled. It is used only for omelets. 5. 6. KITCHEN KNIVES 1.Boning knife- This is used for the boning of raw or cooked meat. The carbon steel blade must be sharpened regularly. 2.Vegetable knife- This knife has a small shaped handle and short carbon steel or stainless steel blade. It is used for fine preparation, vegetable paring and finishing. The measurement is 103 or 155 mm (4 or 6 inches) 3. Cooks chopping knives- It is available with longer and heavier blades. The measurement is 255 pr 305 mm (10 or 12 inch) and is usually made from carbon steel. They are used for all preparation and chopping. 4. Filleting knife- This knife has a long flexible carbon steel or stainless steel. The measurement is 155mm (6 inch) blade. It is used for skinning and filleting fish. Palette knife- It has either carbon steel or stainless steel blade. It has a measurement of 155mm or 205mm or 255mm or 305mm (6, 8, 10 & 12 inch) long. They are used for moving prepared food, turning cooked food and lifting cooked food from oven trays. Steel- This is carbon steel bar with either a wooden handle. It is used for sharpening all steel knives, but is needed to be sharpened regularly after each use. 5.5 COOKING FUELS The different methods of cooking are: 1. Cooking by fire 2. Cooking by oil 3. Cooking by gas Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 50
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4. 5. Cooking by electricity Sundry cooking method 1. Cooking by fire Wood is widely used in India but it is very wasteful and dirty. Coal gives out intense heat but not steady. Cooking by oil The oil which is used for cooking is kerosene. It is a clean method in compare to cooking by wood. Advantage of oil a) Economy- Oil is comparatively cheap b) Cleanliness - Not very clean and hygienic c) Effect on equipments- Open flame is likely to destroy the lifespan of utensils. d) Dependability- Supply is to be visible e) Flexibility- intensity can moderately be controlled. f) Safety - Fire hazard like to form in storage areas. g) Storage- Storage space has to be provided h) Installation - Installation is elaborate. i) Speed- Speed is quicker. Cooking by gas It is easy and the most flexible as well as useful method of coking. A reasonable range of equipment is now been manufactured in India for use in this medium. Advantage of gas a) Economy- It is relatively less expensive. b) Cleanliness- Moderate cleaning and hygienic. c) Effect on equipment- Open flame is likely to destroy the life of equipments. d) Dependability- Fails at short notice. e) Flexibility - Intensity can be minutely controlled. f) Safety- Cylinders are available. g) Storage- Gas cylinders are available. h) Speed - Speed is quickest. i) Installation -It is not very flexible. Cooking by electricity A considerable range of equipments necessary for the modern kitchen can be obtained. Hot plates, boilers, toasters, chapatti plates, etc. are some of the type of equipments working by electricity. Advantage of electricity a) Economy- Electricity charges are rather heavy when compared with other fuels. b) Cleanliness -Clean and hygienic c) Effect on equipment and utensils- No open flame as a result there is very little waste on utensils. d) Dependability - Fails without warning. e) Flexibility -Intensity can be controlled. f) Safety - Least dangerous 2. 3. 4. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 51
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester g) h) i) Storage- No problem Installation - Relatively simple. Speed - Not so quick Advantage of wood a) Economy -Cheapest form b) Cleanliness -Problem of collection and disposable of ashes. c) Effect on equipment and utensils - Equipment has to be replaced over a short life. d) Dependability -Supply can also be ensured. e) Flexibility -No control over intensity. f) Safety -Fire hazards are most likely because of open flame. g) Storage -Storage space is a problem. h) Installation -It is no problem. i) Speed -Slow. 5. Sundry cooking method There are many new methods of cooking food. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 52
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 5.6 LESSON SUMMARY Various types of equipment are used in kitchen. The type, amount and size of equipment will depend on the type of menu being provided. Kitchen equipment may be divided into three categories: Large equipment are, ranges, steamers, boiling pan, deep fat fryers, sinks, tables. Mechanical equipment is peelers, mincer, mixers, refrigerators, dish washers. Utensils and small equipments are pots, pans, whisks, spoons & knives. Fuels are those substances that when oxidized give rise to heat energy. This heat Energy can be converted to other forms of energy like electricity, or mechanical Energy like, Vehicle motion. Fuels can be divided into categories such as primary And secondary Fuels. The various types of fuels for cooking are, cooking by fire, Cooking by oil, cooking by gas, cooking by electricity, Sundry cooking method 5.7 KEY WORDS Composite – complex, combined, multiple Convection Oven - an oven that creates a uniform temperature with internal fans. Radiation – emission, rays, heat Molecules- Molecules are small particles that make up all living and non-living things. They are made up of even tinier particles called atoms. 5.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Explain briefly the various Large & Mechanical equipments used? 2. Explain in detail the various Utensils & small equipments used in kitchen? 3. What are the different methods of fuel used? 4. Explain the advantages & disadvantages of the various fuels? 5.9 REFERENCES Frances E. Ruffin, Kitchen smarts, Food Safety & Kitchen Equipment, The Rosen Publishing group. Thangam E. Philip- Modern cookery Vol.-I from Orient Longman. Krishna Arora - Theory of Cookery from Frank Bros & Co. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 53
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-6 KITCHEN ORGANIZATIONS CONTENTS 6.0 Objectives 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The type of establishments 6.3 Kitchen Brigade in Star Hotel 6.4 Duties & Responsibilities of Kitchen staff 6.4.1 Chef de Cuisine 6.4.2 Sous Chef 6.4.3 Senior Sous Chef 6.4.4 Sous Chef 6.4.5 Chef de Partie 6.4.6 Chef Garde Manger 6.4.7 Chef de Nuit 6.4.8 Commis 6.4.9 Apprentices 6.5 Modern Kitchen Organization 6.6 Lesson Summary 6.7 Key Words 6.8 Questions to Solve 6.9 References 6.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Kitchen Brigade ◘Duties and Responsibilities of Kitchen Staffs 6.1 INTRODUCTION The staff in kitchen needs to be able to prepare, at any given moment, a wide number of items. The size of the kitchen staff can range from one person to a large group, classically known as the brigade. The size of the kitchen staff is determined equally by the number of meals the restaurant commonly serves and how extensive the menu is. The number of people actually employed in a kitchen will vary greatly from one operation to the next such as breakfast, lunch, dinner, banquet, etc. Georges Auguste Escoffier, a French chef, restaurateur and culinary writer popularized and updated traditional French cooking methods. He organized his kitchens by the brigade system, with each section run by a chef de partie. In this system everybody had a distinct task, which meant that no one duplicated anyone else‘s work. This system provided efficiency, economy, safety and an esprit de corps. 6.2 THE TYPE OF ESTABLISHMENT Many establishments today are far from modest in scope, and the lack of skilled workers in all of these distinct areas, along with technological advances that call for a certain consolidation, has modified the brigade system substantially. It is important, however, to understand the hierarchy that Escoffier formulated, because that will give you a good Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 54
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester overview of just about every task that might be faced in the universe we call ―the kitchen‖. The size of the kitchen staff can range from one person to a large group, classically known as the brigade. The size of the kitchen staff is determined equally by the number of meals the restaurant commonly serves and how extensive the menu is. The number of people actually employed in a kitchen will vary greatly from one operation to the next such as breakfast, lunch, dinner, banquet, etc. Kitchen Organization will vary, mainly due to the size and the type of the establishment, Organization depends on 5 factors, they are as follows: 1. Menu is the deciding factor for a food facility organization. 2. Type of Establishment. 3. Size of Operation. 4. Physical facilities. 5. Human Resource available. 6.3 KITCHEN BRIGADE IN STAR GRADE HOTEL CHEF DE CUISINE SOUS CHEF CHEF GARDE MANGER CHEF POTAGER (Soup Cook) BOUCHERIE (Butcher Shop) CHACUTIER (Pork Butcher and Sauage maker) Chef de Nuit (Night Duty Chef) 6.4 SLADIER (Salad Maker) CHEF SAUCIER (Sauce Cook) CHEF PATISSIER Chef Entermtier (Vegetable Cook) BREAKFAST COOK CHEF ROTISSEUR VOLAILLEUR (Poulterer) POISSONER (Fishmonger) CHEF COMMUNAR (Staff/Cafeteri a Cook) (CHEF GRILLARDIN Grill Cook/CHEF SAVOURIER (Savoury Cook) COMMI-I COMMI - II COMMI - III HORD D’OEUVRIER (Horsd’ocuvre cook) : TRANCHEUR (Craver) APPRENTICE TRAINEES DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF KITCHEN STAFF 6.4.1 The Chef de Cuisine in the large establishment is much more a departmental manager than a working craft man. He is selected for his organizing and executive abilities than for his culinary skill. Though it is obvious that he should have such skill and a large appreciation of fine cookery, His principle function is to plan, organize and supervise the work of the kitchen. 1. Administrator in charge of the kitchen Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 55
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Plans the kitchen economically and elegantly Recruits the kitchen staff in co-ordination of the management Sees to the welfare of the kitchen staff Supervises and trains his staff Plans the menus and co-ordinates the fixing of its price Controls the quality, quantity and cost of production in the kitchen Checks spoilage and wastage Lays down standards and specifications of ingredients Takes responsibility for correction and criticism Indemnifies his staff Co-ordinates with the other departments of the hotel Informs the staff of the hotel policies Develops standard recipes Takes part in various F&B meetings 6.4.2 Sous Chef or under chef is the principal assistant of the Chef de Cuisine. In large establishments the Sous Chef will have no sectional or partial responsibility but will aid the chef in his general administration and in particular in supervising the work of preparing food and in overseeing its service at the (Pick up counter). Where a considerable kitchen operation is involved there may be more that one Sous Chef. 6.4.3 SENIOR SOUS CHEF 1. Represents the Exec. Chef in his absence 2. Makes the duty roster of the kitchen staff 3. Responsible for proper staff rotation 4. Acts as a liaison between the Exec. Chef and the staff 5. Ensures smooth flow of dishes from the kitchen 6. Maintains the co-ordination between the different sections of the kitchen 7. Reports to the Exec. Chef 6.4.4 SOUS CHEF 1. Represents the Sr. Sous Chef in his absence 2. Supervises the work in the kitchen 3. Heads a satellite kitchen 4. Takes the position of the Chef de Partie in his absence 6.4.5 Chef de Partie Chef de partie is a working cook in charge of a clearly defined section of activities within the kitchen. The Chef de Partie particularly of the sauce and Grade Manager may have the status and duties of a Sous Chef in addition to sectional responsibilities. 1. Reports to the Exec. Chef and the Sous Chefs 2. Responsible for food production and control of waste in the area 3. Trains and supervises the personnel in his section 4. Controls usage, eliminates wastage with a view to minimize food cost 5. Maintains high standards of cleanliness in his section 6. Co-ordinates with other sections of the kitchen Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 56
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 6.4.6 Chef Garde Manger The Chef Garde Manger is in charge of the larder. The larder is not only a place where food is steamed but also a place where the raw materials of cookery are prepared and dressed. In larger establishments larder work may be broken into sections and in one or two instances, it is possible that the sub-sections may have independence of the Chef Garde Manger, i.e. Boucherie might by directly controlled by the Chef De Cuisine or Sous Chef. The Chef Garde Manger is normally accommodated adjoining the main kitchen but will have its own cooking facilities. According to the size of the establishment, its subsection too will be separate to a greater or smaller extent. This also incorporates Hors d‘oeuvres section and a salad room, sometimes a fruit room where such items as melons, grapefruit, fruit salad etc. are prepared. There is a great deal of work organization and careful distribution of work to be carried out. Chef Garde Manger caters to such dishes as those commonly found on a cold table, and comprises not only of cold dishes and salads. Sandwiches are his responsibility with the exception of sale of the hot or toasted sandwiches such as club sandwiches (Chef Rotisseur). Mayonnaise, vinaigrette sauce, and other dressings and sauces for cold food are made by Chef Garde Manger. Various sections looked after by Chef Garde Manger are as follows: 6.4.7 Chef de Nuit (Night Duty Chef) Night duty cook is a chef whose main duties are to take over when the main kitchen staffs leave. A separate Chef de Nuit may be retained in the Garde Manger but normally one person suffices. Night duty cook does not necessarily remain on duty throughout the night but only until such time, the late meals have ceased. The duties of Chef de Nuit are sometimes carried out by a Sous Chef. The Sous Chef doing this is present for the service of dinner but not lunch and is responsible for all the work when the normal brigade has gone off duty. This system is used in 75% of places where late service is given. A Sous Chef must make sure that he has all the necessary facilities and that the correct mis-en-place is left by Chef de Partie before they go off duty. 6.4.8 COMMIS Dependent on the Partie concerned the sectional Chef will be assisted by one or more trained cooks who have not yet reached full chef status. These assistants or commis should have completed their apprenticeship or training but will still be getting experience before taking full Partie responsibility. The first commis as the senior of the assistants is called, should be capable of taking charge, when the Chef de Partie is off, and as second in command takes a considerable responsibility under his chef. 1. Reports to all the chefs in the kitchen 2. Responsible for actual preparation of the food 3. Keeps the work area and the equipment in the kitchen neat and tidy 4. Transferable to any area of the kitchen where a need for more manpower may arise 5. Accountable for proper care and handling of all kitchen items and ingredients 6.4.9 APPRENTICES With each Partie there will also be found apprentices or trainees who will be learning by helping in the practical day to day work of food preparation and cookery. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 57
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 6.5 MODERN KITCHEN ORGANIZATION As you can see, only a large establishment needs a staff like the classical brigade just described. In fact, some large hotels have even larger staffs, with other positions such as separate day and night sous chefs, assistant chef, banquet chef, butcher, baker, and so on. Most modern operations, on the other hand, are smaller than this. The size of the classical brigade may be reduced simply by combining two or more positions where the workload allows it. For example, the second cook may combine the duties of the sauce cook, fish cook, soup cook, and vegetable cook. A typical medium-size operation may employ a chef, a second cook, a broiler cook, a pantry cook, and a few cooks‘ helpers. A working chef is in charge of operations that are not large enough to have an executive chef. In addition to being in charge of the kitchen, the working chef also handles one of the production stations. For example, he or she may handle the sauté station, plate foods during service, and help on other stations when needed. Small kitchens may have only a chef, one or two cooks, and perhaps one or two assistants to handle simple jobs such as washing and peeling vegetables. Cooks who prepare or finish hot à la carte items during service in a restaurant may be known as line cooks. Line cooks are said to be on the hot line, or simply on the line. In many small operations, the short-order cook is the backbone of the kitchen during service time. This cook may handle the broiler, deep fryer, griddle, sandwich production, and even some sautéed items. In other words, the short-order cook‘s responsibility is the preparation of foods that are quickly prepared to order. By contrast, establishments such as school cafeterias may do no cooking to order at all. Stations and assignments are based on the requirements of quantity preparation rather than cooking to order. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 58
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 6.6 LESSON SUMMARY The Kitchen organization varies according to the establishment; some of the factors to decide regarding a kitchen brigade are Menu of organization, Type of Establishment, Size of Operation, Physical facilities, Human Resource available. A Kitchen Brigade consist of Chef de Cuisine, Sous Chef, Senior Sous Chef, Chef de Partie, Chef Grade Manger, Chef de Nuit (Night Duty Chef), Commis, Apprentices The Chef de Cuisine in the large establishment is much more a departmental manager than a working craft man, Sous Chef or under chef is the principal assistant of the Chef de Cuisine, Chef de partie is a working cook in charge of a clearly defined section of activities within the kitchen. The Chef Grade Manger is in charge of the larder Night duty cook is a chef whose main duties are to take over when the main kitchen staffs leave. Dependent on the Partie concerned the sectional Chef will be assisted by one or more trained cooks who have not yet reached full chef status, with each Partie there will also be found apprentices or trainees Presently, Modern kitchen organization has a different outlook, as some large establishment has a classic brigade as mentioned in this chapter or more extensive staff organization as per the business. But in some cases some establishment give responsibility of various sections to a particular chef for minimizing the staff brigade. 6.7 KEY WORDS Consolidation - the combination of separate items or scattered material into a single whole or mass Brigade – group, task force, crew Hierarchy - pecking order, chain of command Liaison – link, connection, relationship Larder - cold-room, pantry Suffices - be sufficient, be enough. 6.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What factors are considered before deciding the Kitchen Organization? 2. Draw the Kitchen Brigade, chart of a star grade hotel. 3. What are the duties and responsibilities of Chef de cuisine? 4. Write in detail the duties of all the staff in Kitchen Brigade? 5. What is the difference in Modern Kitchen Organization? 6.9 REFERENCES David J, Textbook of Hotel Management, Anmol Publication (P) Ltd. Kenneth James Escoffier: The King of Chefs, Continuum International Publishing Group Theory of cookery by Krishna Arora, Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 59
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-7 HERBS, SPICES, CONDIMENTS CONTENTS 7.0 Objectives 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Herbs & Its uses 7.3 Varieties of Herbs 7.4 Meaning of Spices, condiments & uses 7.5 Varieties of Spices & Condiments 7.6 Lesson Summary 7.7 Key Words 7.8 Questions to Solve 7.9 References 7.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Herbs and their varieties ◘ Uses of Herbs ◘ Spices and their varieties ◘ Uses of Spices ◘ Condiments, their varieties and uses 7.1 INTRODUCTION The term "spices" is often used broadly to include all seasonings. Spices come from the bark, roots, leaves, stems, buds, seeds, or fruit of aromatic plants and trees which usually grow only in tropical countries. Pepper, allspice, cloves, nutmeg and mace, cinnamon, ginger, saffron, and turmeric are spices. Herbs are a great way to spice up a meal. Herbs are soft, succulent plants which usually grow in the temperate zone. Until recently cooks have had to make do with very few fresh herbs, such as sage, parsley, and thyme. Nowadays you can also find fresh basil, coriander, mint, curry leaf, chervil, tarragon, rosemary, and dill. Since herbs are at their best when they are young and freshly picked, it is well worth growing. Condiments add sparkle and flavor to a variety of dishes. Condiments are a simple, fun way to brighten flavors and add complexity to dishes. 7.2 HERBS & ITS USES An herb is any plant that is used for its culinary, medicinal, or fragrant properties. Herbs are such a diverse group of plants that it is very difficult to separate them into logical groups. Some disguise themselves as wildflowers, some are fragrant ground covers, and some are weeds that we try to eradicate from between the pavers in our driveways. Medicinal herbs have been used for centuries. The culinary uses of herbs are as follows: 1) Palatability - The flavor and the colors make the dish more palatable. 2) Enhance flavor - Those wishing to retain flavor while reducing their intake of salt find herbs indispensable in their cooking. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 60
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 3) Improve Appearance: The appearance of the food 4) Helps in digestion – Herbs aid in digestion. 5) Cost Effective – Herbs are relatively cheaper. They are affordable by all. 6) Nutritional Benefits - Everyone benefits nutritionally when herbs are part of a recipe. For example, parsley is the third most nutritious vegetable rich in vitamin A and chlorophyll which contributes to healthy red blood cells. All fresh herbs are a healthy addition to main courses, soups, salads, and side dishes. 7.3 VARIETIES OF HERBS- Herbs Used in Asian Cooking: Chilies - There are large chilies, medium chilies, bird's eye chilies, and dried bird's eye chilies. The hotness of the chili is mostly in the pepper's inner tissues. If you are not used to cooking with chilies, cut out this part. You will still get the flavor of the chili but not the hotness. Chinese Chives - Generally, the chives that we buy are the European chives. The Chinese chive is more pungent. For cooking, the chives are bought fresh then chopped whole, flowers and all, and used in stir fries and spring rolls. Cinnamon (and Cassia Bark) - Know that what you buy in an American supermarket may not be cinnamon although it is labeled as such. It is most likely cassia bark. True cinnamon is from Sri Lanka, in Asian markets and it is labeled as 'cinnamomum zeylanicum' - for Asian cooking, purchase it in rolled up quills rather than ground - they are more flavorful and will last longer. Cassia bark is related to cinnamon and comes from other parts of the world. It is usually used in large pieces for flavoring and then it can be easily picked out of the dish. Cinnamon is always preferred for sweet dishes. Fresh Coriander (aka cilantro) - In American markets you may have to ask for fresh cilantro. The more mature plants, used in Asian cooking, are usually found in Asian supermarkets. For Thai cooking, the roots, leaves and stalks are used for green curry paste. In Indian and Chinese cooking, just the leaves are preferred. Curry Leaves - A must in Indian cooking. Can be used fresh or dried. Fenugreek - The fresh leaves are used rather extensively in Indian cooking. The dried leaves are called 'methi.' Galangal - You may see this rhizome in a market and think it is ginger. It is important to know the difference - the galangal appears to have a series of rings around it, fresh ginger is smoother. This rhizome gives an aromatic bitterness to Thai dishes and is known as 'ka' in Thai markets. Better to buy it dried. Ginger - This rhizome is very commonly known and is sold in all markets now. It is highly recommended that you use only fresh ginger - the flavor and aroma are well worth it! It is used universally in Asian cooking (nice to peel, chop and boil to scent the house, too). Golden Needles - The golden needles come from the tiger plant. They can be found in Chinese markets. Soak them in hot water before using. Kaffir Lime Leaves - These fragrant leaves are found in Thai markets. They can be used whole, or shredded and mixed into a paste. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 61
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Lemongrass - This is one of the essential ingredients in Thai cooking that is now found here in Thai markets and sometimes in specialty markets. It gives a citrus like sourness to Thai dishes. Star Anise - Easily found in American supermarkets, this dried star-shaped fruit is a member of the magnolia family. It has a pronounced aniseed flavor and can be used whole or ground. It is native to China. Thai Basil - Because there are at least 3 kinds of basil used in Thai cooking, it is important to buy the right one for your dish as they all taste different. 7.4 MEANING OF SPICES, CONDIMENTS AND USES A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavoring, and sometimes as a preservative by killing or preventing the growth of harmful bacteria. Many of these substances are also used for other purposes, such as medicine, religious rituals, cosmetics, perfumery or eating as vegetables. For example, turmeric is also used as a preservative; licorice as a medicine; garlic as a vegetable and as medicine as well. In some cases they are referred to by different terms. A condiment is generally something "extra" that is added to a food for "flavor" or taste stimulation or even for its preservative properties (like salt and vinegar). In other words, condiments are used for the taste "satisfaction" that it might provide and not for any nutritional value Uses of Spices: 1. Enhance flavor: Dishes would be insipid and bland if the spices were not added, because they give a good flavor and stimulate appetite. 2) Improve Appearance: Some of the spices give color to the food and improve appearance of the dish. Turmeric, saffron, coriander leaves, poppy seeds add color to food which makes the dish attractive and appetizing. 3) Improve palatability: The spices like coriander seeds, paprika, pepper enhances the taste of the food. 4) Act as preservative: Many foods are preserved for a longer time with the help of spices. Spices that have the preservative quality are turmeric, cloves, mustard and asafetida. Pickling is one of the forms of preserving. 5) Used for medicinal purposes: Spices are used as a remedy for various health problems. Turmeric has antiseptic properties, Saunf helps in digestion. Uses of Condiments: 1) Improve appearance: Condiments improves the appearance of the food. ―We eat with our eyes, and choosing colorful condiments can enhance the nutritional value of a routine food.‖ says a famous dietician. 2) Nutritious: Some condiments are rich in minerals, trace elements flavoring agents and essential oils. 3) Low-fat diet: Condiments can be the key to helping you stay on a low-fat diet. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 62
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4) Easy and quick to prepare food: Dark leafy greens and tomatoes added with condiments replace the mayo. Thus a quick lunch with a serving or more of vegetables and little excess fat can be served easily. 5) Adds flavor: Condiments added to foods enhance the flavor and today they are getting more compliments than ever. They used to be bit players in most meals, but as Americans seek ways to cut fat from their diets they're finding that condiments can add lots of flavor without the fat, if chosen properly. 6) Affordable: Condiments are an affordable indulgence. People tend to use them in small amounts. It can be kept in the refrigerator for a relatively long time. Affordable Condiments are an affordable indulgence. People tend to use them in small amounts. It can be kept in refrigerator for a relatively long time. 7.5 VARIETIES OF SPICES & CONDIMENTS SPICES USED IN ASIAN COOKING: Cardamoms (green) - Green cardamoms are native to Southern India but are now grown throughout tropic areas. To give a subtle flavor to a dish, remove the cardamoms before serving. Cloves - Easily found in all American supermarkets, cloves are used in most parts of Asia in both sweet, and savory dishes. Remove whole cloves before serving a dish. Coriander - Ground coriander is easily found in American supermarkets. In Asian markets it can be found in seed form. The seeds are dry-roasted before using. The ground coriander will lose its fragrance if it is stored too long. Only dry-roast what you need for a recipe. Cumin - There is white cumin and there is black cumin (Nigella). White cumin is easily found in the market both in seed form and ground. White cumin is used in Southeast Asia. It is usually roasted, ground and used in curry paste. (See black cumin, Nigella, below). Fenugreek seeds - Very popular in curry pastes in Southern Indian cooking. Five-spice - It usually consists of: cassia, star anise, fennel seeds, anise pepper, some may have cloves as one of the ingredients. This mix is known for being aromatic and not hot. Nigella - Nigella is black cumin. Indian cooks usually prefer this cumin to the white cumin. It too, is found in seed form and is then usually roasted, ground, and mixed in curry paste. Seven-spice - Seven-spice is also known as Japanese shichimi. It is a blend of fragrant spices that include: tangerine peel, poppy and sesame seeds and seaweed flakes. A hot blend of Seven-spice would include ginger and sansho pepper. Turmeric - the warm yellow color of this spice makes us think of saffron - but it definitely cannot be a substitute. Turmeric is sold all over the US and adds a distinctive flavor to Asian festival dishes. ● Barbecue Sauce (also abbreviated BBQ sauce): It is a liquid flavoring sauce or condiment ranging from watery to quite thick. As the name implies, it was created as an accompaniment to barbecued foods. While it can be applied to any food, it usually tops meat after cooking or during barbecuing, grilling, or baking. Traditionally it has been a favored sauce for pork or beef ribs and chicken. On Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 63
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester rarer occasions, it is used for dipping items like fries, as well as a replacement for tomato sauce in barbecue-style pizzas. ● Soy Sauce: Soy sauce is made from soybeans that have been fermented and salted. It's used throughout Asia, with different regions producing quite different variations. Japanese soy sauce (shoyu) is sweeter and less salty than Chinese soy sauce. Chinese soy sauce is primarily made from soybeans, with relatively low amounts of other grains. There are two main varieties: Light or fresh soy sauce: A thin (as in non-viscous), opaque, dark brown soy sauce. It is the main soy sauce used for seasoning, since it is saltier, but it also adds flavor. Since it is lighter in color, it does not greatly affect the color of the dish. Dark/old soy: A darker and slightly thicker soy sauce that is aged longer and contains added molasses to give its distinctive appearance. This variety is mainly used during cooking since its flavor develops under heating. Brown Sauce: Brown sauce (meat stock based) is a sauce based upon meat stock, found in French, Danish, Icelandic, Norwegian and Finnish cuisines. Steak sauce (more commonly known as brown sauce in many countries) is a spiced condiment containing fruits and vinegar. ● Duck Sauce: Duck sauce is an orange-hued Chinese American condiment used in Chinese American cuisine as a dip for deep-fried dishes, such as spring rolls, egg rolls, noodles, and deepfried chicken balls. Duck Sauce is almost certainly an American invention, as it is virtually unknown in authentic Chinese cuisine. It is made from sweet plums or other fruit such as peach or apricot, sugar, vinegar, ginger, and chili pepper. It is also commonly referred to as plum sauce. ● Chinese mustard: Mustard is most often used as a condiment on meat, especially cold meats. It is also used as an ingredient in mayonnaise and vinaigrette, in marinades and barbecue sauce. It can also be used as a base for salad dressing when combined with vinegar and/or olive oil. Mustard is a popular accompaniment to hot dogs and Bratwurst. Dry mustard, typically sold in tins, is used in cooking and can be mixed with water to become prepared mustard. ● Tomato Paste: Tomato paste is a thick paste made from ripened tomatoes with skin and seeds removed. Depending on its manufacturing conditions, it can be used to make either ketchup or reconstituted tomato juice. Its most common culinary usage is as a pizza sauce base, but it is also used in small quantities to enrich the flavor of sauces, particularly tomato sauce. It is most commonly available in tin cans and squeeze tubes. ● Tomato puree: Tomato purée can be used in soups, stews, sauces, or any other dish where the tomato flavor is desired, but not the texture. It is often deprecated by professional chefs, who find it to have an overly cooked flavor compared to other forms of canned tomatoes. ● Mint Sauce: Mint sauce is a sauce made from finely chopped mint leaves, soaked in vinegar, and a small amount of sugar. Occasionally the juice from a squeezed lime is added. The sauce should have the consistency of double cream. In British and Irish cuisine it is Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 64
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester traditionally used as an accompaniment to roast lamb or, in some areas, mushy peas. Mint sauce can sometimes be used in recipes in place of fresh mint, for instance it can be added to yoghurt to make a mint raita. Worcestershire Sauce: It is a widely used fermented liquid condiment. Worcestershire sauce is often an ingredient of Caesar Salad and can be used as steak sauce. Welsh rarebit is a combination of cheese, mustard, Worcestershire sauce, and other ingredients, frequently eaten with bread, toast or crackers. Marylanders often use this sauce in their famous crab cakes. ● Chutney (Chatni): Chutney is a term for a variety of sweet and spicy condiments, originally from the Indian subcontinent. Chutney, as a genre, is often similar to the salsa of Latin American cuisine, or European relish insofar as it usually involves a fresh, chopped primary vegetable / fruit with seasonings added, to be used as a condiment for another food. Chutney may be dry or wet; dry chutney is generally in the form of powder. In India, chutney is often made to be eaten fresh, using whatever suitable strongly flavored ingredients are locally traditional or available at the time. Many authentic types of chutney contain significant amounts of fresh green chili peppers; the other main ingredient can be any of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. Most vegetable chutneys are prepared cold in a blender, while many fruit chutneys do require cooking. Popular chutneys include: Coconut chutney; Onion chutney; Tomato chutney; Coriander (Cilantro) and/or mint chutney (both are often called Hari chutney, where 'Hari' is Hindi for 'Green'); Tamarind chutney (Imli chutney); Mango chutney (made from unripe, green mangos); Lime chutney (made from whole, unripe limes); Garlic chutney made from fresh garlic, coconut and groundnut; Green tomato chutney. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 65
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 7.6 LESSON SUMMARY Herbs have a variety of uses including culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual usage. Herbs are flavoring agents used for enriching or altering the flavor or odor of foods. Different herbs have different uses. Also different parts of the plant are used. It might be leaves, seeds, fruits, buds, barks, or roots. A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavoring, and sometimes as a preservative by killing or preventing the growth of harmful bacteria. Herbs and spices are used to improve appearance, enhance flavor, make the food more palatable, and used as preservatives. A condiment is a prepared edible substance or mixture, often preserved or fermented, that is added in variable quantities, most often at the table, to make food more suitable to the diner's taste. 7.7 KEY WORDS Culinary - cooking, cookery, gastronomic, Fragrant – aromatic, sweet-smelling, scented Disguise – costume, camouflage, concealing outfit Rhizome – bulb, tuber, corm Insipid – dull, colorless, unexciting Sansho - A mildly hot Japanese seasoning made from the aromatic berries of the prickly ash tree, which are dried and ground into a powder Shichimi- is a common Japanese spice mixture containing seven ingredients. Barbecuing – grill, roast, and cook on a spit Molasses - is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar cane, grapes or sugar beets into sugar 7.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is Herbs and discuss its uses in cookery? 2. Name the various herbs used in Asian cooking? 3. What is Spices and condiments, Discuss its uses in cookery? 4. Name the various spices used in Asian cooking? 5. What are the different Condiments used in cookery? 7.9 REFERENCES 1. K.T. Farrell, Spices, Condiments and Seasonings, Springer. 2. K.V. Peter, Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Wood head publishing. 3. Henry B. Heath, Source Book of Flavors, Springer. 4. Kenji Hirasa, Mitsuo Takemasa , Spice Science and Technology, CRC Press Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 66
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT- 8 SANDWICHES CONTENTS 8.0 Objectives 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Sandwiches 8.3 Types of Sandwiches 8.4 Types of Spread & filling 8.5 Preparation of Sandwich 8.6 Lesson Summary 8.7 Key Words 8.8 Questions to Solve 8.9 References 8.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Sandwiches and their types ◘Types of Breads used in making sandwiches ◘ Types of Fillings used in making sandwiches ◘ Preparation of sandwiches 8.1 INTRODUCTION Sandwiches are popular in today‘s culture. They are easy to make and eat practically anywhere and can be as fancy or as simple as we like. A sandwich is the most innovative and versatile food, which are acceptable on every occasion. Open or closed, single or decked, flat or rolled, sweet or savory, hot or cold there are sandwiches with fillings and toppings which will take a life time to describe. 8.2 SANDWICHES Sandwiches are popular in today‘s culture. They are easy to make and eat practically anywhere and can be as fancy or as simple as we like. A sandwich is the most innovative and versatile food, which are acceptable on every occasion. Open or closed, single or decked, flat or rolled, sweet or savory, hot or cold there are Sandwiches with fillings and toppings which will take a life time to describe. Traditionally sandwiches were two slices of bread and butter with filling of anything like vegetables and non-vegetable items. But now a days many types of breads such as local and continental, flavored butters and varieties of fillings both hot and cold are used. Now day‘s sandwiches are prepared according to the texture, color and different types of garnishes are used. The vegetables used are lettuce, tomatoes, cucumber, watercress, parsley, mustard and cress, spring onion, radishes and pickled gherkins. 8.3 TYPES OF SANDWICHES 1. Toasted sandwiches Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 67
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Toasted sandwiches are made by inserting a variety of savory fillings between two slices of fresh butter toast. Club sandwiches This is prepared by placing bacon, fried egg, mayonnaise, etc. on two sliced of buttered toast. Book maker sandwiches Minute steak is placed in between two slices of buttered toast. Double decks sandwiches Toasted and un-toasted bread can be made with suitable fillet by using three slices of bread with separate filling. Open sandwiches This is prepared from a single buttered slice of any bread garnished with any type of meat, fish, vegetables, etc. Conventional sandwiches These are also called closed or lunch box sandwiches. They can be served for any occasion and consist of two slices of bread (white or brown) spread with a flavored butter and filled with slices of seasoned meat, cheese, eggs, poultry, game, fish or shellfish. Certain meats like cooked ham may be coated with pickle or chutney. It is cut into triangular shape. Buffet sandwiches These care also known as reception sandwiches and are served on buffets and receptions. They consist of two slices of bread (white or brown) spread with flavored butter and filled with patted fish or meat, Slices of seasoned meat, cheese, eggs, poultry, game, fish or shell fish. Meat such as ham is coated with pickle or chutney, while others may be flavored with mayonnaise. The breads are cut into squares, triangular or round. Tea sandwiches These are served for afternoon tea and consist of two thin slices of white or brown bread, a plain butter, a light filling of thinly sliced cucumber, creamed and dry cheeses, pickles, sliced hard boiled eggs, meat or fish spreads, tomatoes, jam or thinly sliced fruits. The breads are cut into a variety of shapes like buffet sandwiches and are garnished accordingly. Pinwheel sandwiches These sandwiches are made from loaves of brown or white bread sliced thinly lengthways which are spread with butter and filing. The fillings should be thin slices of meat, fish, vegetables or cheese. The sandwich roll is then sliced into individual wheels. Open sandwiches These sandwiches are served as lunch time snacks or on buffets. Ordinary bread is also used. Flavored bread may be used and filled with slices of seasoned meat, cheese, eggs, poultry, game, fish, shellfish, fruits, pickles, chutney, plain or flavored tomato, and mayonnaise. The items of food are arranged on the slices of bread in a decorative manner and are served on a suitably sized serving flat or straight on to a plate, without covering. Continental sandwiches It is also known as French sandwiches. It is also served as lunchtime snacks. They are made with French stick cut in half length-wise, which are spread with Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 68
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 12. 13. flavored butter. They are filled with seasoned meat, cheese, eggs, poultry, game, fish or shellfish. Certain meats like cooked ham may be coated with a pickle or chutney while other meats and fish may be flavored with a thin spreading of plain or flavored tomato, mayonnaise. They are garnished with prepared springs of parsley. Hot sandwiches Hot sandwiches consist of a single or variety of fillings placed between two or more slices of toasted brown or white bread, spread lightly with butter, mayonnaise. The crust is usually removed and the sandwich cut into four triangles. They sandwich is served in most catering establishments and fillings can vary from scrambled egg, bacon and fried egg, cooked ham and cheese to the more traditional fillings of chicken breast and minute steak. Canapés It is served on buffets and receptions. They are not really sandwiches, but are made with a variety of thin sliced toast, crackers, cheese, biscuits. The fillings include meat, cheese, eggs, poultry, game, fish or shellfish. They are flavored with piped plain or flavored tomato, tartar or anchovy, mayonnaise and colored butter. 8.4 TYPES OF SPREAD & FILLING Types of Spread: There are three commonly used spreads used in sandwich making. They are peanut butter, margarine butter and plain or salted. Fillings to Flavor Sandwiches: Butter / mayonnaise, Different types of meat –shredded chicken, sliced beef, etc., Eggs in a variety of styles (hot and cold) – egg mayonnaise, sliced egg, etc., Different types of fish – tuna, salmon, etc., Cheeses, Pulses & seeds, Dressings and sauces 8.5 PREPARATION OF SANDWICH ■ Chicken sandwiches ~ Ingredients 1/4th kg chicken (boneless) 1 onion (finely chopped) 1 tsp garlic paste 1 tsp ginger paste 200 gms. mayonnaise 3 tsp butter 1/2 small cup cheese (grated) A pinch of cinnamon A pinch of powdered cloves Salt and pepper to taste ~ Method- Clean the chicken and boil it in a saucepan full of water, along with the onion, garlic paste, ginger paste, black pepper, cloves, cinnamon and salt. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 69
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Cover the saucepan within which the chicken is boiling, and in a separate bowl, thoroughly mix the mayonnaise, grated cheese, butter, salt, sugar and pepper, till a smooth paste is obtained. Once the chicken is well cooked, strain off the stock (it can be used to make clear soup) and shred it well. Add the shredded chicken to the mayonnaise batter. Using a butter knife spread the chicken and mayonnaise onto a large slice of bread and places another slice on top. Your chicken sandwich is now ready to eat -- the sandwich can even be grilled, if desired. Serve with ketchup. ■ Club Sandwich Ingredients: ½ Cup Mayonnaise 1 Tablespoon Hot Dijon Mustard 12-14 Slices Whole Cracked Wheat Bread 1 Head Lettuce 8-10 Slices American cheese ½ Pound Deli Style Ham ½ Pound Deli Style Turkey 1 Large Tomato, Sliced 8-10 Slices Cooked Bacon Cooking Directions: These Club Sandwiches are served Great cold or toasted. Add mayo and hot mustard to a mixing bowl and blend. Spread mixture evenly over each piece of bread. To assemble these wonderful sandwiches layer 1 slice of toast mayo side up. 1 leaf lettuce, 1 slice cheese, 2 slices ham, 1-2 slices tomato, 1 slice bread mayo side down, 1 slice cheese, 2-3 slices turkey, 2 slices cooked bacon, 1 leaf lettuce and finally top with the last piece of toast mayo side down. Secure all club sandwiches with toothpicks and cut diagonally. ■ Spicy Mexican Sandwich Ingredients: 3 Pounds Boneless Beef Roast ½ Cup Onion, Chopped 5 Garlic Cloves, Minced 1 Jar Plicate Salsa 4 Teaspoons Chili Powder 1 Teaspoon Granulated Sugar ½ Teaspoon Cayenne Pepper Hamburger Buns Cooking Directions: Preheat your oven to 325 degrees. Place your roast in a large Dutch oven. Sprinkle with onions and garlic. Cover and bake for 3 hours or until the meat shreds easily. Remove the roast reserving the drippings. Once cool, shred the beef with a fork or your fingers. Now place all shredded pork along with all other ingredients back into the pan with drippings. Cook over medium heat stirring occasionally until the shredded beef is heated thru. Serve on onion or regular hamburger buns. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 70
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 8.6 LESSON SUMMARY A sandwich is a food item typically made of two or more slices of leavened bread with one or more layers of meat, seafood, vegetables, cheese or jam or butter. The bread can be used as is, or it can be coated with butter, oil, or other optional or traditional condiments and sauces to enhance flavor and texture. The slices of bread are stacked neatly, resting on a crust of bread. They are then buttered (unless this has been done before each slice is cut) and the prepared fillings are added, so the complete loaf is made into long sandwiches. If they are to be kept for any length of time the crusts are replaced and the loaf wrapped in clean cloth, greaseproof paper or foil. When required for service the sandwiches are easily and quickly cut into any required size or shape, neatly dressed on a doily on a flat dish and sprinkled with washed and drained mustard cress. 8.7 KEY WORDS Watercress- A Eurasian herb of the mustard family growing in freshwater ponds and streams used in salads as a garnish. Gherkins - The gherkin is a fruit similar in form and nutritional value to a cucumber. Gherkins and cucumbers belong to the same species Anchovy- Anchovies are a family of small, common salt-water forage fish, found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans 8.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is a Sandwich, Describe? 2. Name the different types of Sandwiches? 3. What types of Filling and spread are used in Sandwich? 4. Write few recipes of Sandwich? 5. Write the difference between a canapés & Pinwheel Sandwich? 8.9 REFERENCES 1. Handbook for future chef, by Ashutosh Brahmbhatt 2. Xenia Burgtorf , Sandwiches, Silverback Books. 3. Rose Dunnington, Super Sandwiches, Lark Books. 4. Louise Steele, the Book of Sandwiches, HP Books. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 71
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 72
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 73
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 74
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT- 9 VEGETABLE FRUIT & NUTS CONTENTS 9.0 Objectives 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Vegetables 9.3 Types of Vegetables 9.4 Cooking of Vegetables 9.4.1 Baking 9.4.2 Boiling 9.4.3 Steaming 9.4.4 Stir Fry 9.4.5 Frying 9.4.6 Microwave Cooking 9.5 Fruits 9.6 Types of fruits 9.7 Nuts 9.8 Variety of Nuts 9.9 Lesson Summary 9.10 Key Words 9.11 Questions to Solve 9.12 References 9.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Vegetables and their types ◘Methods of cooking vegetables ◘Fruits and their types ◘Nuts and varieties of nuts 9.1 INTRODUCTION Any herbaceous plant or plant part which is regularly eaten as food by humans would normally be considered to be a vegetable. Vegetables are very often eaten cooked. Some, such as potato, are never eaten raw, but many such as carrots, bell peppers and celery are quite commonly eaten either raw or cooked. Vegetables are brimming and overflowing with fibre, and also a whole range of vitamins, anti-oxidants, minerals and many other protective ingredients, and are also low in calories. Fruits are the matured ovaries of flowers, containing the seeds for the next generation of plants. Many plants cunningly make their fruits sweet, the better to attract animals like us to eat them and disperse the seeds. Fruits are often delicious enough to eat out of hand, but they can also be made into tarts, compotes, shakes, juices, preserves, liqueurs, and many other things. A nut in cuisine is a much less restrictive but vital. Any large, oily kernel found within a shell and used in food may be regarded as a nut. Because nuts generally have high oil content, they are a highly prized food and energy source. A large number of seeds are edible and used in cooking, eaten raw, sprouted, or roasted or deep fried in oil for use as a snack food, or pressed for oil that is used in cookery. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 75
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 9.2 VEGETABLES Any herbaceous plant or plant part which is regularly eaten as food by humans would normally be considered to be a vegetable. Vegetables are very often eaten cooked. Some, such as potato, are never eaten raw, but many such as carrots, bell peppers and celery are quite commonly eaten either raw or cooked. Vegetables are brimming and overflowing with fibre, and also a whole range of vitamins, anti-oxidants, minerals and many other protective ingredients, and are also low in calories. Vegetables are good if we are taking it for cooking direct from the soil (or) garden. Well-grown vegetables should usually tender and free from pest. Fresh vegetables are very good for health and diet as fresh vegetables are full of vitamins and carbohydrates. Vegetables are generally classified into three division and they are: 1. Root vegetables 2. Leafy vegetables 3. Other vegetables, which grow above the soil. For catering purposes vegetables grown above the ground are referred as green vegetables and vegetables, which grow below the ground, are referred as root vegetables. 9.3 TYPES OF VEGETABLES The details about above-mentioned three types of vegetables are as under: 1. Root vegetables Root vegetables should be firm and heavy for their size. They should be firm mud and dust. E.g.: Carrots, turnips, beetroot, and radish. 2. Leafy vegetables Leafy vegetables are those vegetables, which should be crisp and give crunchy sound when squeezing. E.g.: spinach, lettuce, water cress. 3. Other vegetables, which grow above soil The vegetables, which grow above soil, are soft, smooth skin, and should show the freshness. E.g.: Mushrooms, cucumber, pumpkin, tomato, celery, asparagus, beans. Differentiation of vegetables 1. Roots - Carrots, horseradish, beetroot and turnips. 2. Bulbous roots - Onions, shallots, leeks, garlic. 3. Tubers - Potatoes, Jerusalem, artichoke, kachaloo. 4. Flowers - Cauliflower, broccoli, globe artichokes. 5. Leaves - Cabbage, lettuce, spinach, watercress, sarson. 6. Fruits - Cucumber, tomatoes, beans, peas, pulses, pumpkin, tindas, lauki. 7. Stem - Celery, rhubarb, seakale, chicory, asparagus. 9.4 COOKING OF VEGETABLES Vegetables can be cooked with many different cooking methods with varying results. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 76
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 9.4.1 BAKING is a method appropriate with vegetables with high moisture content, which will turn to steam in the dry heat of an oven. Potatoes, sweet potatoes, squashes, eggplant, tomatoes, and onions are ideal for baking, which actually enhances the flavor of these vegetables. Baking a vegetable with a skin intact, such as with baked potatoes, keeps nutrient loss to a minimum. Vegetables can be baked plain or as a combination dish such as "Eggplant Parmesan" as in the photo. One's imagination is the only limiting factor as to recipes for baking vegetable dishes. 9.4.2 BOILING is a fast method of cooking vegetables with special considerations. Keep the water and cooking to a minimum for most vegetables to maintain the best flavor, color, texture, and nutrient retention. STEPS FOR BOILING: 1. Add water to a heavy saucepan. Use as little water as possible. Spinach, for example, requires only the water clinging to the leaves after washing. Peas and green beans require only enough water to cover the bottom of the pan, but not cover the vegetable. Longer cooking vegetables like a whole head of cauliflower require more water, but not enough to completely cover the vegetable. Using the minimum amount of water retains water-soluble nutrients. 2. Bring water to a boil and add the vegetable. 3. Bring the water back to a boil. Keep the pan cover off for the first few minutes to allow the volatile acids to escape. Then cover the pan and turn down the heat so that the water barely simmers. 4. All vegetables are finished cooking when they are fork tender. Most vegetables require only about 10 minutes of cooking. Overcooking makes the vegetable mushy and leaches out nutrients. 5. Mashed Potatoes: Cook the potatoes until fork tender in lightly salted and boiling water. Avoid overcooking, since the potato cells will burst and the resulting mashed potatoes will be runny and watery. Drain the water, and mash the potatoes with a potato masher, potato ricer, or hand-held electric mixer. Avoid over beating with a powerful electric mixer, since over beating will also burst the potato cells. When the potatoes are smooth and free of most lumps, beat in margarine or butter, and milk or chicken broth. Add a small amount of liquid at a time until the potatoes are firm, not runny, and a mound of mashed potatoes will hold its shape when spooned onto a plate. Adjust the seasoning to taste. Pile into a serving bowl and add a pat of butter or margarine and a dash of paprika, if desired. 9.4.3 STEAMING is an acceptable and desirable method of cooking many vegetables since steaming retains many water-soluble nutrients. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 77
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester However, heat will still destroy some nutrients. Steaming will intensify the green color of the chlorophyll pigment of vegetables such as broccoli. STEPS OF STEAMING: 1. Add about one inch or less of water in the bottom of a heavy saucepan. Bring to a boil. 2. Evenly arrange the vegetable pieces in the steamer basket. Insert the basket into the saucepan so that the vegetables are not immersed in the water. Once again, bring the water to a boil, keeping the pan uncovered for a few minutes so the volatile acids can escape. 3. Place the cover on the saucepan to contain the steam within the steamer and turn the heat down so the water is simmering, not boiling. Cook until the vegetables are fork tender, about 10 to 14 minutes. Since the vegetable should not be in direct contact with the water and is cooked by steam, the required time is longer than it would be with direct contact with the water. 9.4.4 STIR FRYING is a popular way of preparing many vegetables, especially vegetable combination dishes. Stir frying is a quick cooking method that maintains much of the nutrient value, color, and texture. For best results, cut the vegetables into small, bite-sized pieces for rapid and even cooking. Keep the amount of oil in the wok or pan to a minimum to decrease greasiness. Steam will form with the stir frying and will thereby assist in the cooking of the vegetables. STEPS OF STIR FRYING: 1. Place the wok or heavy fry pan over high heat. The heat under a wok will be more uniform and more controlled if the wok ring is placed over the burner and under the wok. Add a very small amount of cooking oil that has a high smoke point to prevent acrolein production. For example, use peanut oil or commercial oil that is adapted for frying. Heat the oil until it is hot and looks wavy when very gently jiggled. Avoid over heating the wok and the oil and always attend the wok while heating the oil. Do not leave the cooking area while stir frying! 2. Quickly add all the vegetable at once and begin to stir with a long-handled metal, wood, or heat-resistant plastic spoon or spatula. Lift the vegetable pieces from the bottom of the wok and fold them onto the top. Continue to stir in this manner until the vegetables are just tender. The shape of the wok provides a large hot cooking surface for quick cooking. The lifting and folding over of the food items keeps the food from remaining in contact with the hot metal for extended periods of time and therefore, prevents overcooking. 3. Remove the vegetables from the wok or pan with a slotted spoon. The slots or holes in the spoon allow the cooking oil to drop back into the pan. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 78
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 9.4.5 FRYING is a fairly quick cooking method for vegetables with high nutrient retention, but also increased calories from the retained cooking oil. Vegetables, such as eggplant slices, can be fried in a small amount of hot oil in a fry pan. Small pieces of vegetables, often dipped in a batter such as with Japanese Tempura, can be deep fat fried. STEPS OF FRYING: 1. Heat enough cooking oil to cover the bottom of a fry pan until the oil is hot and wavy, if very gently jiggled. Heat the oil in a deep fat fryer until it reaches 350ºF (175ºC) to 375º F (190ºC). The fat must be hot to quickly cook the food with a minimum of fat absorption. 2. Slice the vegetables for pan-frying into thin slices so the inside of the slice will be cooked as soon as the outside surface is browned. Cut the vegetables for deep fat frying into small bite-sized pieces for quick frying with minimal fat absorption. Dip the sliced vegetables in breading, if desired, for moisture retention, flavor development, and even browning. 3. Add the vegetables to the hot oil and cook over medium heat until golden brown on one side. Turn the vegetable over and cook the other side. Cook until the vegetables are fork tender and any breading is a medium golden brown. Avoid over cooking: Overcooking will increase fat absorption. 4. Drain the excess fat from the vegetable either by lifting the basket of food out of the deep fat frying oil or by lifting the slice of vegetable out of the pan of oil with a slotted spatula. Further drain on absorbent paper such as paper towels to remove any remaining excess oil. MICROWAVE COOKING is a quick, easy, and appropriate method of cooking most vegetables. They will cook more quickly than with most other cooking methods in little or no added water, therefore retaining nutrients, color, and texture. Vegetables can be cooked in a microwave whole, such as whole cauliflower, or as small pieces, such as cut green beans. One's imagination is the only limiting factor and original or unusual combination dishes can be devised, such as squash halves filled with spiced apple slices or various stuffed mushrooms. STEPS OF MICROWAVING VEGETABLES: The basic cooking steps for microwaving vegetables vary with the type of vegetable desired, but there are still a few basic pointers to remember. They include: 1. Add as little water as possible. Green beans and a whole cauliflower, for example, may need some additional water, while fresh spinach leaves and a whole winter squash do not need any additional water. 2. Cover the pan with wax paper or plastic wrap to increase cooking speed. For long-term cooking items, such as whole cauliflower, prick a few holes in the plastic wrap with a fork or knife tip or "crack" the corner of the plastic warp by pulling it back away from the corner. This will prevent excess stem build-up, which causes the plastic wrap to melt. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 79
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 3. Smaller or tendered parts of vegetables, such as asparagus tips, should point to the middle of the dish with the thicker parts, such as asparagus stems, should point out. This will ensure that the vegetable cooks as evenly as possible. 4. Turn large vegetable pieces, such as whole cauliflower or squash, several times during the cooking process for even cooking. Stir small pieces, such as green peas, a couple times during the cooking process for even cooking. This applies to all microwave ovens, including ones with revolving turntables. 5. Do not overcook. Most vegetables cooked in the microwave oven require about half the time necessary with boiling the same vegetable or a fraction of the time required with oven baking. 9.5 FRUITS In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds. The section of a fungus that produces spores is also called a fruiting body. The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, juniper berries and bananas. Seed-associated structures that do not fit these informal criteria are usually called by other names, such as vegetables, pods, nuts, ears and cones. A fruit is generally a fleshy seed associated part of a particular plant; it is naturally and mostly edible and sweet in the raw state. By and large each and everyone in this world love fruit, though there are exceptions, we still will have a majority of folks who love fruits. It is something which has both taste and nutrients. 9.6 Types of Fruits Fruit provides a dazzling array of vitamins and minerals; it contains fibre and is low-fat. A - Apples - the most popular of all fruits and generally available all year round. Perfect for eating raw as a snack and an ideal for making puddings and desserts. Apricots - delicious when ripe, provide beta carotene and a rich source of minerals and vitamin A. Avocado- the only fruit that contains fat (monounsaturated fat). Avocados are best eaten raw, slice or add to salad. B - Bananas - the best-known tropical fruit and one of the extremely nutritious and versatile fruit. Rich in potassium, riboflavin, niacin and dietary fibre, they have high energy value and good for growing children and athletes. Excellent for lowsalt, low-fat and cholesterol-free diets. Hundreds of different varieties of banana flourish in the tropics from sweet yellow pygmy to large fibrous plantains and green bananas which can only be used for cooking. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 80
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester C - Cherries - Sweet cherries can be eaten raw, stewed or in tarts and cakes remember to buy cherries with their stings on and use any without the stem first as they don't last long. Cherries are very high in vitamin C and potassium and also contain fibre. Custard Apples - Custard apple have thick scaly skin and a soft, smooth flesh with inedible seeds. They are picked before they are fully ripe, so allow 4-5 days for firm fruit to ripe. Good source of vitamin C, fibre, magnesium and potassium. D - Dates - are extremely delicious, it supply significant amount of iron making them an excellent food for anemia or chronic fatigue. They contain more natural sugar than any other fruit. Durian - Despite the fruit's disgusting smell, when ripe the flavor of the flesh, is the most delicious of tropical fruits. The fruit is eaten fresh and chilled, scooped out using a spoon and discarding the seeds. The rich custard flesh can be eaten just as it is or pureed to make ice cream or milk shakes. The flesh is also used for making jam and cakes and is available canned. Fruits are nature's most bountiful and versatile creation. No other foods offer such a variety of colors, texture, scents and flavors. F -Figs - oval or pear shaped, it can be eaten fresh or dried. They are well known for their laxative and digestive properties. Their high natural sugar content makes them the sweetest of all fruits. The flavor varies depending on where they were grown and how ripe they are. G- Grapefruits - One of the largest citrus fruit, a cross between the pomelo and the shaddock. High in vitamin C, grapefruits are best eaten raw, a traditional breakfast fruit - the best way to eat is to cut them in half and scoop out the flesh with a spoon. Grapes - have been used in wine making for thousand of years and red wine is known to help prevent heart disease. A great energy source because of their natural fruit sugar content. Guavas - delicious eaten raw, the whole fruit is edible an average-sized guava contains about seven times the recommended daily intake of vitamin C. Guava also provides vitamin A and is high in fibre. J - Jackfruit - when unripe both seeds and the flesh are eaten as vegetables. Ripe fruit maybe eaten on its own or added to fruit salad. K- Kiwifruit - are best eaten uncooked, the easiest way to eat is to cut the fruit in half and scoop the flesh out of the skin with a spoon or you can peel and cut into cubes or slices. Kumquat - (cumquat) the name means "golden orange" in Chinese. Kumquats are often preserved in sweet syrup and used for marmalade and garnishes, but fresh ones are delicious in fruit salads or for eating just as they are. L- Lemons -rarely eaten on its own, lemons are indispensable ingredients in the kitchen. Lemon juice can be used instead of vinegar in sauces, for seasoning in vinaigrette and as instant dressing for fish and shellfish. The best way to store lemon is in the vegetable crisper in the fridge you can put lemons in fruit bowl for a shorter, check them often - if one starts to spoil, the rest will quickly follow. Limes - are only green because they are picked unripe but if left to ripen they turn yellow. Limes can be used like lemons but as a juice is more acidic, usually less is needed. To make the juice flow more, you can microwave the limes for 2-3 seconds before squeezing. Mostly used in drinks (lime cordials) and in cooking. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 81
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Lychees- fresh lychees are best eaten raw as a refreshing end to a meal. Simply remove the shells, then nibble or suck the flesh off the stone. Rich in Vitamin C. M- Mandarins - or tangerines named after the city of Tangier in Morocco - a citrus fruit that is actually a variety of orange. Always choose deep orange to orange-red fruits, heavy for their size with bright luster. Loose skin is normal but avoids fruits with punctures, mould soft spots or very pale skins. Mangoes - grows in many tropical climates worldwide, The fruit ranges in color from green to golden yellow and orange red and its flesh is a juicy, deep orange surrounding a large flat inedible stone. Mangoes also make excellent ice creams, sorbets, sauces and drinks like smoothies. Mangosteen - contrary to its name, the mangosteen doesn't resemble or taste like the mango. It resemble like an apple- having a short stem and four thick leaf-like bracts which form a rosette encasing the brownish-purple fruit. N -Nectarine - the flesh is rich, sweet and juicy and is well suited for eating fresh and for using in ice cream, pies and fruit salads. Color ranges from silvery white or yellowy orange to pinkish red. The white-fleshed varieties are considered the best and usually the most expensive. Nectarines are often described as a cross between a peach and a plum but nectarines are actually a variety of smooth-skinned peach. O- Oranges- are best eaten in their natural state but can be used in variety of desserts, pastries, fruit salads, mousses, soufflés, ice creams and sorbets. They can be squeezed for juice or used to marinade poultry or fish. Oranges fall into two groups, sweet oranges which can be eaten raw and bitter oranges which cannot but are used for making marmalade, jams and jellies. Fresh fruit makes a nutritious, low-kilojoules breakfast food or snack and often provides much needed dietary fibre. P- Passion fruit- The most popular variety is the purple passion fruit about the size of a chicken egg. It has a highly fragrant, sweet, but slightly tart, tasting fruit can be spooned out and eaten fresh or added to fruit salad, Pavlov, it makes a very popular drink, ice cream and sorbets and a flavoring for all kinds of desserts. Papaya- or pawpaw, a large tropical fruit whose ripe flesh can be juicy, creamy, orange red or yellow. In the centre is a mass of large peppery black seeds which are edible and sometimes crushed and used as a spice. Ripe papaya is eaten as a breakfast fruit or as a dessert. It can be pureed for ice cream, sorbets and iced drinks. Peaches- the most familiar peaches are round or "beaked" with a pointed and they are seldom sold by variety but by color of their flesh- yellow or white. Which you choose is a matter of preference; some people believe that white peaches have the finer flavor. Peaches are delicious eaten on its own or in fruit salad. Pears - contain a small amount of vitamin A & C and some potassium and riboflavin. Pears should always be bought when they are in perfect condition as they deteriorate quickly. Persimmons - the fruit of a tree originally from Japan, persimmons are now widely grown in all parts of the world. Resembling a tomato in appearance, the fruit is round and smooth-skinned, changing from yellow to red when it ripens. Eat as a dessert in fruit salads, in baking or in preserves. Pineapple - Derived from the Spanish word 'pina' meaning pine cone. Pineapples have a juicy, sweet-but sometimes slightly tart-fragrant flavor. They are best eaten fresh; serve Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 82
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester pineapple flesh in slices, wedges or chunks. It is also available in cans, dried and glace. A good source of vitamin C. Plums - contains more antioxidant than any other fruit. Plums are delicate so make sure that the one you buy are unblemished and they should be plump and firm. The small sugar plum is dried to make prunes. Delicious stewed, plums are also ideal for making chutneys. Pomegranates- an exotic looking fruit about the size of a large apple, with a thin tough skin- usually golden to deep red, filled with edible seeds in crimson pulp. To use, cut the fruit in half with a very sharp knife and scoop out the tangy sweet seeds, separate them from the white pith and eat them fresh. Can be added to salads, use as a garnish on sweet and savory dishes or press to extract juice. Pomelo - a small citrus tree native to tropical Asia and the tropical world. Similar to grapefruit but larger and with a very thick rind. The rind comes off readily making segmenting the fruit easy. The flesh varies from yellow to pink and it is generally sweeter than and not as tart as grapefruit. R -Rambutans- the fruit grows in cluster, with a deep crimson outer skin. The flesh is translucent and the pale seed is edible when young. Related to lychees and are sometimes known as "hairy lychees".(about 5cm / 2inches in diameter) and look quite different but have a similar texture. They can be added to salads, can be made into jams or jellies but are best eaten on their own. S- Sapodillas - a tropical fruit with rough, brown skin but are sweet and luscious like vanilla flavored banana custard. Make sure the fruit is soft and thoroughly ripe as unripe flesh can be quite bitter. Star apple- The fruits are green to purple with a smooth skin. When sliced horizontally the flesh is translucent white with the seeds forming a star shape. It is best eaten ripe, scooped straight from the skin. It is ripe when soft and should be eaten immediately, but it is still alright to refrigerate for a few days. Strawberries- A unique fruit, the seeds grow around the outside of the fruit rather than inside, It Comes in many different sizes, colors and shapes, ranging from conical to oval or heart-shaped, Best to eat on their own or with natural yoghurt. Use in desserts, fruit salads, preserves or in milk shakes. T- Tamarillos - related to tomatoes and sometimes called "tree tomatoes", they are the size of an egg tomato with dark red skin and the fruit has a strong sweet flavor suitable for both sweet and savory dishes. It can be used in jams, chutneys and sorbets. W - Watermelon - the high water content of watermelons means that they are low in calories. They contain some vitamins B and C. Watermelon is excellent juiced, chopped in fruit salad or just eaten in chunky slices. 9.7 Nuts A nut is a hard-shelled fruit of some plants having an indehiscent seed. While a wide variety of dried seeds and fruits are called nuts in English, only a certain number of them are considered by biologists to be true nuts. Nuts are an important source of nutrients for both humans and wildlife. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 83
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Nuts are a composite of the seed and the fruit, where the fruit does not open to release the seed. Most seeds come from fruits, and the seeds are free of the fruit, unlike nuts such as hazelnuts, hickories, chestnuts and acorns, which have a stony fruit wall and originate from a compound ovary. Culinary usage of the term is less restrictive, and some nuts as defined in food preparation, like pistachios and Brazil nuts, are not nuts in a biological sense. Everyday common usage of the term often refers to any hard-walled, edible kernel as a nut. Because nuts generally have high oil content, they are a highly prized food and energy source. A large number of seeds are edible by humans and used in cooking, eaten raw, sprouted, or roasted as a snack food, or pressed for oil that is used in cookery and cosmetics. Nuts (or seeds generally) are also a significant source of nutrition for wildlife. This is particularly true in temperate climates where animals such as jays and squirrels store acorns and other nuts during the autumn to keep them from starving during the late autumn, all of winter, and early spring. 9.8 Variety of Nuts Almonds (184 calories, 16.8g fat) Amongst the different types of nuts, almonds are a great choice for keeping your bones healthy - one ounce/30 gram provide 9% of the recommended amount for calcium and 27% for magnesium. They are also a good source of zinc and very rich in vitamin E. Choose plain over roasted for maximum delivery of vitamin E. In addition to their beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol and heart disease almonds may help fight many cancers. This may be due to the many antioxidants flavonoids as well as amygdalin, which is better known as laetrile. Of all the different types of nuts, laetrile is very rich in what's called 'bitter almond', which really is the apricot kernel. In an animal study of the effect of almonds on colon cancer, animal were exposed to colon cancer-causing agent and fed almond meal, almond oil, whole almonds or a control diet containing no almonds. The animals given whole almonds showed fewer signs of colon cancer, including fewer rapidly dividing cells. The almond's high fibre content - just 1/4 cup of almonds contains 4 grams of fibre may have something to do with it. Brazil nuts (205 calories, 20g fat) Although just two Brazil nuts provide about 90 calories, the caloric equivalent of an egg, this nut is also a heavyweight when it comes to nutritional value. In addition to being loaded with healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids, of all the different types of nuts, Brazil nuts are the richest and most reliable food source of selenium. Just one Brazil nut can provide more than the daily recommended value of this important trace mineral, which has been shown to lower the risk of heart disease and cancer, and also plays a role in reducing allergies and inflammation. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 84
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester They are also a great source of magnesium, which is vital for healthy nerves and muscles and may help relieve PMS. Cashew nuts (183 calories, 15.3g fat) Cashews contain more iron per gram than lean rump steak. And if you want to increase the absorption rate of iron, eat them with a glass of orange juice, as the vitamin C in the juice significantly improves its absorption. They also provide lots of zinc and potassium. Cashew nuts have a lower fat content and a higher protein and carbohydrate content than other types of nuts. The fat that they do contain is mostly (65%) derived from oleic acid, a monounsaturated oil with known benefits in protecting against heart disease and cancer. Chestnuts (51 calories, 0.8g fat) Chestnuts are the only low-fat nuts, with a fraction of the calories of other types of nuts. They contain just 1 gram of fat and a little less than 70 calories per 30 grams of dried or roasted nuts. The downside is they're lower in vitamins and minerals. But they're still relatively nutritious and provide some carbohydrate. They radically increase their caloric intake once they're boiled. Of all the different types of nuts, chestnuts are the only nuts that contain vitamin C. Just 100 grams of chestnuts supply 45% of the RDA of this vital antioxidant nutrient. Coconuts (100 calories, 10g fat) Like most types of nuts, coconuts contain significant amounts of fat, but unlike other nuts, which contain mostly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, coconuts provide fat that is almost all in the form of healthpromoting short and medium-chain saturated fats, which are different from the saturated fats in animal products. Being shorter in length, these fatty acids are processed differently by the body and are preferentially sent to the liver to be burned as energy. In fact, these fats actually have been shown to promote weight loss by increasing the burning of calories (thermo genesis). Some researchers suggest that they lower cholesterol as well. It's a shame that coconut oil continues to have a bad reputation as an unhealthy saturated fat. The antiviral properties of the medium-chain fatty acids abundant in coconut have been found to be so potent that they are now being investigated as a treatment for AIDS patients. Hazelnuts(195 calories, 19.2g fat) Hazelnuts are another rich source of vitamin E and monounsaturated, Also a very good source of the B vitamin biotin, which promotes healthy skin and hair. Like other types of nuts, hazelnuts lower high cholesterol. Macadamia nuts (224 calories, 23.3g fat) Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 85
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Of all the different types of nuts, macadamias are the fattiest (that's why they taste so wonderful!), although a large proportion of this is the healthy monounsaturated variety. Just go easy if you're watching your weight. These nuts are also rich in manganese, which plays a role in sexhormones formation and protecting cells from free-radical damage. Like other nuts, they're very good at lowering high cholesterol and triglycerides. Macadamia nut oil also provides significant health benefits. While olive oil and rapeseed oil are by far the most popular monounsaturated fats in use, macadamia nut oil is superior to cook with because of its lower level of polyunsaturated fat (3% for macadamia nuts versus 8% for olive oil and 23% for rapeseed oil). As a result, while olive oil and rapeseed oil can form lipid peroxides at relatively low cooking temperatures, macadamia nut oil is stable at much higher temperatures (over two times more stable than olive oil and four times more stable than rapeseed). Macadamia oil, like olive oil, is also very high in natural antioxidants. In fact, it contains more than four and a half times the amount of vitamin E as olive oil. Peanuts (175.5 calories, 14.9g fat) Peanut is not really a nut but a legume or bean, but it's been consumed as a nut and that's why it's in this list. Peanuts are high in protein, monounsaturated fat and the antioxidant resveratrol, which makes them excellent at protecting the heart and blood vessels. In one study, subjects who consumed a diet that emphasized peanuts, in both nut and butter form, for one month demonstrated that their risk of heart disease dropped by 21% compared to those people who ate typical American/Western diet. Pecan nuts (207 calories, 21gfat) The pecan is a delicious nut that, like other types of nuts, owes much of its flavor to its high fat content, most of it in the form of heart-healthy monounsaturated oleic acid. Although this translates to a high calorie count, the pecan's endowment of macro- and micro-nutrients justifies its caloric price tag. Pecans do not translate into unhealthy excess fat stores in human beings. One reason may be that pecans add richness, palatability and make you fill fuller for longer - three factors that can help stick to a heart-healthy way of eating. Pine nuts (207 calories, 21g fat) Pine nuts are higher in fat and calories than other types of nuts, but are a good source of blood pressure-regulating potassium, iron, copper and zinc and contain more protein than any other nut or seed. They also contain magnesium and potassium, two minerals whose combined effects produce a strong, healthy heartbeat, lower blood pressure and improve blood flow. Pistachio nuts (183 calories, 15.3 fat) Like other types of nuts, pistachios provide valuable amounts of minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. They are also an excellent source of protein and fibre. A single once Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 86
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester (28g) of roasted pistachio nuts deliver 13% of the recommended daily intake of protein and 12% of the recommended daily amount of fibre. And you get an amazing 47 nuts in one ounce! Two recent studies show that including pistachios regularly in your diet significantly reduces LDL cholesterol and increase HDL cholesterol. Walnuts (206 calories, 21g fat) Of all the different types of nuts, walnuts are unusual as they contain polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-3 and omega-6 families, as well as monounsaturated fats, but no cholesterol. Omega-3 is generally lacking in our diets and can help reduce risk of heart disease by improving blood flow around the arteries. Walnuts are the main "non-fish" source of alpha-linolenic acid, which gets transformed into omega-3 fatty acids in our bodies. Walnuts are also rich in antioxidants, in particular ellagic acid, which can stop the metabolic pathways that can lead to cancer and heart disease. It does so by protecting healthy cells from free-radical damage, helping to detoxify potential cancer-causing substances, and preventing cancer cells from multiplying. Walnuts also contain high levels of serotonin, one of the brain chemicals sometimes implicated in migraine. Further, walnut contains a dozen different pain-relieving compounds. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 87
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 9.9 LESSON SUMMARY The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, juniper berries and bananas. Seed-associated structures that do not fit these informal criteria are usually called by other names, such as vegetables, pods, nuts, ears and cone A nut is a hard-shelled fruit of some plants having an indehiscent seed. While a wide variety of dried seeds and fruits are called nuts in English, only a certain number of them are considered by biologists to be true nuts. Nuts are an important source of nutrients for both humans and wildlife. Nuts are a composite of the seed and the fruit, where the fruit does not open to release the seed. Most seeds come from fruits, and the seeds are free of the fruit, unlike nuts such as hazelnuts, hickories, chestnuts and acorns, which have a stony fruit wall and originate from a compound ovary. Culinary usage of the term is less restrictive, and some nuts as defined in food preparation, like pistachios and Brazil nuts, are not nuts in a biological sense. Everyday common usage of the term often refers to any hard-walled, edible kernel as a nut 9.10 KEY WORDS Spores - A spore is a unit of reproduction somewhat like a seed, but with much less nutrients. Bountiful – plentiful, abundant, ample Unblemished – perfect, pure, clear Indehiscent - not dehiscent; not opening at maturity to discharge its seeds. 9.11 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in detail about Fruits? 2. What are the different types of fruits? 3. Write in detail about Nuts? 4. What are the different types of fruits? 9.12 REFERENCES 1. Robin Nelson, Vegetables, Lerner Publication. 2. Joy Larkcom, Oriental Vegetables, Frances Lincoln Ltd. 3. Theory of Cookery, Krishna Arora 4. Robin Nelson, Fruits, Lerner Publications. 5. Frederic Rosengarten, The Book of Edible Nuts, Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 88
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT- 10 HORS D’ŒUVRE CONTENTS 10.0 Objectives 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Types of Hors d’ oeuvre 10.3 Canapes 10.4 Snack food 10.5 Dumpling 10.6 Recipes of Hors d’ oeuvre 10.7 Lesson Summary 10.8 Key Words 10.9 Questions to Solve 10.10 References 10.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Hors d‘oeuvres ◘ Type of hors d‘oeuvres 10.1 INTRODUCTION HORS D‘ OEUVRE Hors d’oeuvre or the first course, are food items served before the main courses of a meal. Appetizers, hors d'oeuvres, starters, antipasto, gustus, tapas, maza, mezze, zakuski, dim sum, smorgasbord...small foods served before meals to whet the appetite play integral roles in many cultures and cuisines. Offerings and traditions developed according to regional taste. It is important to note that appetizers were not part of all menus through time. In many cuisines this is a relatively recent practice. This explains why there is no such thing as "authentic" colonial American appetizers; only creative adaptations based on period recipes. The phrase ―hors d'oeuvres‖ is taken from the French, and when translated literally, it means ―before the work,‖ in a reference to the main meal. At a well balanced meal, hors d'oeuvres will not overwhelm diners, but rather provide small and interesting bursts of flavor in the mouth which do not ruin the appetite for the main meal. When hors d'oeuvres are being served alone at a party, they are sometimes more substantial so that guests do not drift away in search of other food. Parties held late at night may also offer Hors d'oeuvres rather than regular dishes, so that guests do not go to sleep weighed down with heavy foods. Hors d'oeuvres can be served at a table or passed on trays among guests. Note that the word appetizer is sometimes used interchangeably with the word hors d'oeuvres, which can sometimes lead to confusion in cases where the word appetizer is understood to mean the first course of a meal. There's no hard and fast rule, but in general, a hors d'oeuvre is served before a meal, and an appetizer is part of a meal Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 89
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 10.2 TYPES OF HORS D‘OEUVRE There are many different types of hors d‘oeuvres: canapés, crudités with or without dips, some extremely sophisticated and elegant, some less so. Pastries cut into funny shapes, fishcakes, you name it, and you can probably turn it into a hors d‘oeuvre. First of all they need to be finger food that is not going to drip or splash, so no sauces, nothing wet and nothing runny, and nothing that will leave the guest looking wildly around for a napkin. There are a few exceptions, but if there is a sauce, it needs to be enclosed in pastry and small enough to eat in one bite or thick enough that it‘s not going to drip. Secondly, they need to be savory, so nothing sweet. Generally, salty is good, particularly with a crowd that prefers Martinis. Good flavors to use are cheese, olive, tomato, bacon, ham, perhaps fish, but not too strong, you want to complement the drinks, not overpower them. Anchovies are probably out unless they are tempered by some other flavor. Hors d‘oeuvres can be hot or cold, but not too hot, because guests don‘t want any nasty surprises like a burnt tongue when they pop that interesting looking pastry into their mouth. Starting with the basics, ready made snacks like peanuts, mini pretzels, nachos, (no chilli/hot cheese dipping sauces please) potato chips etc are a good start. They fit all the criteria: bite-sized, salty finger food that doesn‘t leave too much of a mess on the hands. Home made vegetable chips are also good, but require a lot of preparation and are probably better purchased ready made. Cut vegetables are good, but be careful with the dip. A heavy dip that won‘t drip easily needs to be used. Toast can be used spread with almost anything, cream cheese, smoked salmon and capers, chevre, salami with cornichons, sun dried tomatoes, and the list is endless. Cut the toast into small pieces and make sure that the toppings are not runny. Try a garlic pesto for a little zest or strong English farmhouse cheddar with raw onion. Asparagus wrapped in Proscuitto. Or asparagus, Prosciutto and sun dried tomato pastries - one of the best asparagus recipes ever. Once again make sure they are bite sized. Crispy Chinese spring rolls cut into pieces or wontons, but not too fresh out of the oil. Miniature salmon or crab cakes with a small amount of sauce, either tartar sauce, cocktail sauce or a crème fraiche base work well, but, once again, a small amount of thick sauce that won‘t drip. Puff pastry shells are also a wonderful way of providing a wide selection of tastes and you can use a lighter sauce if the shells are bite sized. This allows you to add a few different textures and flavors, because it‘s all safely encased in pastry. Make sure the shells are small and the world‘s your oyster. Shrimp scampi, shrimp and cheese, chicken, ham and cream, you can use pastry shells for almost anything. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 90
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Some of favorites include beef with a mustard cream sauce and crawfish tomato etouffee. Just remember, the shells take very little cooking time, so any meats used to stuff them need to be pre-cooked or able to be eaten raw. Another way of providing hors d‘oeuvres is on a skewer or cocktail stick. Fresh Mozzarella caprese, chicken satay, cheese and ham, whole shrimp, thinly sliced beef tenderloin with horseradish, all can be served on a small skewer. The same rules apply, they need to be bite sized, salty, and leave no mess. 10.3 CANAPÉS, A canapé (hors d’œuvre, ―open faced sandwich‖) is a small, prepared and usually decorative food, held in the fingers and often eaten in one bite. Because they are often served during cocktail hours, it is often desired that a canapé be either salty or spicy, in order to encourage guests to drink more. A canapé may also be referred to as finger food, although not all finger foods are canapés. Crackers or small slices of bread or toast or puff pastry, cut into various shapes, serve as the base for savory butters or pastes, often topped with a ―canopy‖ of such savory foods as meat, cheese, fish, caviar, foie gras, purees or relish. Traditionally, canapés are built on stale white bread (though other foods may be used as a base), cut in thin slices and then shaped with a cutter or knife. Shapes might include circles, rings, squares, strips or triangles. These pieces of bread are then prepared by deep frying, sautéing, or toasting. The foods are sometimes highly processed and decoratively applied (e.g., piped) to the base with a pastry bag. Decorative garnishes are then applied. The canapés are usually served on a canapé tray and eaten from small canapé plates. The technical composition of a canapé consists of a base (e.g., the bread or pancake), a spread, a main item, and a garnish. The spread is traditionally either a compound butter or a flavored cream cheese. Common garnishes can range from finely chopped vegetables, scallions, and herbs to caviar or truffle oil. 10.4 SNACK FOOD A snack is a portion of food oftentimes smaller than that of a regular meal that is generally eaten between meals. Snacks come in a variety of forms including packaged and processed foods and items made from fresh ingredients at home. Traditionally, snacks were prepared from ingredients commonly available in the home. Often leftovers, sandwiches made from cold cuts, nuts, fruit, and the like were used as snacks. A beverage may be considered a snack if it possesses a substantive food item (e.g., strawberries, bananas, kiwis) that has been blended to create a smoothie. With the spread of convenience stores, packaged snack foods are now a significant business. Snack foods are typically designed to be portable, quick and satisfying. Processed snack foods are designed to be less perishable, more durable, and more Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 91
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester portable than prepared foods. They often contain substantial amounts of sweeteners, preservatives, and appealing ingredients such as chocolate, peanuts, and speciallydesigned flavors (such as flavored potato chips). A snack eaten shortly before going to bed or during the night may be called a midnight snack. 10.5 DUMPLING Dumplings are cooked balls of dough. They are based on flour, potatoes or bread, and may include meat, fish, vegetables, or sweets. They may be cooked by boiling, steaming, simmering, frying, or baking. They may have a filling, or there may be other ingredients mixed into the dough. Dumplings may be sweet or spicy. They can be eaten by themselves, in soups or stews, with gravy, or in any other way. While some dumplings resemble solid water boiled dough, such as gnocchi, others such as wontons resemble meatballs with a thin dough covering. China has been perfecting the art of dumpling making since the Sung dynasty. Chinese dumplings may be round or crescent-shaped, boiled or pan-fried. The filling may be sweet or savory; vegetarian or filled with meat and vegetables. Of course, all this variety can be confusing. Recreating homemade versions of dim sum favorites can be a challenge when you're faced with recipes for "Jiaozi," Har Gow," and "Siu Mai," with no pictures. 10.6 RECIPES OF HORS D‘ OEUVRE Devilled eggs : Ingredients 7 large eggs, hard boiled and peeled 1/4 cup mayonnaise 1 1/2 tablespoons sweet pickle relish 1 teaspoon prepared mustard Salt and pepper, for taste Paprika, for garnishing Sweet gherkin pickles sliced, for garnishing Pimentos, for garnishing Directions Halve 7 eggs lengthwise. Remove yolks and place in a small bowl. Mash yolks with a fork and stir in mayonnaise, pickle relish, and mustard. Add salt and pepper, to taste. Fill egg whites evenly with yolk mixture. Garnish with paprika, pickles and pimentos. Store covered in refrigerator. Veggie Balls - Ingredients: 2 cups lentils 1/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons olive oil 1 large onion, chopped 2 carrots, chopped 2 celery stalks, chopped 1 garlic clove, minced Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 92
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 1 tablespoon chopped fresh thyme 2 teaspoons salt 3 tablespoons tomato paste 8 ounces Button Mushrooms, wiped clean and sliced 3 large eggs 1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese 1/2 cup bread crumbs 1/2 cup chopped fresh parsley 1/4 cup finely chopped walnuts Combine the lentils and 2 quarts water in a medium stockpot and bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce the heat to low and simmer until the lentils are soft (but not falling apart), about 25 minutes. Drain the lentils and allow cooling. Add 1/4 cup of the olive oil to a large frying pan and sauté the onions, carrots, celery, garlic, thyme, and salt over medium-high heat, stirring frequently, for about 10 minutes, until the vegetables are tender and just beginning to brown. Add the tomato paste and continue to cook, stirring constantly, for 3 minutes. Add the mushrooms and cook, stirring frequently, for 15 more minutes, or until all the liquid is absorbed. Transfer the mixture to a large bowl and allow cooling to room temperature. When cool, add the lentils to the vegetable mixture. Add the eggs, Parmesan, bread crumbs, parsley, and walnuts to the cooled vegetable mixture and mix by hand until thoroughly incorporated. Place in the refrigerator for 25 minutes. Preheat the oven to 400°F. Drizzle the remaining 2 tablespoons olive oil into a 9×13-inch baking dish and use your hand to evenly coat the entire surface. Set aside. Roll the mixture into round, golf ball-size meatballs (about 1 1/2 inches), making sure to pack the vegetable mixture firmly. Place the balls in the prepared baking dish, allowing 1/4-inch of space between the balls and place them in even rows vertically and horizontally to form a grid. Roast for 30 minutes, or until the meatballs are firm and cooked through. Allow the veggie balls to cool for 5 minutes in the baking dish before serving. Jiaozi Dumplings: Ingredients: Filling 2 1/2 cups minced napa cabbage 1/2 teaspoon salt 11 ounces ground pork 2 tablespoons light soy sauce 2 teaspoons Shaoxing rice wine or dry sherry 2 teaspoons toasted sesame oil 1 teaspoon minced fresh ginger 1/2 cup minced green onions, green and white parts Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 93
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 1/8 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper Preparation To make the filling, toss the cabbage and salt together in a large bowl and let sit for 15 minutes. Drain the cabbage in a colander over a sink and use your hands to squeeze out excess moisture. In a large mixing bowl, combine the cabbage, pork, soy sauce, rice wine, sesame oil, ginger, green onions, and pepper. Stir in one direction with a chopstick until just mixed. To form the dumplings, rest a wrapper in the palm of your hand and place a heaping teaspoon of filling in the center. Dip your finger in a bowl of water and run it around the edge to help make a good seal. Lightly fold the wrapper over on itself but don't touch the edges together. Starting at one end, use your fingers to make a small pleat on the side of the wrapper closed to you, then press the pleat into the other side and pinch together firmly. Keep making pleats down the dumpling opening in this way until completely sealed. Repeat this process with the remaining filling and wrappers. Bring a large pot of water to a boil. Drop half of the dumplings into the water and stir once so they don't stick together. When the water boils again, add 1 cup of cold water to the pot. Then when it boils again, add 3 cups of cold water. The third time the water boils, the dumplings are cooked. Remove them with a slotted spoon and repeat with the remaining dumplings. Serve immediately with small bowls of Chinese black rice vinegar for dipping. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 94
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 10.7 LESSON SUMMARY Hors d'oeuvres are small bite sized foods usually served cold before a main meal to whet the appetite or sustain guests through a long cocktail hour. They are sometimes referred to as appetizers, and usually appear in addition to a main meal although cocktail parties and receptions sometimes serve Hors d'oeuvres exclusively. Hors d'oeuvres can take many forms from the simple to the elaborate, and most parties feature a wide spread which is designed to entice guests with a variety of tastes and food preferences. Hors d'oeuvre is meant to stimulate the appetite, so the presentation and taste is very important. They should be tasty and appealing. Hors d‘oeuvre includes the following types: Canapés, Crudités, Snack foods, Dumplings, Bruschetta. 10.8 KEY WORDS Whet – arouse, stimulate, and rouse Authentic – genuine, real, true Martini- It is a cocktail made with gin and vermouth, and garnished with an olive or a lemon twist. Cheddar- a hard, smooth-textured cheese, made usually from the whole milk of cows and varying in color from white to deep yellow Proscuitto- a dry-cured ham that is usually thinly sliced and served uncooked. Scallions - a type of strong-flavored green onion, is a very versatile vegetable 10.9 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What are the types of Hors d‘oeuvres? 2. What are canapés? 3. What is the technical composition of canapé? 4. What are crudités? 5. What are the types of snack foods? 6. What are dumplings? How they are made? 7. Give some examples of dumplings. 10.10 REFERENCES 1. Elizabeth David, French provincial Cooking, Penguin Classics, London. 2. Brigit Legere Binns, Hors D'oeuvre, Simon & Schuster Publishers, London. 3. Lucy Grace Allen, A Book of Hors D'oeuvre, Bramhall House, London. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 95
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-11 Soups CONTENTS 11.0 Objectives 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Soups 11.3 Types of Soup 11.4 Thick Soup, Thin Soup 1.5 Special & International Soup varieties 11.6 Garnishing of soups 11.7 Lesson Summary 11.8 Key Words 11.9 Questions to Solve 11.10 References 11.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Soup ◘Types of Soups 11.1 INTRODUCTION Soup is immensely popular. It is warm and nourishing. It is perhaps the ultimate comfort food complete with childhood memories of blustery winter days. It is the ageold remedy of choice for soothing a sore throat. Each country has its own distinctive soup(s) ranging from Chinese hot and sour to polish duck blood soup. From the four star restaurant to the country diner, soup is featured on just about every menu. Food historians tell us the history of soup is probably as old as the history of cooking. The act of combining various ingredients in a large pot to create a nutritious, filling, easily digested, simple to make/serve food was inevitable. This made it the perfect choice for both sedentary and travelling cultures, rich and poor, healthy people and invalids. 11.2 SOUPS Soups are wholesome and nutritious liquid food made from meat, seafood, vegetables, cereals or poultry. It is the second course in a French classical menu, though it is the first course in many meals and acts as an appetizer. Soups were easily digested and were prescribed for invalids since ancient times. The modern restaurant industry is said to be based on soup. Soups were served in public restaurants in 18th century Paris. Classic French cuisine generated many of the soups we know today. The word 'soup' comes from the Latin, which means 'soaking', and once described a dish of meat or vegetables that was soaked in the liquid in which it was cooked. Stock is the foundation of all good soups. Soups are made from meat stock. Meat stock is a broth made by cooking meat with water and it requires long, slow cooking. Beef, veal, lamb or chicken can be cooked separately or in combinations. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 96
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Soups are served all over the world, and they are wonderful time-savers and appetite satisfiers. Soup may be served as an appetizer, to stimulate the appetite, or it may be served as the main dish of the meal. If the soup to be served is a hot soup, it must be Served piping hot, if it is to be a cold soup, it must be served icy cold. 11.3 TYPES OF SOUPS Soups are classified according to their method of preparation. Traditionally, soups are classified into two broad groups: clear soups and thick soups. The established French classifications of clear soups are bouillon and consommé. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening agent used: purées are vegetable soups thickened with starch; bisques are made from puréed shellfish thickened with cream; cream soups are thickened with béchamel sauce; and Veloutés are thickened with eggs, butter and cream. Other ingredients commonly used to thicken soups and broths include rice, flour, and grain. 11.4 THICK SOUP, THIN SOUP THICK SOUP Soups made without meat stock and milk or cream. These soups are called cream soups and have for their basis white sauce. They are made by combining thin white sauce with cooked, mashed or strained vegetable, fish or meat pulp. 1) Purée Soups - Purée soups are another type of substantial or filling soup because they are based upon vegetables like broths, these potages are substantial soups because of their high vegetable content. Puree soups are passed through a conical strainer. The resulting soup should be smooth and thick enough to coat the back of a spoon, while still being able to pour from a ladle. After reheating and seasoning, the purée soup is served with croutons as their accompaniment. Soups can be made from one main vegetable, such as lentils for a purée of lentil soup. Other vegetables are included in smaller proportions for flavoring purposes; these usually include onion, celery, leek, carrot, or a combination of some of these vegetables. A purée soup is prepared by cooking all the vegetables previously diced in a good flavored white stock. When the vegetables are cooked, the soup is passed through a sieve or liquidized, then croutons as an accompaniment. 2) Veloute Soup - Velouté soup is a lighter richer soup than broth, potages and purée soups. These soups are made using a blond roux and white stock with a few base vegetables for flavoring. The base vegetables are diced and sweated in fat until softened, but not colored. The flour is then added and a blond roux is made. The well flavored white stock is added and, after bringing to the boil, the soup is simmered for 40-50 minutes. The type of stock used will depend upon the type of soup that is being prepared. For example, if a chicken velouté is being prepared, then chicken stock is used and diced chicken will be added for garnish just before service. After being simmered, the soup is passed through a fine strainer, reheated, and then checked for consistency and flavor. To finish the velouté soup, cream or milk is often added just before service and an appropriate garnish is added. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 97
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 3) Cream Soup - A cream soup is a smooth, rich soup that has a definite main ingredient and flavor. It is a soup that has been made from another base soup. For example, it can he made from any of the three following methods, a ptiree base that is finished with milk to create a creamy texture; a puree base that is combined with a thin, béchamel sauce to create a creamy based soup of a lighter texture than full puree soup; and a veloute base that is finished with the addition of a cream and egg yolk liaison to create a creamy, rich soup (care must be taken when adding the liaison). 4) Bisque - It is a thick, creamy, highly-seasoned soup of French origin, classically of puréed crustaceans. It can be made from lobster, crab, shrimp or crayfish. Bisque is also sometimes used to refer to cream-based soups that do not contain seafood, in which the ingredients are pureed or processed in a food processor or a food mill. Common varieties include tomato, mushroom, and squash bisque. 11.5 Special & International Soup Varieties 1) Cold Soups – Cold soups and creams are top stars in the summer, light and cool, flavorful, packed with vitamins, The right appetizer for a summer meal. The king of cold soups is gazpacho. This Spanish soup has multiple variations, but the famous tomatobased gazpacho is made with stale bread, olive oil, garlic, ground almonds and vinegar. This ancient soup is called ajo blanco, a "white gazpacho." Vichyssoise is another cold savory soup made of pureed potatoes and leeks, the soup is enriched with a swirl of cream before serving. 2) International Soups – There are many varieties, cold or hot, thin or thick soups. They have been placed in a special category, as they have different origins. There are soups that originated in a certain locality and are associated with that particular place. Chowder is any of a variety of soups, enriched with salt pork fatback and thickened with flour, or more traditionally with crushed ship biscuit or saltine crackers, and milk. To some Americans, it means clam chowder, made with cream or milk in most places, or with tomato as "Manhattan clam chowder." Corn chowder is a thick soup filled with whole corn (maize) kernels. Fish chowder, along with corn and clam chowder, continues to enjoy popularity in New England and Atlantic Canada. Seafood chowder is a traditional and popular dish in Ireland. Sometimes the freshest clam chowder can have a gritty consistency due to small particles of sand still present in the clams at the time of preparation. Thin Soups Clear soups run the gamut--from the rustic and homey chicken soup to the most sophisticated consommé. What separates clear from thick soups is that clear soups are comprised of a clear broth liquid with things floating in it, like pieces of vegetables, meat, fish, rice, pasta, etc. while thick soups have items ground into a stock. The amount of garnish (the professional term for the "things" floating) in a clear soup varies considerably. Some are virtually without garnishing while others are loaded with solids. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 98
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 1) Consommé - This is a clear soup made from a well-flavored stock that is cleared by the action of egg white protein(albumen) and meat protein which rise to the surface during cooking, bringing insoluble particles with them. When cool, the coagulated protein is carefully strained off and the resulting stock should be crystal clear. Consommé may be garnished in numerous ways and should be served very hot or chilled. The stocks used are either chicken, beef or game. They should be free from fat globules and thoroughly strained before being used in the preparation of consommé. 2) Bouillon - It is usually made by the simmering of Mirepoix and aromatic herbs (usually a bouquet garni) with beef, veal, or poultry bones in boiling water. 3) Broths - These consist of a good flavored stock containing diced meat or vegetables. They are thickened by the starch from either pearl barley or rice that is cooked with the other ingredients in the stock. As this soup is not passed in any way it is essential to have a neat brunoise cut of vegetables and finely diced meat. The stock should be well flavored and be of the same type as the diced meat. Broths are a substantial nourishing food because of the cereal, meat and vegetable content, and are normally garnished with freshly chopped parsley, mint or coriander leaves. 11.6 GARNISHING OF SOUPS 1. Cereals Boiled rice. E.g.: Mulligatawny soup 2. Croutons Dices or other even shaped bread or toast, e.g.: cream soup 3. Cheese Grated Parmesan cheese grilled on croutons, e.g.: French onion soup Cottage cheese diced, E.g.: Consommés 4. Cream Unsweetened whipped cream or sour cream, E.g.: Cream of mushroom, cream of tomato soup 5. Meat, poultry, seafood Diced, into small pieces or juliennes. E.g.: Cream of chicken soup, bisque d' hommard. 6. Pasta Noodles or spaghetti, e.g.: Minestrone soup 7. Vegetables Cut in various shapes and sizes such as juliennes, rounds, dices, etc. as in mixed vegetable soup. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 99
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 11.7LESSON SUMMARY Soup is immensely popular. It is warm and nourishing. The word 'soup' comes from the Latin, which means 'soaking', and once described a dish of meat or vegetables that was soaked in the liquid in which it was cooked. Stock is the foundation of all good soups. Soups are made from meat stock. Meat stock is a broth made by cooking meat with water and it requires long, slow cooking. Beef, veal, lamb or chicken can be cooked separately or in combinations. Clear soups run the gamut--from the rustic and homey chicken soup to the most sophisticated consommé. What separates clear from thick soups is that clear soups are comprised of a clear broth liquid with things floating in it, like pieces of vegetables, meat, fish, rice, pasta, etc. while thick soups have items ground into a stock. The amount of garnish (the professional term for the "things" floating) in a clear soup varies considerably. Some are virtually without garnish while others are loaded with solids. 11.8 KEY WORDS Wholesome – healthy, nutritious, nourishing Invalid - Patient, a sick person, a person with a disability Crustaceans- are invertebrate animals with a hard shell its, most of which live in the sea (crab, shrimp, lobster, spiny lobster, scampi). Gamut - to cover a wide range Brunoise -is a culinary knife cut in which the food item is first julienned and then turned a quarter turn and diced again, producing cubes of a side length of about 3 mm or less on each side or 1/6 inch cubes 11.9 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What is a soup, Explain? 2. What are the different types of Soups? 3. Difference between Thick & Thin Soup? 4. Mention few Thick Soups? 5. Mention few Thin Soups? 6. Write about Special and International soups? 7. What are the different types of garnishes used in soup? 11.10 REFERENCES 1. Richard Olney, Soups, Time-Life Books, London. 2. Delia Smith, Soups, Dorling Kindersley, London. 3. Modern Cookery, Thangam E. Philip. 4. Theory of cookery, Krishna Arora. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 100
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT- 12 FISH, CHICKEN & EGG COOKERY CONTENTS 12.0 Objectives 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Classification of Fish 12.3 Selection Procedure 12.4 Cuts of Fish 12.5 Cooking of Fish 12.6 Chicken Classification 12.7 Selection Procedure 12.8 Cuts & Preparation 12.9 Introduction to Egg Cookery 12.10 Structure of an Egg 12.11 Selection of Egg 12.12 Uses of Egg in cookery 12.13 Lesson Summary 12.14 Key Words 12.15 Questions to Solve 12.16 References 12.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Seafood and their types ◘ Fish and their types ◘ Selecting, Cutting and Preparation of Fish ◘ Cooking Fish ◘Poultry and Chicken ◘Egg & Egg cookery 12.1 INTRODUCTION Fish and seafood are very much of a food of the nineties, the epitome of modern cooking and eating styles – low in fat, high in protein, rich in minerals and vitamins, quick and easy to prepare and cook, versatile enough to be adapted to suit any occasion. Plus, many fish are cheaper than meat and better value for money. Fish can be prepared using almost any type of cooking method including baking, steaming, frying, grilling, broiling, or slow cooking. In basic food preparation, meat is generally considered to be the flesh of any animal and includes beef, veal, lamb, and pork along with poultry, fish, and shellfish. Poultry and fish, however, often differ from the red meats in preparation and tests for doneness (rare, medium and well done). Bird eggs are a common food and one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking. Chicken eggs are widely used in many types of dishes, both sweet and savory. Eggs can be pickled, hardboiled, scrambled, fried and refrigerated. The most common egg used today is the hen's egg, though duck, goose and other fowl are available in some areas. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 101
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 12.2 CLASSIFICATION OF FISH Fish is classified into three main groups, i.e. 1. White fish 2. Oily fish 1. 2. 3. 3. Shell fish White fish In such type of fish, oil is concentrated in the liver. White fish are divided into two parts i.e. a) White fish flat species b) White fish round species The fishmonger usually sells the large round species such as Coley and cod as steaks, fillets or cutlets. The small round species such as whiting and haddock are sold in fillets and can be skinned. The fishmonger will clean and trim the whole fish, removing heads, fins and tail ready for cooking. The larger flat fish such as halibut and turbot are sold whole and in fillets and steaks and are trimmed as required. The small flat fish such as lemon sole, fishmonger whole, trimmed or fillet as required usually sells sole. Oily fish In such type of fish oil is dispersed throughout the flesh. Species such as herring and mackerel are particularly good sources of vitamin A and D. The fat contained in oily fish is mainly polyunsaturated in fact the fatty acids in fish oils are believed to assist in preventing heart diseases. Shell fish Shellfish like crab and prawns, are cleaned and cooked, ready for use. Shellfish are those, which have shells in their body as an outer covering. 12.3 SELECTION PROCEDURES How to select fish 1. The eyes of the fish should be bright and not sunken. 2. While touching the eyes it should not pull back 3. Gills should be red in color 4. Tail should be stiff 5. Flesh should be firm 6. Plenty of scales 7. No unpleasant odors 8. When we press the fish, if there is any finger imprint it means fish is bad. 9. If the raw flesh comes away from the bone that means the fish is bad. 10. While touching if the scales come out from the body that means the fish is bad. 11. While cleaning blood should come out from the body. 12.4 CUTS Fillets The flesh is completely removed from the bone in long flat pieces. Round fish produce two fillets, flat fish produce four. Delice Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 102
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester A folded fillet, usually of a flat fish. It is a menu term synonymous with fillet. Paupiette A rolled and stuffed fillet, usually of a flat fish. The stuffing would generally be a fine fish farce. Goujon/ Goujonette A fish "finger" or baton approximately 80 x 10 x 10mm, a Goujonette is smaller and may be used as a garnish. Supreme A portioned piece of fish cut on the slant from the fillet of a large round or flat fish. Darne It is also called a steak. This is a section across a round fish cut across the backbone approximately 25 mm thick. This cut is well suited to large dark fish such as Mackerel and Swordfish. Troncon This is similar to the Darne. It is a section of a large flat fish such as Turbot or Brill after being split down the backbone, approximately 45 mm thick. 12.5 COOKING OF FISH It is important to cook fin fish thoroughly, but not to overcook it. Proper cooking: develops the flavor, softens the small amount of connective tissue present in fish, and makes the protein easier to digest. Two cooking methods can toughen fin fish and destroy the natural moisture and flavor: * cooking at too high a temperature, and * cooking for too long a time. Some common methods of cooking fin fish include: Grilling -White fish should be brushed lightly with a little oil before grilling, but oily fish needs nothing added. Make sure the grill is hot before the fish is inserted. A squeeze of lemon and seasoning is all that‘s needed, Very simple and fresh way to cook fish. Turn the fish over once only. Shallow Frying -Shallow frying is the best way to fry fish. The fish must be dried with kitchen paper, coated with beaten egg and dusted with flour. A little oil in the frying pan should be hot enough to sizzle the fish immediately it is added. This will seal the fish. If the oil isn‘t hot enough, the fish will taste oily and the coating will be mushy. Deep Frying is usually done with battered fish. The batter is made from flour, milk, water and/or beer. The oil has to be hot enough for the fish to sizzle immediately it is added, or the same thing will occur as with shallow frying. Steaming is a very healthy option which uses a steamer that sits on top of a saucepan of boiling water. The resultant taste is fresh and clean. Spices and herbs can be used in the steamer to infuse into the fish. Poaching is a great way to gently cook tender and delicate fish. Many liquid flavors are used, the most popular one being white wine. Herbs and spices are often added, but care needs to be taken not to mask the taste of the fish with overpowering flavors. Baking is a good way to cook fish as much of the flavor is retained. When cooked in parcels with herbs and a little wine, the flavors develop and enhance the taste of the fish. This type of baking fish is perfect for barbecuing. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 103
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Microwaving is easy and very quick; this method is usually done when the fish is poached in liquid. Milk works very well with salmon, as does white wine, cider or lemon juice. Be careful not to overdo the cooking time though, as the fish can quite easily become dry and overcooked. 12.6 CHICKEN- CLASSIFICATION Chicken is a relatively lean and inexpensive meat, so it's a culinary workhorse. Broilers are between 2 1/2 and 5 pounds, and can be broiled, roasted, or fried. They're not good for stewing. Stewing chickens are tougher and best used, as their name suggests, in stews and soups. For soups, generally young chicks are used rather than fully matured birds. Capons are castrated male chickens that are large (between 5 and 10 pounds) and tender, and have relatively more white meat. They're great for roasting. Free range chickens are tastier and more humanely raised, but tougher and more expensive. Chickens are first classified by age and weight. Young chickens are tender and cook quickly; older chickens need slow cooking to make them tender. For best results, it's important to know which type of chicken to buy for cooking. Broiler-fryers are young chickens weighing from 11/2 to 31/2 pounds. Only 7 to 10 weeks old, they yield tender, mildly flavored meat and are best when broiled, fried, or roasted. Roosters are 4- to 6-pound chickens that are 16 weeks old. As the name implies, they are perfect for roasting and rotisserie cooking. Capons are young, castrated roosters that weigh from 5 to 7 pounds. These richly flavored birds have a higher fat content and yield more meat than roasters. Stewing Hens are adult chickens from 1 to 11/2 years old. They weigh from 41/2 to 7 pounds and have tough, stringy meat and require prolonged cooking for more then an hour or two to make the meat edible. Stewing hens are excellent for stocks, soups, or stews, since moist-heat preparation tenderizes them and enhances their flavor. Whole Chickens of every type are available with the neck and giblets wrapped separately and stuffed inside. Look for livers and giblets packaged separately in the shops for use in stuffing‘s, soups, and specialty dishes. Cut-up chickens usually broiler-fryers, are disjointed whole chickens consisting of two breast halves, two thighs, two wings, and two drumsticks. Small broiler-fryers are also available in halves and quarters. 12.7 SELECTION PROCEDURES 1) Soft fluffy feathers should be all over the body, especially concentrated under the wings. 2) The feathers should be easy to pull out. 3) The skin should be clear and smooth with no bluish tinge spots. 4) The feet should be supple with smooth overlapping scales, and if fresh, moist. 5) Combs and wattle (the skin hanging near the beak) small and well developed. The comb should be bright red. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 104
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 6) Conformation or the shape of the bird is important, and the bird should be free from deformity. 7) The eyes should be prominent and clear. 8) It should not have a marked unpleasant smell. 12.8 CUTS AND PREPARATION 1. Remove the legs Place the chicken breast side up on a solid cutting board. Pull one leg away from the body and cut through the skin between the body and both sides of the thigh. Bend the whole leg firmly away from the body until the ball of the thighbone pops from the hip socket. Cut between the ball and the socket to separate the leg. Repeat same with the other leg. 2. Divide the legs Place the chicken leg skin side down on the cutting board. Cut down firmly through the joint between the drumstick and the thigh. 3. Remove the wings With chicken on its back, remove wing by cutting inside of wing just over joint. Pull wing away from body and cut from down through the skin and the joint. Repeat with the other wing. 4. Cut Carcass in half Cut through the cavity of the bird from the tail end and slice through the thin area around the shoulder joint. Cut parallel to the backbone and slice the bones of the rib cage. Repeat on the opposite side of the backbone. 5. Remove the breast Pull apart the breast and the back. Cut down trough the shoulder bones to detach the breast from the back. Cut the back into two pieces by cutting across the backbone where the ribs end. 6. Cut Breast in half You may leave the breast whole if your recipe requires. To cut it in half, use a strong, steady pressure and c u t downward along the length of the breastbone to separate the breast into two pieces. Cooking of Chicken is incredibly versatile and can be cooked in many different ways. Each method of cooking helps bring out the individuality of the pieces and flavors of chicken. Baking - Baking is an oven-based technique that is considered to be among the healthiest methods for cooking chicken. Poaching- Poaching is a technique that cooks chicken slowly and gently in a simmering, but not boiling, liquid that covers the food. The poaching liquid may be flavored or seasoned. Browning- Browning chicken is the first step in many recipes for cooking chicken. Braising- Braising is a moist-heat cooking method used to tenderize tough cuts of meat. Chicken is normally browned first and then braised. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 105
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Stir-Fry -Stir-frying quickly cooks bite-size pieces of chicken over very high heat in a small amount of oil. Roasting- Roasting is a technique often performed in the broiler. 12.9 INTRODUCTION TO EGG COOKERY Eggs are used as various forms in cookery. It is available in all season and the price of egg is too low. Eggs can be eaten as soft boiled, fried and poached. A fresh egg will smell clean and sweet. The white should be thick and firmly shaped. The yolk should be smooth and well rounded. To identify whether the egg is older or fresh there are two types of experiments. Put the egg in a glass of cold water. If fresh, it will fall flat at the bottom of the glass and if it twist slightly it is probably not fresh. Egg always should be kept away from strong smelling food such as cheese and onions because the shells of egg have porous and it will absorb the odors. 12.10 STRUCTURE OF AN EGG Sizes of eggs 1. Chicken - 70 gm 2. Hen - 65 gm 3. Quail - 60 gm 4. Duck - 55 gm 5. Turkey - 50 gm 6. Goose - 45 gm 7. Other bird eggs - 44 gm and below Special points There are five types of eggs, which we normally use for cooking. They are 1. Chicken 2. Hen 3. Quail 4. Duck 5. Turkey 6. Goose 12.11 SELECTION OF EGG Good quality of eggs 1. The eggs should be clean and well shaped. 2. When broken there should be a high proportion of thick to thin. 3. Yolk should be rounded and of good color. 12.12 USES OF EGG IN COOKERY 1. Eggs are used as leavening agent by formation to make dish light. 2. Eggs are used for emulsification as in mayonnaise sauce. 3. It is used as a thickening agent in custards and salad dressing. 4. Egg is used to improve flavor and color in cakes. 5. Eggs are used to decorate and garnish dish. 6. It is a quick cooking and nourishing dishes for breakfast and main meals. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 106
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 7. 8. 9. 10. It is a semi-solid food taken by children. It is a nourishing and easily digestible food for infants. Egg is used as a standard food against other food proteins is measured. Egg contains vitamin A, D and B-complex and minerals. Types of Egg dishes 1. It is used for garnishing purposes in salads 2. It is used as dressing purposes in various types of rice dishes 3. It is used to prepare egg Bhaji and pakoda. 4. It is used to prepare Mayonnaise sauce 5. Egg is used as a complete food by children. 6. It is used as thickening agent in gravies. 7. It is used to prepare cakes as it helps in making the cake spongy. 8. Egg yolk is used to prepare ice creams. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 107
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 12.13 LESSON SUMMARY The chicken is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the Red Jungle fowl. As one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, and with a population of more than 24 billion in 2003, there are more chickens in the world than any other species of bird. Humans keep chickens primarily as a source of food, consuming both their meat and their eggs. There are various type of chicken i.e. Broiler fryers, Roosters, capons, Stewing hens, whole chickens, cut up chickens. Above all we need to know the various methods to find out the good chicken for cooking. Above all we have to be aware of the cuts of chicken to get the exact number of pieces from a chicken. There are various methods to make the chicken tastier i.e. baking, poaching, browning, braising, stir fry, & roasting. Bird eggs are a common food and one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking. Chicken eggs are widely used in many types of dishes, both sweet and savory. Eggs can be pickled, hardboiled, scrambled, fried and refrigerated. The most common egg used today is the hen's egg, though duck, goose and other fowl are available in some areas. The egg white is an excellent source of protein and riboflavin. An egg white (albumin) is fat free and contains only 10 calories. Egg yolks contain all of the fat in an egg and are a good source of protein, iron, vitamins A and D, choline and phosphorus. Egg yolks are high in cholesterol. The color of the yolk depends entirely on the hen's diet. Hens fed on alfalfa, grass and yellow corn laid eggs with lighter yolks than wheat-fed hens. The egg shell's color is determined by the breed and has nothing to do with either taste or nutritive value. 12.14 KEY WORDS Giblets -is a culinary term for the edible offal of a fowl, typically including the heart, gizzard, liver, and other visceral organs. Supple – elastic, flexible, agile Cavity - hollow space, void, opening Porous – absorbent, spongy, leaky Odors – smell, aroma, stink Nourishing – nutritious, wholesome, healthful Flavor – taste, essence, aroma 12.15 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in detail about, Classification of Chicken? 2. What is the Selection procedure of Chicken? 3. Write in detail about cuts & preparation of Chicken? 4. What are the different types of cooking method for chicken? 5. Write in detail about Egg cookery? 6. Write in detail about structure of Egg? 7. Write about selection of egg and uses of egg in cookery? 8. Write about types of egg dishes? Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 108
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 12.16 REFERENCES 1. W. Chan, Robert Alexander McCance , Meat, Poultry and Game. 2. H. J. Swatland, Meat Cuts and Muscle Foods: An International Glossary. 3. Modern Cookery, Thangam E. Philip 4. Theory of Cookery, Krishna Arora. 5. Ann Seranne , The Complete Book of Egg Cookery. 6. Tony Groves, Food Preparation and Cooking. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 109
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 110
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 111
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 112
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT- 13 BUTCHERY CONTENTS 13.0 Objectives 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Meat, Mutton/Lamb, beef & veal cuts 13.3 Game by Region 13.4 Cooking of Game birds or Animals 13.5 Meaning, of Fillet, Steak, Sirloin Steak, Bacon, Ham, Gammon 13.6 Lesson Summary 13.7 Key Words 13.8 Questions to Solve 13.9 References 13.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Meat Cookery ◘Mutton and Lamb ◘Beef and Veal ◘ Pork, Bacon, Ham and Gammon ◘ Game 13.1 INTRODUCTION The word meat comes from the Old English word mete, which referred to food in general. The narrower sense that refers to meat, which does not include sea food, developed over the past few hundred years and has religious influences. Meat, especially beef, is prepared in many ways, as steaks, in stews, fondue, or as dried meat. It may be ground then formed into patties (as hamburgers or croquettes), loaves, or sausages, or used in loose form (as in "sloppy joe" or Bolognese sauce). Some meat is cured, by smoking, pickling, preserving in salt or brine (see salted meat and curing). Other kinds of meat are marinated and barbecued, or simply boiled, roasted, or fried. Meat is generally eaten cooked, but there are many traditional recipes that call for raw beef, veal or fish. Meat is often spiced or seasoned, as in most sausages. Meat dishes are usually described by their source (animal and part of carcass) and method of preparation. 13.2 MEAT, MUTTON / LAMB, BEEF & VEAL, CUTS The meat is a large expense for the caterer. It is essential when buying meat to consider carefully, i.e. 1. The correct amount of use 2. The right joint or cut for a particular dish, to give the required flavor and texture. 3. The quality of meat required 4. The amount of waste that is likely to occur due to trimming during preparation and shrinkage during cooking. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 113
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Beef 1. Neck 2. Chuck ribs 3. Middle ribs 4. Fore ribs 5. Shank or shin 6. Leg of mutton cut 7. Brisket 8. Plate 9. Wing ribs 10. Sirloin 11. Rump 12. Silver side 13. Topside 14. Leg 15. Thin flank 16. Thick flank 17. Fillet Pork 1. Leg 2. Loin 3. Spare rib 4. Head 5. Shoulder & hand 6. Belly or breast Bacon 1. Middle 2. Back & loin 3. Shoulder 4. Hock 5. Streaky thick 6. Streaky thin Lamb and mutton 1. Leg 2. Saddle 3. Best end 4. Shoulder 5. Middle neck 6. Scarg end 7. Breast - Poorer cuts Medium cuts Medium cuts Good nuts Poorer cuts Poorer cuts Poorer cuts Poorer cuts Good cuts Good cuts Good cuts Medium cuts Good cuts Poorer cuts Poorer cuts Medium cuts Good cuts - Good cuts Good cuts Good cuts Poorer cuts Medium cuts Medium cuts - Good cuts Good cuts Medium cuts Poorer cuts Good cuts Good cuts - Good cuts Good cuts Good cuts Good cuts Medium cuts Poorer cuts Medium cuts 13.3 GAME, BY REGION Game birds are the term used for wild birds as they are hunted for food. The most common game birds are partridge, pheasant, etc. In some countries, game is classified, including legal classification with respect to licenses required, as either 'small game' or 'large game'. Small game includes small animals, such as rabbits, pheasants, geese or ducks. A single small game license may Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 114
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester cover all small game species and be subject to yearly bag limits. Large games includes animals like deer, bear, and elk and are often subject to individual licensing where a separate license is required for each individual animal taken (tags). Big game is a term sometimes used interchangeably with large game although in other contexts it refers to large, usually African, mammals (like elephants) which are hunted mainly for trophies, not for food Africa- In some parts of Africa, wild animals hunted for their meat are called bush meat; Animals hunted for bush meat include, but are not limited to: Various species of antelope, including duikers Various species of primates like mandrills or gorillas Rodents like porcupines or cane rats Some of these animals are endangered or otherwise protected, and thus it is illegal to hunt them. In Africa, animals hunted for their pelts or ivory are sometimes referred to as big game. South Africa- South Africa has 62 species of game birds, including guinea fowl, francolin, partridge, quail, sand grouse, duck, geese, snipe, bustard and korhaan. Some of these species are no longer hunted, and of the 44 indigenous game birds that can potentially be utilized on South Africa only three, namely the Yellow-throated Sand grouse, Delegorgues Pigeon and the African Pygmy Goose warrant special protection. Of the remaining 41 species, 24 have shown increased in numbers and distribution range in the last 25 years or so. The status of 14 species appears unchanged, with insufficient information being available for the remaining 3 species. The game birds of South Africa where the population status in 2005 was secure or growing are listed below: Helmeted Guinea fowl, Crested Partridge, Greywing Partridge, Redwing, Partridge, Orange River Partridge, Cape Francolin, Natal Francolin, Swainson's, Francolin, Common Quail, Harlequin Quail United Kingdom Game birds at Borough Market in London In the UK game is defined in law by the Game Act 1831. It is illegal to shoot game on Sundays or at night. Other (non-game birds) that is hunted for food in the UK is specified under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. UK law defines game as including: Black grouse (No longer hunted due to decline in numbers), Red grouse, Brown hare, Ptarmigan, Grey partridge and red-legged partridge, Common pheasant 13.4 COOKING OF GAME BIRDS OR ANIMALS Generally game is cooked in the same ways as farmed meat. Because some game meat is leaner than store-bought beef, overcooking is a common mishap which can be avoided if properly prepared. It is sometimes grilled or cooked longer or by slow cooking or moist- Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 115
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester heat methods to make it tenderer, since some game tends to be tougher than farm-raised meat. Other methods of tenderizing include marinating as in the dish Hasenpfeffer, cooking in a game pie or as a stew such as Burgoo 13.5 MEANING, OF FILLET, STEAK ,SIR LOIN STEAK. BACON, HAM, GAMMON FILLET - A fillet is a cut or slice of boneless meat or fish. In the case of beef, in the USA, the term most often refers to beef tenderloin, especially filet mignon. Chicken fillets are cut from chicken breasts or chicken thighs. Boneless, skinless chicken fillets are very popular in supermarkets in many countries. Fish fillets are generally obtained by slicing parallel to the spine, rather than perpendicular to the spine as is the case with steaks. The remaining bones with the attached flesh is called the "frame", and is often used to make fish stock. As opposed to whole fish or fish steaks, fillets do not contain the fish's backbone; they yield less flesh, but are easier to eat. Special cut fillets are taken from solid large blocks; these include a "natural" cut fillet, wedge, and rhombus or tail shape. Fillets may be skinless or have skin on; pin bones may or may not be removed. A fletch is a large boneless fillet of halibut, swordfish or tuna. There are several ways to cut a fish fillet: Cutlet o This fillet is obtained by slicing from behind the head of the fish, round the belly and tapering towards the tail. The fish is then turned and the process repeated on the other side to produce a double fillet Single o This fillet is more complex than the cutlet and produces two separate fillets, one from each side of the fish. "J" Cut o This fillet is produced in the same way as a single fillet but the pin bones are removed by cutting a "J" shape from the fillet "Back strap" o After filleting both sides of the fish you will have almost all the meat, but there is a little known cut called the back strap. To get to the back strap you must cut on the gill line and run the knife right above the back bone. Run the knife all the way done the back bone and finish at the base of the tail. STEAK- A steak is a slice from a larger piece of meat typically from beef. Most steaks are cut perpendicular to the muscle fibres, improving the perceived tenderness of the meat. A restaurant that specializes in beef steaks is known as a steakhouse. A typical steak dinner consists of a steak, with a starchy side dish, usually baked potatoes, but occasionally another potato dish, rice, pasta, or beans. The different types of beef steaks are given below: 1. Chateaubriand steak - Usually served for two, cut from the large head of the tenderloin. 2. Chuck steak - A cut from neck to the ribs. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 116
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 3. Cube steak - A cut of meat, usually top round, tenderized by a fierce pounding of a mallet. 4. Filet mignon - small choice tenderloin, the tendered cut, less flavorful. 5. Flank steak - From the underside. Not as tender as steaks cut from the rib or loin. 6. Flat iron steak - A cut from the shoulder blade. 7. Hanger steak - A steak from near the center of the diaphragm. Flavorful, and tender towards the edges, but sinewy in the middle. Often called the "butcher's tenderloin." SIRLOIN STEAK- Comes from the same area as sirloin but cut into steaks such as "T"-bone, Porterhouse and Entrecote. A prime cut which is suitable for grilling, frying, stir fries and barbecuing. Lean flesh should be pale and of fine texture. The fat should be white, firm and smooth. Bone should be small, fine and pinkish. The skin should be smooth. Fresh pork is at its best from April to September. Suckling pig is known as pig below one year, i.e., 5 to 6 weeks. Good quality pork should have a firm non-slimy texture to the flesh and white fat. It should have a clean and inoffensive smell. Approximate weight of pork is 60 kg. BACON- Approximate weight of a side of bacon is 23.5 kg. The good quality of bacon is 1.It should be dry and not at all sticky. 2.It should have a fresh, appetizing smell. 3.It has firm, smooth and white fat. 4.It should have a clear pink colored flesh. Preserving specially breed pigs makes Bacon. The preservative used is salt. Salt can be applied in two ways, i.e. 1. By covering the meat with salt powder 2. By covering the meat with salt solution. This meat is immersed in salt solution for four or five days. Some bacon is preferred to smoking. Bacon is hung over wood dust for two days. It improves preserving quality. The fat of the bacon should be firm and free from any yellow marks. It is used for boiling, frying and grilling. HAM- Ham is taken from the leg of pig. It is cut from the side of the pork leg with bone. It is preserved in salt and then dried as well as smoked. Any ham, which looks dry or dark colored, should not be fit for use. Freshly cut ham should have best flavor. Ham is used for boiling, frying and grilling. GAMMON- Gammon is also from the hind legs, and is sold raw for cooking. Bacon cured using the "Wiltshire Cure" method, boned and cut into 3 Lb. joints. It can be sliced to make gammon steaks, boiled to make ham sandwiches or baked. Historically the word Gammon was used for cured whole sides of pork where the whole hog side including the hams, middle or loins, and the shoulders. In recent times the word Gammon is used mostly for the hams. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 117
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 13.6 LESSON SUMMARY Meat is generally considered to be the flesh of any animal and includes beef, veal, lamb, and pork along with poultry, fish, and shellfish. Meats in general are high in cholesterol than fish. In the descending order of cholesterol content, pork or products of pork in all forms are highest followed by beef, sheep / lamb and chicken. The terms lamb, hogget or mutton is names for the animals or meat of a domestic sheep. The meat of a sheep a year old or younger is generally known as lamb, whereas the meat of an older sheep is either hogget or mutton. Beef is the meat from bovines, especially domestic cattle. Veal comes from young calves, and so the meat is tender and lean and the flavor is delicate. A steak is a slice from a larger piece of meat typically from beef. Most steaks are cut perpendicular to the muscle fibres, improving the perceived tenderness of the meat. Pork is the meat from the domestic pig. Pork is eaten in various forms, including cooked (as roast pork), cured or smoked (ham, including the Italian Prosciutto) or a combination of these methods (gammon, bacon or Pancetta). Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). 13.7 KEY WORDS Duikers - are small antelopes that inhabit forest or dense bush land. Mandrills- mostly live in tropical rainforests and forest-savanna mosaics. Mallet – hammer, tack hammer, sledge hammer. 13.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. What are the different types of cut of meat? 2. What is Game, differentiate game according to region? 3. Write about cooking of game? 4. Write in detail about Fillet, Steak, Sirloin Steak, Bacon & Gammon? 5. What is the difference between Steak & Sirloin Steak? 13.9 REFERENCES 1. Modern Cookery, Thangam E. Philip 2. Theory of Cookery, Krishna Arora 3. W. Chan, Robert Alexander McCance , Meat, Poultry and Game. 4. H. J. Swatland, Meat Cuts and Muscle Foods Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 118
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-14 INTERNATIONAL CUISINES CONTENTS 14.0 Objectives 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Chinese Cuisine 14.3 Thai Cuisine 14.4 Italian Cuisine 14.5 Arabic Cuisine 14.6 Lesson Summary 14.7 Key Words 14.8 Questions to Solve 14.9 References 14.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Chinese Cuisine ◘ Thai Cuisine ◘ Italian Cuisine ◘ Arabic Cuisine 14.1INTRODUCTION Chinese cuisine, rich and colorful, has, as its main features diversified color, aromatic flavor, and excellent taste. With these three characteristics, Chinese cuisine is not only tasty but also a work of art for people to appreciate. Thai food is internationally famous, whether chili-hot or comparatively Bland, harmony is the guiding principle behind each dish. Thai cuisine is essentially a marriage of centuries-old Eastern and Western influences harmoniously combined into something uniquely Thai. The main characteristics of Italian cuisine are its extreme simplicity, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the ingredients rather than on elaborate preparation. Any description of Arabic culture would not be complete without mentioning something about Arabian food. Originally, Arabs living in Arabian Peninsula used prepare their food mainly using dates, wheat, barley, rice and meat as well as on a yogurt product which is called leben. 14.2 CHINESE CUISINE-CHARACTERISTICS, INGREDIENTS USED Chinese cuisine is any of several styles originating in the regions of China, some of which have become increasingly popular in other parts of the world – from Asia to the Americas, Australia, Western Europe and Southern Africa. The history of Chinese cuisine stretches back for many centuries and produced both change from period to period Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 119
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester and variety in what could be called traditional Chinese food, leading Chinese to pride themselves on eating a wide range of foods. Major traditions include Anhui, Cantonese, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Szechuan, and Zhejiang cuisines. Chinese cuisine, rich and colorful, has, as its main features diversified color, aromatic flavor, and excellent taste. With these three characteristics, Chinese cuisine is not only tasty but also a work of art for people to appreciate. To make real Chinese food, none of the three characteristics - color, aroma and delicious taste should be excluded. Diversified Colors- Food with diversified color can usually greatly arouse people's appetite. For many years, Chinese food preparation has paid attention to aesthetic appearance. To have a bright, pleased and harmonious color is one of the main principles when cooking Chinese food. To achieve this, add two or three ingredients with different colors are added as decoration to complement the main ingredient. Thus, it is not only the taste of Chinese cuisine that makes you amazed but also its aesthetic value. Aromatic Flavor- Chinese people attach great importance to the aroma of the dish. Usually aniseed, Chinese prickly ash seeds, cinnamon and other spices are added to help dispel the ingredients' particular smells, such as foul, fishy and mutton smells. Also some other flavors like shallot, ginger, garlic or chili, cooking wine and sesame oil are added to make the food fragrant in flavor. Excellent Taste- Regarded as the soul of the Chinese dish, taste can be divided into five classes - sweet, sour, bitter, hot and salty. Seasoning such as soy sauce, sugar, vinegar and salt in proper amount and in different sequences, contribute to the taste of the dish. In the vast land of China, there are eating habits of 'South-Sweet, North-Salty, East-Hot and West-Sour' according to the different tastes of the people. Those in southern China like to add more sugar when cooking than others. Jiangsu Cuisine one of the Chinese 'Eight Cuisines' is representative of 'South-Sweet'. Shandong Cuisine feature more salt and people living in Hunan, Gubei, Jiangxi, Guizhou, and Sichuan like chili best. Essential Ingredients of China - The Bamboo Shoots, Bean curd, Bean sprouts, Black Beans, Black Mushrooms, Century Egg, Chili, Chinese Wine, Chive, Cinnamon, Coriander, Corn Flour, Dried Prawns, Five Spice, Galangal, Garlic, Ginger, Ginseng, Hoisin Sauce, Lotus Nuts & Root, MSG, Noodles, Oyster Sauce, Plum Sauce, Radish, Red Beans, Red Rice, Rock Sugar, Salted Cabbage, Salted Soy Beans, Sesame, Shallots, Sharks Fin, Sichuan Pepper, Soy Sauce (Black, Red & Light which is sometimes referred to as white), Spring Onions, Star Anise, Vinegar, Water Chestnuts 14.3 THAI CUISINE: CHARACTERISTICS, INGREDIENTS USED, Thai cuisine is the national cuisine of Thailand. Blending elements of several Southeast Asian traditions, Thai cooking places emphasis on lightly prepared dishes with strong aromatic components. The spiciness of Thai cuisine is well known. As with other Asian cuisines, balance, detail and variety are of great significance to Thai chefs. Thai food is Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 120
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester known for its balance of three to four fundamental taste senses in each dish or the overall meal: sour, sweet, salty, and sometimes bitter. Thai food is internationally famous. Whether chili-hot or comparatively Blands, harmony is the guiding principle behind each dish. Thai cuisine is essentially a marriage of centuries-old Eastern and Western influences harmoniously combined into something uniquely Thai. The characteristics of Thai food depend on who cooks it, for which it is cooked, for what occasion, and where it is cooked to suit all palates. Originally, Thai cooking reflected the characteristics of a waterborne lifestyle. Aquatic animals, plants and herbs were major ingredients. Large chunks of meat were eschewed. Subsequent influences introduced the use of sizeable chunks to Thai cooking Garlic is one of the main ingredients of Thai cooking. Chefs typically sauté chopped garlic in oil to begin cooking almost anything and everything. Garlic contains tons of flavors and provides fragrance to the whole kitchen. * Thai dried chili provides the heat and spiciness for Thai cuisine. Thai chilies are commonly red. Many recipes require chilies to impart the ―HOT‖ in Thai meals. * Lime leaf gives off an aromatic citrus scent and provides a truly unique flavor. Lime leaf is utilized in many dishes, including Thai soups and Thai curries. * Tamarind paste is a sour taste which also provides a citrus flavor to many traditional Thai recipes, such as pad Thai. * Galangal is a vital Thai cooking ingredient which looks much like ginger. The root comes from the same family as ginger, but the flavor is quite mild and distinctive. In addition, galangal imparts an aroma which reduces the odor of meat. Thai chefs utilize this ingredient for Thai soups and Thai curries. * Coconut milk demonstrates a creamy texture and taste, and is utilized in many Thai food dishes. Coconut milk provides the scent which typically makes many curries so unbelievably mouth-watering. * Palm sugar provides a natural sweetness, being harvested from palm trees, and is a feature in many Thai recipes. Thai salad dressing commonly uses palm sugar instead of cane sugar. 14.4 ITALIAN CUISINE: CHARACTERISTICS, INGREDIENTS USED Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots as far back as the 4th century BC. Significant changes occurred with the discovery of the New World with the introduction of items such as potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers and maize, now central to the cuisine but not introduced in quantity until the 18th century. Italian cuisine is noted for its regional diversity, abundance of difference in taste, and is known to be one of the most popular in the world, with influences abroad. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 121
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester The main characteristics of Italian cuisine are its extreme simplicity, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the ingredients rather than on elaborate preparation. Dishes and recipes are often the creation of grandmothers rather than of chefs, and this makes many recipes ideally suited for home cooking. This is one of the main reasons behind the ever increasing popularity of this cuisine, as cooking magazine in foreign countries popularize Italian recipes targeted at the home cook. Ingredients and dishes vary by region. Coffee, specifically espresso, has become important in Italian cuisine. Italian cuisine has a great variety of different ingredients which are commonly used, ranging from fruits, vegetables, sauces, meats, etc. In the North of Italy, fish (such as cod, or baccalà), potatoes, rice, maize, corn, sausages, pork, and different types of cheeses are the most common ingredients. Northern Italian cooking uses less tomato sauce, garlic and herbs and a white sauce is more common. However Italian cuisine is best identified by individual regions. Pasta dishes that incorporate lighter cooked tomato are found in Trentino-Alto Adige and Emilia Romagna. In Northern Italy though there are many kinds of stuffed pasta, polenta and risotto are equally popular if not more so. Ligurian ingredients include several types of fish and seafood dishes; basil (found in pesto), nuts and olive oil are very common. In Emilia-Romagna, common ingredients include ham (prosciutto), sausage (cotechino), different sorts of salami, truffles, grana, Parmigiano-Reggiano, and tomatoes (Bolognese sauce or ragù). Traditional Central Italian cuisine uses ingredients such as tomatoes, all kinds of meat (except for horse meat), fish, and pecorino cheese. Finally, in Southern Italy, tomatoes – fresh or cooked into tomato sauce – peppers, olives and olive oil, garlic, artichokes, oranges, ricotta cheese, eggplants, zucchini, certain types of fish (anchovies, sardines and tuna), and capers are important components to the local cuisine. Italian cuisine is also well known (and well regarded) for its use of a diverse variety of pasta. Pasta includes noodles in various lengths, widths and shapes. Distinguished on shapes they are named — penne, maccheroni, spaghetti, linguine, fusilli, lasagne and many more varieties that are filled with other ingredients like ravioli and tortellini. The word pasta is also used to refer to dishes in which pasta products are a primary ingredient. It is usually served with sauce. There are hundreds of different shapes of pasta with at least locally recognized names. Examples include spaghetti (thin rods), rigatoni (tubes or cylinders), fusilli (swirls), and lasagne (sheets). Dumplings, like gnocchi (made with potatoes) and noodles like spätzle, are sometimes considered pasta. They are both traditional in parts of Italy. Pasta is categorized in two basic styles: dried and fresh. Dried pasta made without eggs can be stored for up to two years under ideal conditions, while fresh pasta will keep for a couple of days in the refrigerator. Pasta is generally cooked by boiling. Under Italian law, dry pasta (pasta secca) can only be made from durum wheat flour or durum wheat semolina, and is more commonly used in Southern Italy compared to their Northern counterparts, who traditionally prefer the fresh egg variety. Durum flour and durum semolina have a yellow tinge in color. Italian pasta is traditionally cooked al dente (Italian: "firm to the bite", meaning not too soft). Outside Italy, dry pasta is frequently made from other types of flour (such as wheat flour), but this yields a softer product that Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 122
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester cannot be cooked al dente. There are many types of wheat flour with varying gluten and protein depending on variety of grain used. Particular varieties of pasta may also use other grains and milling methods to make the flour, as specified by law. Some pasta varieties, such as pizzoccheri, are made from buckwheat flour. Fresh pasta may include eggs. Whole wheat pasta has become increasingly popular because of its health benefits over pasta made from refined flour. 14.5 ARABIC CUISINE: CHARACTERISTICS, INGREDIENTS USED Cooking Middle Eastern Food- Arab cuisine is defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab World, from Morocco and Tunisia to Saudi Arabia, and incorporating the Levantine, Egyptian and other traditions. The Arabic culture is one of the oldest cultures among the world. The origin of this culture is as old as the times of Prophet Abraham. Arabic language, which is the basis of this culture, is spoken in 22 countries which ranges from Mauritania and Morocco in the west and Arabic Peninsula and Iraq in the east. The area covered is about five and a quarter million square miles. Any description of Arabic culture would not be complete without mentioning something about Arabian food. Originally, Arabs living in Arabian Peninsula used prepare their food mainly using dates, wheat, barley, rice and meat as well as on a yogurt product which is called leben. But, modern day Arab cooking has been influenced by different cuisines which are prevalent over the whole Arab world from spread from Morocco to Iraq. There are different variants of Arab cuisine like Lebanese, Egyptian and others. These cuisines have been influenced by cuisines of India, Turkey, Berber and other countries. A typical meal in any Arab gulf country would consist of lots of rice along with food preparations using lamb or chicken or both as separate item, with various stewed vegetables. The food is generally heavily spiced and uses tomato sauce. Food is generally served in a big platter, which is shared by everybody. Tea and Coffee are two popular beverages in the Arab world. Middle Eastern food is versatile and most recipes are made with ease. While you may have trouble finding certain ingredients, there are online stores that sell imported herbs, spices, grains and other types of food. One of the great aspects of Middle Eastern cooking is the ability to substitute ingredients for what is available or for personal taste. Lamb can be substituted for beef, and vice versa. Spices like cayenne and cumin can be added for a spicier dish. Now with vegetarian ground meat in the freezer section at the grocery store, many dishes contain beef or lamb can become vegetarian! Pita bread is considered to be the oldest type of bread in the world. McDonald's has their own version of falafel on their menu in Egypt; it is called the McFalafel. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 123
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester The eggplant is the most consumed vegetable in the Middle East. The Ancient Egyptians used the herb Fenugreek as embalming fluid. Today, fenugreek is used in cooking and in teas. The fava bean was once condemned because it was thought to contain the souls of dead people. Saffron is the most expensive herb in the world. By the time it hits the stores, it range from $600-1000 per pound. It is normally sold by the gram or ounce in markets. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 124
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 14.6 LESSON SUMMARY Cuisine is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. Religious food laws can also exercise a strong influence on cuisine. A cuisine is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. For example, the Chinese cuisine rich and colorful has, as its main features diversified color, aromatic flavor, and excellent taste. With these three characteristics, Chinese cuisine is not only tasty but also a work of art for people to appreciate. Thai food is internationally famous, whether chili-hot or comparatively Blands, harmony is the guiding principle behind each dish. Thai cuisine is essentially a marriage of centuries-old Eastern and Western influences harmoniously combined into something uniquely Thai. The main characteristics of Italian cuisine are its extreme simplicity, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the ingredients rather than on elaborate preparation. Arab cuisine is defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab World, from Morocco and Tunisia to Saudi Arabia, and incorporating the Levantine, Egyptian and other traditions. 14.7 KEY WORDS Aesthetic – artistic, visual Dispel - drive out, dismiss, disperse Fragrance – perfume, bouquet, aroma 14.8 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. 2. 3. 4. Write in detail the characteristics and ingredients of Chinese cuisine? Write in detail the characteristics and ingredients of Thai cuisine? Write in detail the characteristics and ingredients of Italian cuisine? Write in detail the characteristics and ingredients of Arabic cuisine? 14.9 REFERENCES 1. Auguste Escoffier - The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery, 2. Peter Barham- The Science of Cooking. 3 Philip E. Thangam- Modern Cookery for Teaching and the Trade, Vol. I. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 125
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-15 BAKERY CONTENTS 15.0 Objectives 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Equipments, Ingredients, Uses & Handling 15.3 Qualitative & Quantitative measures 15.4 Hot & Cold Desserts 15.5 Bread Making, cakes, cookies 15.6 Indian Sweets 15.7 Lesson Summary 15.8 Key Words 15.9 Questions to Solve 15.10 References 15.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘ Equipment identification, its uses & handling ◘ Hot & Cold Desserts ◘ Bread making, cakes, Cookies ◘ Indian Sweets 15.1INTRODUCTION Bakery is nowadays a part of the hotel Industry, as demands for bakery products, desserts or the daily needs of Bread can be freshly prepared within the hotel. For these there are different equipments involved which have to be identified before going to industry for training or placement. Uses of these equipments in regard to the handling are of utmost importance. In This Unit we have discussed regarding various hot & cold desserts, Bread making, cakes & cookies. Last but not the least we have also discussed the various Indian sweets which is popular around the world 15.2 EQUIPMENT‘S, IDENTIFICATION, USES AND HANDLING Baking/Cookie Sheet A flat, rigid, metal sheet made of aluminum used for baking cookies and biscuits. Insulated baking sheets sandwich air between two metal layers, protecting from over browning of the baked product. Generally, baking time needs to be increased if using insulated baking sheets. Common sizes for baking sheets are: 17x14-inch , 12x15-inch Allow baking sheet to cool completely before reusing. Bake only one sheet of cookies at a time on the middle rack in the center of the oven. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 126
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Baked products will brown more quickly on dark-colored baking sheets, because they absorb more heat than shiny baking sheets. Line baking sheet with parchment paper. The paper will withstand high temperatures without discoloring or scorching. The baking sheet is also easier to clean. After baking cookies on parchment, you can slide the sheet of parchment with the baked cookies onto the rack for cooling. Follow recipe directions for greasing or spraying the baking sheet with no stick cooking spray. Bread Pan A rectangular baking pan sometimes referred to as a loaf pan. Standard sizes for bread pans: 8 ½ x 4 ¼ x 3 1/8-inch holds 5 cups 9 x 5 x 3-inch holds 8 cups 5 ½ x 3 x 2 ½-inch holds 2 cups Bread pans may be made from aluminum, stainless steel or glass. When you don't have the right size bread pan substitute a pan with similar capacity. Fill the pan ½ full but never more than 2/3 full so the bread has room to rise. The baking time may need to be changed. If substituting mini loaf pans in place of a larger bread pan, fill each mini loaf pan ½ full. Decrease baking time by ½ and check at that point for doneness. Continue baking, if necessary, checking doneness every five minutes. To determine pan size, measure length and width of the pan across the top inside. Measure height from the inside of the pan, holding a ruler straight up from the bottom. To prevent a loaf from sticking, always follow the recipe directions for greasing or spraying the pan with no stick cooking spray. Cake Pan Cake pans may be made from aluminum, stainless steel or glass. Common sizes for cake pans are: 8 x 8 x 1 ½-inch square holds 6 cups 9 x 1 ½-inch round holds 6 cups 13 x 9 x 2-inch holds 15 cups 11 x 7 x 2-inch holds 6 cups 10 x 4-inch tube pan holds 16 cups 10 x 3 ½-inch Bundt® pan holds 12 cups When you don‘t have the right size cake pan substitute a cake pan with a similar capacity. Fill the pan ½ full but not more than 2/3 full so the cake has room to rise. Vary the baking time if needed. An 8-inch square pan holds 1 cup more batter than an 8-inch round pan. Usually square pans are 2 inches deep and round pans are 1 1/2 inches deep, therefore, a square pan will hold more. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 127
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Dark-colored and glass bake ware absorbs more heat than shiny bake ware, therefore a. baked product will brown more quickly in these pans. Follow recipe directions for greasing or spraying the baking pan with no stick cooking spray. Do not grease a tube pan before baking an angel food cake or sponge cake. The batter needs to cling to the side of the pan as the cake rises during baking -- greasing the pan prevents the batter from sticking to the surface of the pan and the cake will not be light and airy. Convection Oven Both conventional and convection ovens use air heated by a gas or electric burner. The main difference is that a convection oven has a fan generally at the back of the oven that circulates the heat. A convection oven continuously circulates hot air with a fan through the oven cavity. The accelerated effect of the circulating air is one reason for the superior results you get when baking in a convection oven. For example, the butter in a pie crust releases its steam quickly, creating flaky layers. Hot air circulating throughout the oven eliminates hot and cold spots for more even baking and cooking. Preheat the oven prior to convection baking as you would also do if using a conventional oven. The oven temperature should reach the correct baking temperature prior to baking. Allow at least 1 inch between the pans and also between the edges of the pan and the oven walls. This space is needed so the air is circulated evenly in the oven. It is best to keep the oven door closed as much as possible during the baking time so that airflow is maintained. Cookie Cutter A cookie cutter is used to cut decorative shapes from dough that has been rolled out. Cookie cutters are made from aluminum, copper or plastic. Common sizes are 2-inch to 3-inch, however cutters are available in 1/2-inch up to 12-inches. A drinking glass may be used as a substitute for a round cookie cutter. To make your own cookie cutter shape, cut a template from cardboard or paper. Place the template over the rolled out cookie dough; carefully cut around design with a sharp knife. Electric Mixer An electric mixer is a kitchen appliance used to beat, mix or whip batter. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 128
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Electric mixers can be small and portable for small jobs or larger and more powerful for more difficult jobs. Many of the more powerful stand mixers have special attachments such as dough hooks or paddle beaters. Mixtures may be creamed, mixed or beaten by hand using a wooden spoon or whisk. It may be more difficult to create the same consistency by hand as with an electric mixer. A large food processor can be used for some baking recipes instead of a mixer. Be careful to process ingredients just until mixed. Be sure beaters are clean before beating egg whites. Any fat, even a drop of egg yolk, on the beaters can prevent the whites from reaching optimum volume. Whipping cream will be faster if the bowl and beaters are chilled at least 15 minutes before beating. The action of the beaters in mixing will tend to warm the butter in cookie dough and help to soften it. Hot Pad A hot pad is a thick cloth pad or glove/mitt used to protect your hands when removing a pan from the oven. Hot pads can be made from any fabric that can withstand the temperature of an oven; cotton and wool are popular materials. Select hot pads that are made from thick layers of fabric. When the hot pads begin to wear thin, replace them. Keep hot pads dry. If a wet hot pad is used, your hands will get burned. Jelly-Roll Pan A very shallow, rectangular pan used to bake thin cakes or bars. Jelly-roll pans generally are made from aluminum. Common sizes of jelly-roll pans are: 15 x 10 x 1-inch holds 10 cups 12 x 7 x 1-inch holds 4 cups 17x11 x 1-inch holds 13 cups Substitute a 13x9 inch baking pan in a recipe for a 15x10x1 inch jelly-roll pan. The baked product will be thicker than the original recipe. Bake time will be longer than stated in the recipe. Check for doneness at half the original baking time. Continue baking until baked product tests done. To make cake removal easier, line bottom of jelly-roll pan with waxed paper. Grease the paper on one side so it will adhere to the baking pan and on the other side to make baked product easy to remove from pan. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 129
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Measuring Cup There are two types of measuring cups: For measuring dry ingredients: These measuring cups are made of metal or plastic, sometimes nested together, and come in sets of 1/8cup to 2-cup sizes For measuring liquid ingredients: These cups, made of glass or plastic, come in 1 to 8-cup sizes. Measures are marked on the side and cup has a spout for pouring the measured ingredients. Use the proper measuring cups for dry and liquid ingredients. Do not substitute liquid and dry measuring cups for one another. A large glass measuring cup, such as a 4-cup or 8-cup size, is a great mixing bowl especially for thinner mixtures that can be poured. Measuring Spoon Measuring spoons come in sets of 1/8 teaspoon to 1 tablespoon. They can be made of metal or plastic. It is important to measure accurately particularly in baking since the ratio of dry to wet ingredients is very important. However in some recipes you may note some measuring terms handed down through generations. As a guideline these measures should equal: 1 heaping teaspoon = 1 ¾ to 2 teaspoons 1 heaping tablespoon = 1 ½ to 2 tablespoons 1 rounded teaspoon, tablespoon = measure ingredient so it is slightly rounded over rim of measure 1 dash = 1/16 teaspoon Never measure ingredients over the bowl or pan you are adding to. It is very easy to overflow the measuring spoon as you pour into it. Buy several sets of measuring spoons to be sure you always have clean spoons available. Tableware spoons should not be used for measuring since they vary in size. Mixing Bowl A mixing bowl is used to hold ingredients you are mixing, beating or whipping. A mixing bowl can be made of glass, aluminum, stainless steel, enamel, ceramic, copper or plastic. Common sizes of mixing bowls range from 1-quart to 4-quart. A large, glass measuring cup (4-cup or 8-cup) may be substituted for a mixing bowl. Keep a variety of sizes of mixing bowls on hand so you have just the right size for each mixing s tep. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 130
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Muffin Pan A special metal baking pan sometimes referred to as a muffin tin, with 6 or 12 cup-shaped depressions. Most often this pan is made from aluminum. The sizes of muffin cups are: Standard muffin cup is about 2 1/2 inches in diameter and holds 1/4 to 1/3 cup batter • Giant or Texas-size muffin cup is about 3 ½ inches in diameter and holds 5/8 cup batter • Miniature muffin cup is about 1 1/2 to 2 inches in diameter and holds 1/8 cup or 2 tablespoons batter • Muffin-top cup is about 4 inches in diameter but are only 1/2 inch deep. • Substitute another size muffin cup for original size listed in recipe. If substituting a larger size muffin cup the recipe will yield fewer muffins and if using smaller size muffin cup the recipe will yield more muffins. The bake time will be changed also. Bake a larger muffin longer than the original time and smaller muffins a shorter time. • Grease muffin cups by spraying each cup with no stick cooking spray or using a paper towel dipped in shortening to grease each cup. • For rounded tops on muffins grease only the bottom of the cup and halfway up the side of the cup. • Use paper liners in muffin cups for easy clean-up. • If muffin cups are filled more than ¾ full the muffins will have flat, ―flying saucer‖ tops. If sufficient room is not allowed for muffins to expand before reaching the top of the cup the muffin will flatten on top. • If some muffin cups will remain empty during baking, put 2 to 3 tablespoons water in the unused muffin cups to keep the pan from warping. • If baked muffins stick to the bottom of the muffin cup, place hot muffin pan on a wet towel for about two minutes. Pastry Blender A pastry blender is made of five or six parallel U-shaped steel wires attached at both ends to a handle. A pastry blender is used to cut cold butter into a flour mixture to distribute the fat without melting it such as in making pie crusts or biscuits. • Two knives held together at an angle may be substituted for a pastry blender. Use the knives to cut the fat into the dry ingredients until the pieces of flour-coated fat become smaller and have the texture of coarse crumbs. A fork may also be used instead of two knives. • Be sure the butter is cold when cutting it into the flour. If the butter is too soft, the mixture becomes overworked, resulting in a pastry that is not flaky and tender. • Cut butter into chunks before mixing with a pastry blender so the butter will be easier to mix. Pastry Brush A baking tool that looks similar to a small paintbrush, about 1 to 1 1/2-inches thick. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 131
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Common liquids used with a pastry brush are milk, water and egg whites. Use pastry brush to brush marinades over meats also. • To avoid bacteria, or other contamination, clean pastry brush in dishwasher or with hot tap water after each use. Pastry Crimping Wheel/Pastry Cutter A pastry crimping wheel is a rolling-bladed tool with a fluted design. It is used to cut dough and add a decorative edge treatment to pie crusts. • A pastry cutter has a straight-edged rolling wheel and is often used to cut narrow strips of dough for a lattice topped pie. • For a pastry cutter, you could use a pizza cutter or sharp knife. • For a crimping wheel, choose an alternate edge treatment, such as a forked edge. • To avoid bacteria, or other contamination, be sure to clean grooves carefully after each use. Pie Plates/Pie Pans A pan shaped like a plate with sides; used to bake pies, quiches and frittatas. • Pie plates are commonly made from heat-resistant glass or aluminum. The glass pie plates give the flakiest results and are what we recommend. Glass also produces a more evenly browned crust. Aluminum pans with a dull finish or darkened pans yield a well-baked, tender browned under-crust. Shiny metal pie pans reflect the heat and result in soggy bottom pie crusts and are not recommended. • Common sizes for pie plates are: 9 inches in diameter by 1 inch deep; holds approximately 4.5 cups 10 inches in diameter by 1 inch deep; holds approximately 6 cups Deep Dish: 9 inches in diameter by 2 inches deep; holds approximately 6 cups Deep Dish: 10 inches in diameter by 2 inches deep; holds approximately 8 cups • Do not grease a pie plate, unless recipe states to do so. • Make sure to secure the edges of a pie crust to the rim of pie plate to avoid shrunken or misshaped pies. Rolling Pin, Pastry Cloth, Rolling Pin Cover A rolling pin is a long round cylinder used to roll out dough or crush cracker crumbs. • Rolling pins are generally made from wood, but can be made from marble, glass, ceramic, porcelain or plastic. • Some rolling pins have handles at each end, making the rolling pin easier to handle and to allow for uniform pressure to be exerted. • A pastry cloth is a large canvas cloth on which pastry or dough can be rolled. • A rolling pin cover is a stretchable "stocking" that fits over the rolling pin. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 132
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester • Only a light dusting of flour is needed to prevent dough from sticking to the pastry cloth or rolling pin cover, eliminating the tendency to use too much flour when rolling out soft dough. • The pastry cloth and rolling pin cover must be cleaned before storing to prevent any fat residue from becoming rancid. Wire Cooling Rack A cooling rack is a rack made from closely spaced wires or spokes, and small legs that elevate the rack above the countertop. Cooling racks are often metal, however can be made from wood or other heatproof material. • The rack speeds the cooling of cookies, cakes or breads. It allows steam to escape from all sides of the baked product so the bottom doesn't get soggy. • Cool cookies on parchment on the countertop rather than on a cooling rack. As cookies begin to cool turn them over to speed complete cooling and prevent bottom of cookies from getting soggy. • Cover the rack with a sheet of waxed paper before placing a delicate cake on the rack to prevent the surface from getting damaged or sticking to the rack. Wire Whisk A wire whisk is made from a series of looped wires fastened at the top by a long handle. Whisks are used to whip air into ingredients, such as egg whites or whipping cream. The more wires a whisk contains the more effectively it will incorporate air into a mixture. • Whisks are available in a variety of different sizes for different tasks. • Use a portable electric mixer or wooden spoon. If whisking a very small amount such as one egg white, a fork can be used to whip the mixture and incorporate air. 15.3 INGREDIENTS - QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE MEASURES How to Measure Dry Baking Ingredients: 1. Flour and Sugar. To measure flour and sugar dip the measuring cup into the ingredient until filled; then, level off with a spatula. (Follow this rule with the exception of cake flour, confectioner‘s sugar, and brown sugar). Flour and sugar are measured in nested measuring cups coming in a set of 4 (1 cup, ½ cup, ¼ cup, and 1/3 cup). 2. Cake flour and Confectioners sugar. To measure cake flour and/or confectioners sugar, it must be spooned onto the measuring cup, and then leveled off with a spatula. Cake flour and confectioners sugar is light ingredients - this ensures that there are no air spaces that would decrease the amount of the ingredient you are measuring. 3. Brown sugar. Brown sugar could stick to sides of the measuring cup and create air spaces. To measure, pack it firmly with a spoon so that when you invert the cup, the measured sugar would retain the shape of the cup. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 133
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 4. Shortening or solid oil. To measure shortening or solidified oil, press it down firmly into the measuring cup using a spoon. Make sure there are no air bubbles. 5. Butter. To measure butter, you don't have to press it down on a measuring cup, or melted (unless specified). 1 bar of butter is automatically equivalent to 1 cup. Buy half bar butter if you would only use ½ cup, or cut the bar into sections. How to Measure Liquid Ingredients: 1. To measure any liquid baking ingredient (in large amounts), pour it into spouted or beaked measuring cups, and then place it on a flat surface. Stoop down to measure - measurement should be read at eye level. Don't lift the cup to your standing eye level - holding the cup this way will tilt the cup and give a wrong measure, even if (you think) you have a very steady hand. How To Measure Very Small Quantities of Baking Ingredients: 1. Small quantities of either dry or liquid baking ingredients should be measured using measuring spoons. These come in a tablespoons set or teaspoons set. Make sure if the recipe specifies tablespoon or teaspoon. 15.4 HOT & COLD DESSERTS Desserts and puddings all have one thing in common – most people love them. The art of making desserts and puddings can be learnt by everyone, but some chefs have a particular passion for creating them. Basic hot and cold desserts and puddings include: Ice creams: made from milk, cream, sugar, eggs and flavoring, then churned in an icecream maker to achieve a smooth texture and consistency. Ice cream is available in many different flavors. Mousses: cold desserts such as chocolate or fruit mousse, generally light and airy in texture, often held together with a setting agent such as gelatin. Egg-based desserts: can be served hot or cold. Cold desserts include crème brûlée, crème caramel and baked egg custard. Hot desserts include bread and butter pudding and cabinet pudding. Egg-based desserts also include meringues. Batter-based desserts: these are usually fried, e.g. pancake and fritters. Milk puddings: can be served hot or cold. They may have fruit added. Examples include semolina and rice pudding. Sponge-based desserts: these include steamed sponges and bake well tart. Fruit-based desserts: these include fruit flans, Eve‘s pudding, fruit crumble and summer puddings. 15.5 BREAD MAKING, CAKES, COOKIES Bread is a staple food prepared by cooking dough of flour and water and often additional ingredients. Dough‘s are usually baked, but in some cuisines breads are steamed (e.g., mantou), fried (e.g., puri), or baked on an un-oiled frying pan (e.g., tortillas). It may be leavened or unleavened (e.g. matzo). Salt, fat and leavening agents such as yeast and baking soda are common ingredients, though bread may contain other ingredients, such as milk, egg, sugar, spice, fruit (such as raisins), vegetables (such as onion), nuts (such as walnuts) or seeds (such as poppy). Referred to colloquially as the "staff of life", bread has been prepared for at least 30,000 years. The development of Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 134
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester leavened bread can probably also be traced to prehistoric times. Sometimes, the word bread refers to a sweetened loaf cake, often containing appealing ingredients like dried fruit, chocolate chips, nuts or spices, such as pumpkin bread, banana bread or gingerbread. Fresh bread is prized for its taste, aroma, quality, appearance and texture. Retaining its freshness is important to keep it appetizing. Bread that has stiffened or dried past its prime is said to be stale. Modern bread is sometimes wrapped in paper or plastic film or stored in a container such as a breadbox to reduce drying. Bread that is kept in warm, moist environments is prone to the growth of mold. Bread kept at low temperatures, in a refrigerator for example, will develop mold growth more slowly than bread kept at room temperature, but will turn stale quickly due to retro gradation. The soft, inner part of bread is known to bakers and other culinary professionals as the crumb, which is not to be confused with small bits of bread that often fall off, called crumbs. The outer hard portion of bread is called the crust. Cake is a form of bread or bread-like food. In its modern forms, it is typically a sweet and enriched baked dessert. In its oldest forms, cakes were normally fried breads or cheesecakes, and normally had a disk shape. Determining whether a given food should be classified as bread, cake, or pastry can be difficult. Modern cake, especially layer cakes, normally contain a combination of flour, sugar, eggs, and butter or oil, with some varieties also requiring liquid (typically milk or water) and leavening agents (such as yeast or baking powder). Flavorful ingredients like fruit purées, nuts, dried or candied fruit, or extracts are often added, and numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients are possible. Cakes are often filled with fruit preserves or dessert sauces (like pastry cream), iced with butter cream or other icings, and decorated with marzipan, piped borders or candied fruit. Cake is often the dessert of choice for meals at ceremonial occasions, particularly weddings, anniversaries, and birthdays. There are countless cake recipes; some are bread-like, some rich and elaborate, and many are centuries old. Cake making is no longer a complicated procedure; while at one time considerable labor went into cake making (particularly the whisking of egg foams); baking equipment and directions have been simplified that even the most amateur cook may bake a cake. A cookie is a small, flat, baked treat, usually containing fat, flour, eggs and sugar. In most English-speaking countries outside North America, the most common word for this is biscuit; in many regions both terms are used, while in others the two words have different meanings. A cookie is a plain bun in Scotland, while in the United States a biscuit is a kind of quick bread similar to a scone. In the United Kingdom, a cookie is referred to as a biscuit, although some types of cookies maintain this name, such as the American-inspired Maryland Cookies, which Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 135
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester are also sold there. In South Africa they are called biscuits, and the word cookie refers to cupcakes. Cookies are most commonly baked until crisp or just long enough that they remain soft, but some kinds of cookies are not baked at all. Cookies are made in a wide variety of styles, using an array of ingredients including sugars, spices, chocolate, butter, peanut butter, nuts or dried fruits. The softness of the cookie may depend on how long it is baked 15.6 INDIAN SWEETS True origins of mithai are unknown. Some varieties, like Habshi and Sohan halwa, originate from Persia. Its roots have been traced as far as the early 1500s when the Moghul Emperor Humayun was exiled to Persia. When he re-conquered India, the makers of Sohan halwa were called by him to India. The halwa makers were not allowed to share their halwa with the common public and it remained for exclusive consumption of the Emperors for around 300 years. Later, in 1835, the makers of this halwa were allowed to open a shop in Ghanta Ghar Delhi. The makers of this halwa were the ancestors of the modern day S.Abdul Khaliq, operating in Karachi, Pakistan South Asian sweets are made with sugar, milk and condensed milk, and cooked by frying. The bases of the sweets and other ingredients vary by region. In the Eastern part of India, for example, milk is a staple, and most sweets from this region are based on milk products. Indian sweets, desserts: Barfi- Barfi is a sweet made of condensed milk and various other ingredients like ground cashews or pistachios. It is customary to attach a thin layer of edible silver foil as food. Chena Murki- Chena murki sweet made from milk and sugar available in Indian province of Orissa. The milk is boiled for a long time and condensed. Sugar is added and the sweet is given a round shape. It is also known by many Bangladeshi and Guyanese people as pera. Chikki- Chikki, A simple sweet made out of peanuts and molasses. Gulab jamun - Gulab jamun is an Indian/Pakistani dessert made out of fried milk balls soaked in sweet syrup. Jalebi or Imarti - Jalebi or Imarti, a popular sweet all over Indian subcontinent. Jalebi is made by deep-frying flour in a circular (coil-like) shape and then dipping in sugar syrup. Imarti is a variant of Jalebi, with a different flour mixture and has tighter coils. Typically Jalebi is brown or yellow, while Imarti is reddish in color. Often taken with milk, tea, yogurt or Lassi. Khaja- Khaja is a sweet food of India. Refined wheat flour, sugar and oils are the chief ingredients of khaja. It is believed that, even 2000 years ago, Khajas were prepared in the southern side of the Gangetic Plains of Bihar. These areas which are home to khaja, once comprised the central part of Maurya and Gupta empires. Presently, Khajas are prepared and sold in the city of Patna, Gaya and several other places across the state of Bihar. Khajas of the Silao and Rajgir are known for their puffiness. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 136
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Khajas have travelled to some other parts of India, including Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. Khaja of Kakinada is a coastal town of Andhra Pradesh. Where as khaja of Puri is too famous. At first, a paste is made out of wheat flour, mawa and oil. It is then deep fried until crisp. Then sugar syrup is made which is known as "pak". The crisp croissants are then soaked in the sugar syrup until they absorb the sugar syrup. In Kakinada Khaja, it is made dry from outside and full of sugar syrup from inside and is juicy. Kulfi- Kulfis are traditional Indian/Pakistani ice-cream, where the sweetened milk/cream is frozen in small metal cans to be served frozen. Usually it has a milky appearance, but additional colors may be applied for display. A summer-time favorite in most of India, especially in the northern India. It comes in variety of flavors such as mango kesar or cardamom. It is typically sold by street-side hawkers who carry around these frozen cans of kulfi in a big earthen pot. These vendors are known as "kulfiwalla" (one who sells kulfi). Kheer- Kheer is a pudding, usually made from milk and one of these ingredients vermicelli rice, Bulgar wheat, semolina, tapioca, dried dates, and shredded white gourd. It is also known as "Payas" (see below). .... Laddu- Motichoor Ladoo is a popular variant. Laddu (sometimes transliterated as laddoo or laadu) is made of varieties of flour and/or semolina and other ingredients cooked in sugar formed into balls. The popularity of Laddu is due to its ease of preparation. Variations in the preparation of Laddu result in a spectrum of tastes. Laddu is often made to celebrate festivals or household events such as weddings. Malpoa- Malpoa is one of the most ancient home made sweets of India. It is a form of pancake (made of wheat or rice flour) deep fried and sugar syrup. Several variations exist in different parts of India, especially popular in Bengal and Orissa. Motichoor -Motichoor Ka Ladoo is a sweet food of the central Bihar made from grilled gram flour flakes which are sweetened, mixed with almonds, pressed into balls and fried in ghee. Originally from Maner, a small town near Patna, it is now made and consumed throughout India and Pakistan. .It is a traditional gift at weddings, engagements and births. Narkel Naru- Narkel Naru is a dessert from Bengal. They are ball-shaped and made from khoa/condensed milk and coconut, a traditional food during Pujas such as the Lakshmi Puja, consumed throughout India. Parwal Ki Mithai- Parwal Ki Mithai is a dry sweet made of parwal. The outer covering is made of parwal, and the filling is made of milk products. It is rather popular in Bihar, but also found in Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 137
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Pathishapta- Pathishapta is a Bengali dessert. The final dish is a rolled pancake that is stuffed with a filling often made of coconut, milk, cream, and jaggery from the date palm. These desserts are consumed in Thailand as well. Payas or Kheer- Payas (or Kheer as it is called in Hindi) A sweet rice pudding, payas has been a cultural dish throughout the history of India, being usually found at ceremonies, feasts and celebrations. In many parts of India, ancient traditions maintain that a wedding is not fully blessed if payas (or payasam as known in South India) is not served at the feast during traditional ceremonies like marriage, child birth, annaprasan (first solid feed to child) etc. Rasgulla- Rasgulla, a popular sweet dish made from cottage cheese. Rasgulla is a popular relished sweetmeat in India and Pakistan. Originally a dessert in Orissa for centuries, this dish made its way to West Bengal when the Oriya cooks started migrating to West Bengal in search of jobs, bringing along the recipe. It was only then that Nobin Chandra Das of Kolkata modified its recipe to give it its current form. This dish is produced by the boiling of small balls of casein in sugar syrup. This sweet dessert can be found in many eastern Indian households. Sandesh- Sandesh is a sweet made from fine cheese made from cow's milk kneaded with fine ground sugar or molasses. This is a sweet from West Bengal and Orissa. Revered for its delicate making, and appreciated by the connoisseur, this represents sweet making at its finest. Sandesh comes in two varieties, "Norom Pak" (the softer version) and "Koda Pak" (the harder version). The softer version although more gentle and considered better, is fragile. The harder version is robust and often easier for storage. Molasses made from dates can be used to make a special variation of Sandesh called "Noleen Gurher Sandesh" (a Sandesh made from "Noleen Gurh" or molasses from dates) or simply "Noleen Sandesh" (as shown in the figure). Shrikhand- Shrikhand is a creamy dessert made out of strained yogurt, from which all water is drained off, leaving the thick yogurt cream by itself. Adding dry fruits, mango puree enhances the Shrikhand‘s taste. It is a Western Indian traditional dish. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 138
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 15.7 LESSON SUMMARY There are various equipments used in bakery i.e. baking sheet, bread pan, cake pan, convection oven, cookie cutter, electric mixer, hot pad, jelly roll pan, measuring cup, measuring spoon, mixing bowl, muffin pan, pastry blender, pastry brush, pastry cutter, pie pans, Rolling Pin, Pastry Cloth, Rolling Pin Cover , wire cooling rack, wire whisk etc. The art of making desserts and puddings can be learnt by everyone, but some chefs have a particular passion for creating them. Bread is a staple food prepared by cooking dough. Dough‘s are usually baked, but in some cuisines breads are steamed. Cake is a form of bread or bread-like food. In its modern forms, it is typically a sweet and enriched baked dessert. A cookie is a small, flat, baked treat, usually containing fat, flour, eggs and sugar South Asian sweets are made with sugar, milk and condensed milk, and cooked by frying. The bases of the sweets and other ingredients vary by region. In the Eastern part of India, for example, milk is a staple, and most sweets from this region are based on milk products. 15.8 KEY WORDS Warping- distort, bend, twist. Parchment- strong, smooth or textured, usually off-white Condensed – Strong, thick, reduced Marzipan- a sweet paste made of ground almonds and sugar, often with egg whites or yolks, used as a layer in cakes Soggy – damp, moist, wet Quiches - a pie filled with an egg-and-cream mixture and various meat or vegetable ingredient Frittatas - a firm thick Italian omelet that may contain any of a variety of chopped ingredients, including meat or vegetables Molasses - the thick sticky sweet syrup produced during the refining of raw sugar 15.9 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in detail about the various equipments used for bakery? 2. What are the different Hot and cold desserts? 3. Write in detail about Bread making, cakes & cookies? 4. Write in detail about the various Indian Sweets? 5. What are the qualitative & quantitative measures of Ingredients in bakery? 15.10 REFERENCES 1. K.Arora& K.N.Gupta – Theory of cookery 2. Gisslen wayne – professional cookery (john Wiley and sons) 3. Montage – Larousse gasrtronomique (Himalaya publishing group) 4. Modern Cookery, Thangam E. Philip. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 139
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester UNIT-16 STORAGE & REHEATING CONTENTS 16.0 Objectives 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Food Storage 16.3 Storage life of Foods 16.4 Various Methods of food Storage 16.4.1 Dry goods 16.4.2 Deep Frozen Item 16.4.3 Chiller/ Cold Storage 16.4.4 Storage of cooked foods 16.5 Rotation of Stock 16.6 Storage General 16.7 Rechauffe or reheating of food 16.8 Lesson Summary 16.9 Key Words 16.10 Questions to Solve 16.11 References 16.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this lesson, students should be able to demonstrate appropriate skills, and show an understanding of the following: ◘Principles of food storage ◘ Recommended storage for various foods ◘ Storage guidelines ◘ Reheating of food 16.1 INTRODUCTION Storage does not improve the quality of any food. The quality of a food will also not decrease significantly during storage as long as the food is stored properly and used within the recommended time frame. Food comes in many forms. Fresh, frozen, dehydrated, canned, salted/ cured, pickled, smoked, and pasteurized food can all play a role in a good storage system. All of these foods require some energy for their production, harvesting, preservation, storage, and preparation (cooking). In the absence of traditional energy sources some food forms may not be available or may not store for the normal shelf-life period. It is possible to convert some forms of food with short shelf-life into other forms with longer shelf-life. 16.2 FOOD STORAGE Storage includes food in the refrigerator or freezer, vegetables in a garden or fruit on a tree, livestock, or food stored in a storage room. Management of this food is a vital part of food storage. Food is perishable even when stored properly under the most favorable circumstances and conditions. Proper storing and rotating food will preserve nutritional quality, eating quality, and eliminate waste. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 140
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester The main reason to store food should be to use it at a later date or convenient time. Properly stored foods and rotated foods will provide: 16.3 STORAGE LIFE OF FOODS Quality and nutritive value of food deteriorates during storage, therefore foods should not be held for long periods beyond their established shelf-life. When food is stored too long, there is the risk of two things happening: color, flavor, aroma, texture or appearance deteriorates to a level where people will not consume the food, and nutrient deterioration may be severe enough to render the food an unreliable source of specific nutrients. 16.4 VARIOUS METHODS OF FOOD STORAGE 16.4.1 Dry Goods 1. All goods should be stored on racks of the floor 2. Sufficient space must be left between stacks to allow circulation and access for inspection 3. Stacks must be placed a minimum of six inches from the wall 4. Fluctuations in temperature should be avoided 5. Goods should be inspected regularly for signs of deterioration 6. Foods of a highly odors nature must be segregated from food liable to absorb odors 7. A cleaning schedule should be implemented 8. Spices in use are to be stored in suitable containers which have protective lid 9. Stainless steel or plastic containers are suitable 10. Labeling of containers should be clear and legible 16.4.2 Deep Freeze Items 1. Food storage in freezers shall be adequately protected from contamination 2. No food shall be stored directly on the floor but instead shall be placed on shelves 3. Food that is cooked and refrozen shall be stored in suitable containers and covered. 4. The maximum storage temperature should not exceed 0o F 16.4.3 Chiller/ Cold Storage 1. Due to the risk of contamination different types of foods should be stored separately 2. Cooked meat should be stored at a higher level than the raw meat, which should be stored on the bottom shelf with no other food placed beneath it. 3. Strong smelling foods should be kept separate and preferably in closed containers. 4. All foods should be stored on shelves of the floor 5. If lids are not available then a suitable covering material such as aluminum foil should be used to protect from contamination. 6. Maximum storage temperature should not exceed 45o F 16.4.4 Storage of Cooked Foods: Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 141
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester Hot dishes -- The ideal temperature for food that is to be served hot is 140o F. Prior to serving there are two methods of following these guidelines of temperature a. Baine- Marie: The personnel in charge for this, must ensure that the lids are kept in place until service commences and even during the weak periods b. Ovens: the personnel must ensure that the ovens are switched on at least twenty minutes prior to use. Cold dishes -- Cooked food that is to be served cold should be cooled to below 45 o f as quickly as possible. Do not put the cooked food directly from the oven to the refrigerator, as this may result in the rise of internal temperature of the refrigerator. It is advisable to keep the hot food at room temperature preferably in the coolest part of the kitchen for at least of 15 minutes. It should be covered for this period to avoid contamination after the initial cooling the foods can be placed in the refrigerator. (7oc) 16.5 Rotation of Stock: Any food irrespective of its methods of storage and packaging has a limited life span so it is important to know the expected life of each type of food. Thus the importance of rotation of stock is highlighted to ensure minimum wastage and this results in a system based on ―First in first out‖ is followed to. Thus the stock should be identified and labeled with the date of receipt and oldest stocks are to be placed in the front, new stocks put to the back. 16.6 Storage General: All food storage area whether ambient or refrigerator must be kept in a clean and orderly manner. The following points are relevant with this regard. 1. In a convenient lay our for receiving and issuing goods 2. Stores should be locked and issuing should be only for a certain period of time in a day. 3. Plenty of shelves in varying widths. 4. Adequate lighting should be available 5. The lay out of stores should correspond to the lay out of the stock sheet if possible, making stock taking easier 6. Goods should not be stored on the floor. This prevents adequate cleaning Return all goods, which are inferior in quality and not to the specifications of materials requisitions. Check all food on delivery for the quality and freshness. 16.7 RECHAUFFE OR REHEATING OF FOOD Rechauffe is the utilization of the ―left-over‖ by the reheating and redressing of already cooked foods. Although freshly cooked food is better than any which has been reheated, from an economical standpoint, it is therefore an important branch of cookery. General Rules for Reheating Foods: 1) Cooking does not kill all harmful bacteria, especially bacterial spore survive heat since they are heat tolerant. After cooking, the remaining bacteria can grow rapidly when the food is cooling and being re-heated. 2) In order to kill any food poisoning bacteria present, food needs to reach a temperature of 70°C (158°F) and cook at that temperature for at least 2 minutes. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 142
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 3) Cooked food should be cooled as quickly as possible before putting it in the fridge or freezer. Small quantities will cool quite quickly but larger quantities should be either divided into smaller portions, or transferred to a container with a large surface area stirring the contents may help cooling faster. During warm weather, stand the container in a larger bowl of iced water. Do not cover the food while it is cooling. 4) Never re-cook, only reheat 5) Make use of all the scraps of foods, but be sure that they are not spoilt. 6) To improve the taste for fish, white meat, lemon juice, parsley, nutmeg could be added. 7) The flavorings and seasonings, when mixed with finely minced meat, blend better and heat penetrates quickly to all parts and this reduces the reheating time. Fish can be flaked and blended with spices. Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 143
    • Food and Beverage Production, First Semester 16.8 LESSON SUMMARY Storage does not improve the quality of any food. The quality of a food will also not decrease significantly during storage as long as the food is stored properly and used within the recommended time frame. Storage includes food in the refrigerator or freezer, vegetables in a garden or fruit on a tree, livestock, or food stored in a storage room. Management of this food is a vital part of food storage. Food is perishable even when stored properly under the most favorable circumstances and conditions. Proper storing and rotating food will preserve nutritional quality, eating quality, and eliminate waste. Quality and nutritive value of food deteriorates during storage. Therefore foods should not be held for long periods beyond their established shelf-life. Rechauffe is the utilization of the ―leftovers‖ by the reheating and redressing of already cooked foods. Although freshly cooked food is better than any which has been reheated, from an economical standpoint it is therefore an important branch of cookery 16.9 KEY WORDS Deteriorates- get worse, decline, weaken Segregated- separate, keep apart, set aside Contamination- contagion, infectivity Scraps – waste, leftovers, bits and pieces Flaked – chip, crumble, come off 16.10 QUESTIONS TO SOLVE 1. Write in short about food storage & storage life of Food? 2. What are the various methods of Storage? 3. What is rotation of Stock? 4. What is Storage in general? 5. What is Rechauffe or reheating of food? 16.11 REFERENCES 1. Tim Knowles, Food Safety in the Hospitality Industry. 2. Raymond Charles Hutchinson, Food Storage in the Home 3. Ser-Vo-Tel Institute, Food Care and Food Storage, 4. Usha Raina, Basic Food Preparation: A Complete Manual, Compiled & Printed by ECDL Educations Private Ltd. 144