Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158   STRESS MAN...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158desires and f...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158opinion of re...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158On the other ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158        sente...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158        autho...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158stress is dir...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158      relati...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158        veloc...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158Stress is cau...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158        failu...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158     •Premens...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158believe that ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158face. If you ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158Other Approac...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158organizationa...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158Houtman, I.L....
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

STRESS MANAGEMENT POLICY ANALYSIS: A PREVENTATIVE APPROACH

4,914

Published on

0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,914
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

STRESS MANAGEMENT POLICY ANALYSIS: A PREVENTATIVE APPROACH

  1. 1. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158 STRESS MANAGEMENT POLICY ANALYSIS: A PREVENTATIVE APPROACH Jamal Nazrul Islam Emeritus Professor, Research Centre for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh Haradhan Kumar Mohajan Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh, E-mail: haradhan_km@yahoo.com Rajib Datta Department of Finance, Faculty of Business Studies, Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Cell: +8801819895389, E-mail: datraj@ymail.comAbstractAt the present world human resource is considered as one of the most important resource. In the era of dynamicbusiness most of the organizations invest a huge amount of money and spend a great deal of time and efforts asthough they can properly utilize and manage this vital resource. Stress is one of the burning questions that hinder theofficers’ and workers’ performance and productivity. In this paper all experiences of jobs are discussed whichaffects human minds and bodies. It has been essentially built the inputs which are obtained by conducting acomprehensive study covering the aspects of stress in today’s business. An attempt has been taken to address threemajor key areas related with the types and sources of work related stress, impact of stress on individuals and the wayof managing stress.Keywords: Stress, Employee Stress, Stress management, Occupational stress, Reduction of stress, Prevention ofstress.INTRODUCTIONEvery era in history has been characterized first to describe the “fight or flight response”by some incapacitating diseases. Plague, as a series of involuntary physiological andPolio and Pneumonia were eliminated when biochemical changes that prepare one to dealthe environmental conditions were improved with threats of danger (Cannon 1918).or when the germs or viruses were destroyed Professor Hans Selye in 1956, first timeor protected through drugs or vaccines. In introduced before the public the concept ofthe modern society we have some stress in a medical sense to indicate thecharacteristic diseases, but normally overloading of works on human body. Heconsider not being so easy to eliminate. It found that any problem, real or imagined,leads to psychosomatic disease or heart could cause the cerebral cortex (the thinkingdisease and it is a major contributor to part of the brain) to send an alarm to thedisturbances in one’s emotional, family and hypothalamus (the main switch for the stresssocial life. It inhibits creativity and personal response, located in the midbrain) (Selyeeffectiveness and it is present as general 1976). The hypothalamus then stimulates thedissatisfaction that is so obvious in our daily sympathetic nervous system to make a serieslives. The name of this condition is stress. of changes in our body and our heart rate,Stress is a feeling of emotional or physical breathing rate, muscle tension, metabolism,tension. It is a form of tension in the body or and blood pressure all increase (Stress andmind for which there is no release or outlet. Stress Management 2010). Job stress is theThe Canadian Centre for Occupational major cause for job dissatisfaction, whichHealth and Safety (CCOHS) declares that creates disturbances in the quality of life, so,stress can worsen when there are high it results unhappiness (Kumar 2011). Thedemands placed on a worker in a particular theory of preventive stress management injob, but the worker has little control over organizations was originally formulated inthose demands. 1977.The modern meaning of stress was laid by Stress is very much dynamic condition inDr. Walter B. Cannon, a physiologist at which people confronted with opportunities,Harvard almost 100 years ago. He was the constraints or demand related to what one 1IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  2. 2. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158desires and for which outcome is perceived £26 billion in lost working time, whereto be both uncertain and important. Stress is treatment cost is not included.associated with constraints and demand. Rahim (2010) studied on the employees ofTwo conditions are necessary for potential the banking sector of Pakistan and expressesstress to become actual stress. There must be that the banking sector is becominguncertainty over the outcome and the increasingly competitive around the country,outcome must be important. Stress produces which increasing psychological problems,not only the bad things all time but also such as stress, strain, anxiety, depression,produce some positive outcome in some sleep disorders, etc. He expresses that thespecial events. Sometime when people biggest killer is not AIDS or cancer butremain under pressure they feel to get psychological problems.something and they work more and harderwhich increase the total productivity. This OBJECTIVESpaper will provide the critical view about the The main objective of the study is tostress and consequences of it which will be evaluate the stress and the way of managingmore helpful to manage it and development it in personal and organizational life. Otherof way to handle more stressful situation. objectives of this paper are follows:The overall cost of stress at work has been  define stress clearly,estimated to be in the range of 20 billion  identify the causes of stress inEuros in the European Union and more than personal and social life,150 billion dollars in the USA, mainly for  measuring the extent of stress,health care and treatment costs, absenteeism  identify the prevalence andand turnover (Daniels 2004). development of indicators for stress,Everyone suffers from stress on some level  measuring the impact of stress onand no one is free from it. Sometimes stress job,levels are comparatively higher and  the importance in managing stress,sometimes they are lower. Hence stress is a andnormal part of everyday life and we cannot  ways of managing stress.really avoid it. But it is necessary to be ableto manage stress, otherwise chronic stress, if METHODOLOGYleft untreated, can lead to a variety of stress This study has been conducted based onrelated illnesses such as hypertension, heart both primary and secondary data availabledisease, anxiety, depression, memory on the relevant field. The primary data areimpairment, panic attacks, digestive collected through personal interviews fromdisorders, autoimmune diseases and chronic some professionals. Research works,fatigue syndrome (Cooper 1996, Porth 1998, publications and texts on this relevant fieldGruner 2006, and Provino 2010). are used for this study. This study is coveredIf anybody is resulted by stress, he/she feels by 90 respondents broadly from differentnon-sleeping, remains nervous in much of fields and categories. Among thethe time, gets sick a lot, apathy of participate respondents, 70 were married, 20 werein anything, change in the quality of work, unmarried; 70 were male, and 20 wereand remains irritable and moody. Stress and female. Again among the 90 respondents, 20stress related problems such as anxiety and were working in financial organization, 5 indepression are now the foremost reasons for service organization, 40 in manufacturing,absenteeism from workplace in the United and 15 were physician and 10 wereKingdom (UK) costing the economy at least businessman (table-1). To measure the 2IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  3. 3. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158opinion of respondents especially for physicians we used 5 point Likert scale (1-5) whichindicate more popular to least. Table 1: Sample distribution. Nature of respondents Married Unmarried Total Businessman 10 0 10 Employee of service organization 0 5 5 Manufacturing employees 35 5 40 Physician 10 5 15 Employee of financial organization 15 5 20 Male 55 15 70 Female 15 5 20We emphasized that the cause-effect of daily life and the effects of stress are notrelationships is the relation between stress always negative.and cardiovascular illness. Stress also effects In small quantities, stress is good; it canthe organization that is linked to motivate us and help us to become moreabsenteeism and productivity. productive, but too much stress or a strong response to stress can be harmful. Stress canDEFINITION OF STRESS arise from any situation or thought thatStress can be defined in general term as makes one feel frustrated, angry, or anxious.people feel pressures in their own life. The Everyone sees situations differently and hasstress due to work load can be defined as different coping skills, so, no two personsreluctance to come to work and a feeling of will respond exactly the same way to aconstant pressure associated with general particular situation. Situations that arephysiological, psychological and behavioral considered stress provoking are known asstress symptoms. Hence stress is the harmful stressors. Many professionals suggest thatphysical and emotional responses that there is a difference between what weoccurs when the requirements of the job do perceive as positive stress, and distress asnot match the capabilities, resources, or negative stress. But we often use the termneeds the worker and he expressed that job stress to describe negative situations. Thisstress can lead to poor health and even leads many people to believe that everyinjury. Stress is increasing due to stress is bad for us, which is not true actuallyglobalization and economic crisis, which (Stress and Stress Management 2010).affects all professions, and as well as Positive stress has the followingfamilies and societies, almost all countries characteristics (Stress and Stressof the world (Bharatai and Newman 1978). Management 2010):Stress is our body’s physical and emotional  motivates, focuses energy,reaction that frightens, irritate, confuse,  is short-term,endanger, or excite us and place demands on  is perceived as within our copingthe body. Stress can be caused by events that abilities,are pleasing as well as events that create  feels exciting, andcrisis in our lives. But stress is a normal part  improves performance. 3IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  4. 4. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158On the other hand negative stress has the Hans Selye (1976) in his classic book Thefollowing characteristics (Stress and Stress Stress of Life briefly described the stressManagement 2010): reactivity as a three-phase process termed  causes anxiety or concern, the general adaptation syndrome as follows:  can be short or long-term,  is perceived as outside of our coping Phase 1, Alarm Reaction abilities, The body shows the changes characteristic  feels unpleasant, of the first exposure to stressor. At the same  decreases performance, and time, its resistance is diminished and, if the  can lead to mental and physical stressor is sufficiently strong (severe burns, problems. extremes of temperature), death may result.The reaction of body to stress can bedescribed by following three stages (Truch Phase 2, Stage of Resistance1980): Resistance ensues if continued exposure toAlarm Reaction Stage: the body identifies the stressor is compatible with adaptation.and first reacts to the stress. In this stage the The bodily signs characteristic of the alarmbody first releases hormones that help in the reaction have virtually disappeared anddefense against the stressor. resistance rises above normal.Resistance Stage: the body continues toresist the stressors as they persist. If the Phase 3, Stage of Exhaustionstressors continue and there is a consistent Following long-continued exposure to thestate of resistance, there is potential to move stressor, to which the body had becomeinto the third and final stage. adjusted, eventually adaptation energy isExhaustion Stage: the body and mind are exhausted. The signs of the alarm reactionno longer able to make the necessary reappear, but now they are irreversible, andadjustments to resist the stressors and there the individual dies (Greenberg 1990).is physical and/or mental exhaustion. Source of stress vary according to age,SOURCES OF STRESS place, time, situation etc. We have listedAt present stress is the number one problem sources of some of negative stresses asfor working people. It is increasing follows:continuously day by day due to globalization  death of a close family member or aand global economic crisis. It creates the close friend, the death of a businessfight or flight response in the brain, the partner, sick of children or anystress hormone then circulates in the blood family member, losing healthstream which causes the heart to speed up, benefits or no health insurance,the arteries to narrow and blood sugar to personal injury or illness, change inrise. In our daily life we face different type health or behavior of family member,of stressors, such as biological (toxins, heat, loss of a friend,cold), psychological (threats to self-esteem,  pregnancy, sexual difficulties,depression), sociological (unemployment, divorce, filing for divorce,death of a loved one, birth of a child), and relationship break-up, losing contactphilosophical (use of time, purpose in life). with loved ones,In any case, regardless of the stressor, the  detention in jail, detention of familybody’s reaction will be the same (Greenberg member or partner in jail, life1990). 4IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  5. 5. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158 sentence of a close person, death Social Stressors: We can experience penalty of a close relative or a friend, multiple stressors arising from the demands  unemployment, losing of job, cannot of the different social roles we occupy, such find a job or losing job of a friend, as parent, spouse, caregiver, and employee. changing of job, lack of training Some social stressors are deadlines, necessary to do a job, job insecurity, financial problems, job interviews, change in working hours, change in presentations, disagreements, demands for living conditions, our time and attention, loss of a loved one,  bankruptcy/money problems, divorce, and co-parenting. substandard housing, selling a home Physiological: Situations and circumstances or land for money, affecting our body can be experienced as  feeling unsafe in neighborhood due physiological stressors. Physiological to crime, being abused or neglected, stressors are rapid growth of adolescence, military deployment in the locality, menopause, illness, aging, giving birth, and accidents, lack of exercise, poor nutrition,  change in sleeping habits, change in and sleep disturbances. eating habits, change in finances, not Thoughts: Our brain interprets and having enough money to pay bills or perceives situations as stressful, difficult, house rent. painful, or pleasant and some such situations  create stress in our life.Now we have listed sources of some ofpositive stresses as follows: External Sources of Stress  starting a new job, External sources of stress consist of environmental, organizational, job-career,  receiving a promotion at service, co-worker, and family and so on. The source  marriage ceremony or birthday of external sources can vary according to the ceremony, following circumstances:  buying a suitable home or a car of  change of social circumstances, such new model, as bereavement of spouse, moving  having a child, job, marriage, holidays etc.,  winning prizes or winning a lottery,  pressure to conform to social or  planning to enjoy a vacation, employment patterns of behavior,  holiday seasons, and  conflict in relationships  taking educational classes or learning misunderstanding with the a new hobby. coworkers, superiors, subordinates, colleagues, or an absence of praiseWe realize that stress comes from the four and being valued by others,basic sources. Among them first two are  lack of support, time to be listened tocalled external sources of stress and last two and time for relaxation,are called internal sources of stress. Stress  having a high-pressure job, beingand Stress Management (2010) expresses unemployed or only having a smallthe four basic sources of stress as follows: range of social circumstances, e.g.,The Environment: The environmental rarely leaving the house, fewstressors include weather, noise, crowding, hobbies,pollution, traffic, unsafe and substandard  strict deadline, too tight or too loosehousing, and crime etc. supervision, lack of parity of 5IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  6. 6. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158 authority, working at a long stretch, the age boundary of 26-35 years (Imtiaz and lack of having chance of Ahmad 2009). entertainment policies, and  boring and noisy, smoke filled work CONCEPTUAL ISSUES environment, cramped offices bitter Is there anybody who is not familiar with the fumes, the glare of sun and the term Stress? Definitely the answer will be burning heat (e.g., in street and “no”. In the era of super flexibility and rapid rerolling mills), and high turnover changing environment we all experience rate in organization. stress, rather it, is better to say “we are anxious about to stress and the way ofCary Cooper has developed a concise yet managing stress fall us in stress too.” Beforecomplete list of six sources of work stress managing stress we should know what it is.(Cooper 1983) as follows: According to oxford dictionary, stress is 1. Job Conditions: Quantitative and defined from various points of view. Among qualitative work overload, people these we pick up the following two decisions, physical danger, meanings: technostress. 2. Role Stress: Role ambiguity, sex bias and sex-role stereotypes. 1. Mental pressure: Pressure or worry 3. Interpersonal Factors: Poor work caused by the problems in someone’s and social support systems, lack of life. management concern for the worker, 2. Physical pressure: Pressure put on political rivalry, jealousy, or anger. that can damage it or make it loose 4. Career Development: its shape. Underpromotion, overpromotion, job security, frustrated ambitions. According to the father of stress researcher 5. Organizational Structure: Rigid Professor Hans Selye, “Stress is the spice of and impersonal structure, political life, the absence of stress is death.” battles, inadequate supervision or The famous author R. S. Schuler defines training, non-participative decision stress as a dynamic condition which an making. individual is confronted with an opportunity, 6. Home-work Interface: Spillover, constraint or demean related to what one’s lack of support from spouse, marital desire and foe which the outcome is conflict, dual career stress. perceived to be both uncertain andAt present employers are critically analyzing important. From these above discussions wethe stress management issues which give to can find some of inputs about stresses aslower job performance of employee follows:originating from dissatisfaction and high  stress is caused by our reaction to theturnover and finally affecting organizational external environment,goals and objectives in production. Stress  it affects directly related to our mindhas become major problem for employer and body that means it has physicalmainly in developing nations. Sometimes and emotional effects on us, andemployees do not like to work with their  stress creates positive and negativeorganizations due to high levels of stress feelings.among them and majorities were between We can define stress in many ways based on its area and impact. Though the impact of 6IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  7. 7. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158stress is directly related to both the body and performance then it could be stated asmind of individuals but from the view point dysfunctional stress. Long-term stress canof sources we can define it in the following create some problems such as,ways: cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletalDirect Stress: When the sources of stress disorders (in the back and upper limbs),are directly related to the person then it is psychological disorders (depression andcalled direct stress. Suppose, Mr. X and Mr. burnout) etc.Y are working in the same department of the Certain Stress: From the view pointsame factory and suddenly Mr. X loses his certainty, when the result of stress is knownjob, then stress for Mr. X is considered as to individuals then it is called certain stress.direct stress. For example, the peak period of productionIndirect Stress: When the sources of stress is generally temporary stress and known tois not directly related the person then it is all. Certain stress is less harmful andcalled indirect stress. In the previous produce very constructive result andexample the incident of losing job of Mr. X sometimes does not produce higher result.creates a stress for Mr. Y who is still in that Uncertain Stress: When the length of timejob. The losing of job of peer group (Mr. X) as well as result of stress is not perceived byof Mr. Y or the fear of losing his (Mr. Y) job the stressors is called uncertain stress.could be a cause of stress. It is of course the Generally uncertain stress is harmful andimpact of direct stress is more than that of produces negative result or hinders theindirect stress. group performance.Short-term Stress: From the view point of Stress is a universal experience in the life ofduration of time, when the stress affects for each person and every employee evena limited period of time then it is called executives and managers cannot avoid it. Itshort-term stress i.e., in a production- is estimated that in the world about 100oriented factory in the peak period of million workdays are being lost due to stressproduction (generally 3 to 6 months) or at and nearly 50% to 75% disease are related tothe end of the month in accounts department stress (Bashir 2007).of a company workers face a short-termstress. Some of the short-term stresses are OCCUPATIONAL STRESSshort temper, headache, shortness of breath, Occupational stress was formally identifiedsleep disturbances, difficulty concentrating, in 1989, when the Commonwealthupset stomach, apathy, and job Commission for the Safety, Rehabilitationdissatisfaction. and Compensation of CommonwealthLong-term or Perpetual Stress: When the Employees initiated several researchstress affects for a long period of time then it projects. Occupational stress can be definedcould be called long-term or perpetual as the harmful physical and emotionalstress. From the view point of outcome responses that occur when the requirementsfunctional stress when the result of stress is of the job do not match the capabilities,positive or stress improves someone’s resources, or needs of the worker, which canperformance in the job. Some stresses lead to poor health and even injury (Rehmansupport the goals of organizations and 2008). Sources of occupational stress haveimprove the performance; these are been categorized by Cooper and Marshallfunctional, constructive form of stress. (1976) as follows:When the consequences of stress is  intrinsic to the job,destructive or hinder someone’s  role in the organization, 7IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  8. 8. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158  relationships at work, colleagues of absent or under-performing  career development, staff (Clarke and Cooper 2000).  organizational structure and climate, Houtman (2007) expresses that stress has and also been associated with a number of other  home-work interface. ill-health outcomes, such as cardiovascularHere ‘intrinsic to the job’ will include diseases (Kivimäki et al. 2002),physical aspects of the working musculoskeletal disorders, particularly backenvironment, such as noise and lighting, and problems (Hoogendoorn et al. 2000) andpsychosocial aspects, such as workload. neck-shoulder-arm-wrist-hand problemsOccupational stress has been defined by (Ariëns et al. 2001), as well as absence frommany researchers (Cox 1978, Cummings work (Houtman et al. 1999). When peopleand Cooper 1979, Quick and Quick 1984) as are in a state of stress, they often feela negatively perceived quality which, as a concerned, less vigilant and less efficient inresult of inadequate coping with sources of performing works (Barling et al. 2004).stress at work, has negative mental and When stress reactions persist over a longerphysical health consequences. period of time, they may develop into moreIn a recent survey of employees, more than permanent, less reversible health outcomes,80% said that they feel stress on the job, such as chronic fatigue, burnout,about 70% expressed a need to learn how to musculoskeletal problems or cardiovascularmanage stress and 45% felt their co-workers disease.needed help in managing stress. The Our study has identified some differentorganization should consider that types of stresses which are related to theOccupational Stress Indicator (OSI), to work term as work-related stresses aswhether to improve for preventing stress follows:(Cooper et al. 1988). The results of a large-  Some people always feel urgency inscale household survey indicated that 19.5 the work life, they are alwaysmillion working days were lost in the United fighting to beat deadlines and haveKingdom (UK) during 1995 due to work- the habit of doing anything at therelated illness, such as, musculoskeletal, eleventh hour, which leads to tensionstress, anxiety and depression (Jones et al. and stress.1998). Heller et al. (2002) and Rode (2004)  When people around us life juniorsexpressed that job stress creates negative do not behave according to therelationship with the satisfaction of the expectation, and failed to give theemployees. results which expected leads toWork-related stress has growing interest interpersonal conflicts and it causeacross Europe in recent years due to pain, guilt and deep impression for adramatically globalization of the economy, long time. Someone does not agreeuse of new information and communications with the view and opposes, does nottechnology, growing diversity in the keep his promise and is cheated withworkplace (Landsbergis 2003). respect to money, supply of goods,Organizations suffer business loss through and quality of goods.lost working days due to work related illness  Minds of most of the people run withor accidents, absenteeism, staff turnover, a tremendous velocity with onelowered performance, and the associated, thought after another. Mind velocityoften hidden, costs of training replacement is high during emotions of hurry,staff and the added burden placed on the impatience and desperation. High 8IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  9. 9. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158 velocity of mind leads to fatigue of drug abuse, hypertension and host of the mind due to constant alertness cardiovascular problems (Meneze 2005). and loss of concentration. Modern man suffers from worry of too many THE AFFECT OF STRESS tasks to be done simultaneously, Previously described various types of which leads to stress. stresses could end with different results.  Unrealistic target leads to Whether the stress with constructive or tremendous increase in the stress destructive it depends what types of stresses level. Modern executive punish they are. Certain stress usually products themselves by creating deadlines constructive result where the uncertain stress without bothering about health, usually produces destructive result. It is an wealth, family or peace of mind. important factor to consider in case of Such unrealistic targets make one finding out the result of stress what type of miss out the quality. Due to fear of stress it is but the result of stress depends on failure one’s stress levels go high. some factors like;  Today’s business always in  the individual strength and competitive mood and some want to personality, win the competition and climb the  the environment or situation, ladder of success in my way, even by  adoption process, and making loss. Such competition  previous experience. shoots up stress in the mind.Occupational stress risks have been The World Health Organization (WHO)increasing for many years, but at the end of predicts that by 2020, depression will be thethe last decade it increases alarm due to second most long term condition worldwide.global financial crisis and globalization. By Everyone is affected by stress differently.the end of the 1990s in many countries there The strength of an individual plays anhas been a combination of increasing and important role in making the end result. Thestabilizing job demands, together with environment and situation, age, ability,decreasing job sovereignty which would attitude the mentality to adopt etc. are alsohave resulted in an increasingly stressful important factor over here. In facing stresssituation within countries. High and the support from environment and situationincreasing quantitative demands, combined dramatically produce constructive result.with low or decreasing control over work The way of finding the best to avoid, copepace, increase stress-related outcomes. Some with or face the situation is a mostcountries showed an increase in stress- considerable factor. Generally beforerelated health problems at work, but it was adoption with the situation generally it isalso observed that workers who developed needed to find out the types of stress and inhealth problems had left the labor market on which way the individual wants with copelong-term absence, or were receiving with or face the way of perceiving the goalsdisability pensions (Houtman 2007). and situations as well as the conflicts theFinally we can express that job stress is preparation and planning, classification andconsidered rising and has become challenge justification of the way, identifying variousfor the employer and because high level alternative and implement the best ways orstress is results in low productivity, methods or processes to face could be aincreased absenteeism and collection to better way to face stress.other employee problems like alcoholism, 9IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  10. 10. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158Stress is caused by our reaction to the  excess of harmful diet, such asexternal environment. The manner in which taking of too much caffeine, alcoholwe perceive and understand the changes or etc.,the particular events some event can bring  changes in body functions, such ashappiness and causes stress in two different puberty pregnancy, menopause,people depending upon how they react it. ageing etc., andBody’s non-specific response to any demand  psychological or psychodynamicmade on it. On one side stress provides the problem.means to express talents and energies and The term ‘psychodynamic’ refers topursue happiness on the other side it can subconscious thoughts and feelings, whichalso cause exhaustion and illness, either often arise from childhood experiences. Thephysical or psychological. It is concerned way in which we learned to cope inwith an individual’s perceptual and childhood is by using defense mechanismscognitive characteristics. that involved a degree of self deception. WeThe factors that contribute to the experience still use these defenses today. Examples ofof stress are many and varied. It is found psychodynamic causes of stress include:that both positive and negative events in  inner conflicts that have not beenone’s life can be stressful. However, major addressed, but repressed (pushed outlife changes are the greatest contributors of of conscious awareness),stress for most people.  encountering situations that evokeToo much travel, entering into a new stressful feelings which wereenvironment, like new colony, new job experienced in childhood,generates stress. The social institutions of  lack of self-awareness,marriage or divorce can cause stress.  being one is capable of achieving farPregnancy can also generate stress, some of too much-setting standards andthe untoward incidents like critical illness of expectations too high and thereforedeath of a relative can also cause stress in falling short of them, andindividuals. Time, pressure, competition,  not having the skill of knowledge tofinancial problems, noise, disappointments cope with certain situations, such ascould be sources of stress. We can divide the spiritual development.sources of stress into two categories: The need for individual spiritualPhysiological or Biological. The causes of development has long been recognized bysome stresses lie in the biological make up religion. It is only during the last 30 yearsof our body, or the interaction of our body that psychology has acknowledged thewith the food we eat or environment we live existence of a spiritual side to the individual.in. Some examples of the biological causes Some spiritual causes of stress are asof stress include: follows:  lack of physical fitness, such as  violation of personal or religious dwarf, blindness, lack of hearing, moral code, contravention of hair fall and other problems of limbs accepted group practice, or violation of body, of laws (‘sin’),  poor diet, such as deficiency of  lack of spiritual development, vitamins, minerals, starch etc.,  an absence of truth i.e., self-  genetic disorder results in chemical deception and deception of others, imbalances in the body,  the lack of a sense personal agency i.e., one can influence events or the 10IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  11. 11. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158 failure to recognize and experience changes brought on by stress hormones in choice, and response to certain situational or event  absence of a relationship with God, stressors (Cannon 1918). Stress associated and lack of forgiveness. with positive events, helps us respond effectively in times of trauma. It alsoCONSEQUENCES AND SYMPTOMS increases our performance or efficiency inOF STRESS ordinary times. On the other hand distress As stated earlier stress is caused by or tends to block our performance, createreaction to the external events and bring health problems, increase anxiety andabout changes in our response and our depression, and reduce optimal efficiencygeneral behavior. It is important to learn (Selye 1976). The presence of stress can behow to know when our stress levels are out divided into three different categories; i)of control. Stress affects the mind, body, and Physiological, ii) Behavioral and iii)behavior in many ways, and everyone Psychological. Now we describe these threeexperiences stress differently. symptoms as follows (table-2):The stress response, also called the fight orflight response, first described by Cannon,refers to the physiological and emotional Table 2: The three categories of symptoms of stress. Physiological Symptoms Behavioral Symptoms Psychological Symptoms •Perspiration •Impulsive behavior •Physical trauma •Eating disorders • Eating more or less • Moodiness •Irritability •Easily distracted •Anxiety •Headaches •Depression/Isolation • Agitation, inability to relax •Hair loss •Speech problems •Overestimation of danger •Loss of sex drive •Lower energy levels •Fear and tension •Illness /sleeplessness • Memory problems •Insomnia and nervous •Crying for no apparent • Irritability or short- tone of voice reason tempered •Tiredness and tiring • Sleeping too much or too •Depression easily little • Inability or difficulty •Increased heartbeat and •Change in personality concentrating blood pressure •Laughing in a high pitch •Dissatisfactions •Tense, muscle ache and •Grinding of teeth • Seeing only the negative pain •Irritable/Aggressive •Strenuous exercise •Trembling •Increasing smoking and •Metabolic disturbances •Nervous ticks use of drugs and alcohol •Panicky •Dryness of throat and •Being accident-prone • Feeling overwhelmed mouth •Susceptibility to illness • Poor judgment •Urinating frequently •Loss of appetite or over • Constant worrying •Sleeping problems eating • Underestimation of ability •Diarrhea, Indigestion and •Burnout to cope frequent urination • Nervous habits (nail • Underestimation of help •Vomiting, Nausea etc. biting, pacing) available •Butterflies in stomach •Increased errors •Depression or general 11IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  12. 12. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158 •Premenstrual tension •Productivity unhappiness •Pain in the neck and •Turnover • Worries and catastrophic lower back •Absenteeism thoughts •Stomach ulcers •Lack of • Anxious, racing, or •Heart problems concentration/ability to ruminating thoughts •Breathlessness and think rationally • Sense of loneliness or hyperventilating •Organization and planning isolation •Palpitations and chest deteriorate discomfort •Reduced self-esteem •Sweaty palms • Using alcohol, cigarettes, •Minor illness (allergies or drugs to relax skin disorder, migraine) •Serious illness (arthritis cancer, diabetes).The impact of excessive stress on team work series diagnosable conditions wereis also harmful, and it can damage: seen as mental health problem, while  individual work performance, stress is compared at some point by  team performance, everyone.  working relationship,  Senior executives recognized that  cooperation between team members, more junior employees felt they had and to hide stress were perhaps unable to  team spirit. recognize stress which could becomeThough stress is caused by our reaction to unhealthy.external environment, it should be reminded Approximately 1 in 3 European workers isthat a positive attitude can dramatically affected by work-related stress according toreduce the stress. So in case of managing European surveys. It has been estimated thatstress at first we have to develop a positive work related stress cost Member States atoutlook that plays an important role. Stress least 20 billion euro per annum.can be managed if we understand the In 2001 in a report of the American Institutereasons which cause stress and the level of of Stress (AIS) expressed that job-relatedstress. We should also try to estimate if we stress costs the US industry $300 billion percould bring about any change in annum. due to absenteeism (1 millionenvironment that can subsequently reduce workers are absent on an average workdaystress. Both the individual and because of stress-related complaints),organizational cooperation is necessary to diminished productivity, employee turnover,manage stress. direct medical costs, compensation claims and legal and insurance fees. In the USA inIMPACT OF WORKPLACE STRESS IN 2003 survey examining attitudes in theEUROPE AND THE USA workplace found stress about the economy,A 2001 report from the UK’s Mental Health increase in emotional ailments includingFoundation, “Burn out or Burning Bright?” substance abuse and depression, incidents ofdetermine the following two reasons to among coworkers. In 1 in 4 employees inincrease stress (Ingram and Pilla 2007): the USA view their jobs as the number one  Most companies did not view stress stressor in their lives, 3 in 4 employees as a mental health problem. Only 12IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  13. 13. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158believe that today’s workers have more on- to think about watching your favoritethe-job stress than a generation ago. television comedy. Tune In: In a study at Monash University inREDUCTION OF STRESS Melborne, Australia, two groups of studentsThe emotional and physical disorders that were told to prepare an oral presentation.have been linked to stress including Some worked in silence; others listened todepression, anxiety, heart attacks, stroke, Pachelbel’s “Caron in D Major” stresshypertension, immune system disturbances caused the silent workers’ blood pressurethat increase susceptibility to infections, a and heart rates to climb. Not so thehost of viral linked disorders ranging from volunteers in the musical group whosethe common cold to herpes to certain measurements remained steadier. They alsocancers, as well as autoimmune diseases like reported feelings much less stress.rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis Think Happy: Focus on someone or(Stress and Stress Management 2010). something you care deeply about forHence we need to control the stresses which anywhere from 15 seconds to five minutes.are harmful to our mind and body. Or picture a scene from a peaceful vacation phrase that makes you feel positive aboutIndividual Approaches to Reduce Stress you and the world can work. It sounds likePlanned life could reduce or prevent advice from a greeting card, but thinkingnegative stress. To manage stress we can happy calming thoughts can counteract thefollow the sequences as follows: psychological changes that occur when  problem identification, under stress. “A lot of stress we experience  goal selection, comes from negative emotions we carry  generation of alternatives, around with us grudges, anger, hurt” says  choose the best, Laskin who studies healing power of  implementation and evaluation the forgiveness. outcomes, and Hit the Road: Get from your desk, the  take corrective action if necessary. coach wherever you may be and take aBesides this we can apply the following tips minute walk. Those who began walking fourto get rid of from stress which provided by times a week, the scientists found, reportedDr. Peret Jaret: feeling less distressed and sleeping better.Do Nothing: At least once during the day, Tests showed that their blood pressure wastake five or ten minutes to sit quietly and do more likely to hold steady when they do notnothing. Focus on the sounds around you, have an hour to spar. Do not sweat it.your emotions and any tension in your neck, Taking five or ten minute walks whenevershoulders, arm, chest, etc. Doing nothing you are under pressure may be just ascan be considered as a real struggle. Just effective.sitting quietly slows the heart rate and Breathe Easy: For five minutes, slow yourreduces blood pressure, countering two of breathing down to about six-belly breaths athe most obvious effects of stress. minute. In other words, inhale for about fiveLaugh Out Loud: Keep something handy minutes to relax your entire body. Start bythat makes you laugh. It could be a testing by your toes; then consciously relaxcollection of your favorite comic strips or a them. Move on to the muscles in your feet,funny voice mail from, say, your child or a and then your calves, upper legs, but tocks,friend. You could even take a few moments moving upward until you end by scrunching up and then relaxing the muscles in your 13IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  14. 14. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158face. If you start your day feeling tense, and compliance facilities plays anchances are you will feel tense all day, say important role in reducing stress.stress experts Gueth. If you take your  Company should carry out thetroubles to bed with you, they are likely to activities including; timelydisturb your sleep, and that can mean relax inspection, investigate hazards andeven you from more tension. complaints, receive information fromRise Relaxed: Right before bed, and after the workers regarding health andthe alarm goes off in the morning, take five safety, and keeping consultancy withminutes to relax your entire body. Start by the worker about any safety issues.tensing your toed; then consciously relax  In stressful occupations such as thethem. Move on to the muscles in your feet, police force, social and healthand then your calves, upper legs, but tocks, services, Power Supply Company,moving upward until you end by scrunching crime reporter in press media,up and then relaxing the muscles in your journalism, Nursing (specially inface. If you start your day feeling tense, public medical hospital), workers inchances are you will feel tense all day, says overheated, sound-polluted, juststress expert Gueth. If you take your covered area (like steel mill, cementtroubles to bed with you, they are likely to industry) sweeper, night guard, thedisrupt your sleep and then can mean even employer should minimize the risksmore tension. and treat personnel who have suffered from violence at work withOrganizational Approaches to Reduce due care.Stress  Key personnel like managements andOrganization plays an important role in personnel officers receive training toreducing stress. For better use of these recognize stress related problemshuman resource to pick up the best result such as high absenteeism, highmanagement must consider these areas as turnover.follows:  The organization should have a  personnel, “stress policy” or guidelines so that  selection of job replacement, staffs know that to do if they are  training and development, suffering from stress.  use of realistic goal setting,  Instead of just offering staffs stress  redesigning job, management workshop, employer  increased employee involvement, could set up stress working parties  improve organizational that could actively involve the staff, communication, and trade unions and other  establish wellness programs. representatives who could thenThe following guidelines could help the develop stress policies and makeorganization in maintaining a negative- other useful recommendations.stress-free environment:  Arranges health related seminars,  All employees must evaluate risks to stress management workshops, health and safety and whenever managing pressure to increase possible employers should performance workshop. implement avoidance and control measures. The preventive strategies 14IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  15. 15. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158Other Approaches to Reduce Stress schedule meaningful and enjoyable activitiesOther techniques to escape from the stress which makes a significant difference inare as follows: reducing stress. We can enjoy music, sports  meditation can also be a good effort or art for meaning and enjoyment. We can to bring down the stress levels, choose a balance diet in our daily life. It is  taking exercise, especially walking important to leave time for sleep and for is the easiest and most effective restful, relaxing activities, such as reading a means of reducing stress favorite or taking a walk. Everyone must  effecting time management, such as schedule time for relaxation each day to taking a mental health day and refresh the mind and body from the tensions spend time with friends, of the day. Some people increase their stress  taking good food and nutrition, by being critical of themselves and what avoiding foods with high fat, sugar, they are accomplishing. It can be helpful to caffeine, salt etc., identify some positive features about  developing communication skills ourselves and remind ourselves of these with honest, direct, and respectful features when we feel negatively about ways and ourselves.  spending time to relax or reading a We can prevent stress by taking care of our good book, or listening to music or health, such as eating well, getting enough playing an instrument. sleep, exercising regularly, and avoidingA widely recognized proactive stress alcohol or drug. These healthy habits are notmanagement method is to maintain a healthy easy to maintain, but they really pay off.physical state through regular exercise, a Those who are non-pious or not serious innutritional diet and good sleep. Another well prayer they can participate in religion orrecognized proactive method of combating spiritual activities to prevent stress.stress is to maintain a strong mental state We have to seek out people who arethrough stay intellectually stimulated encouraging and supportive, rather than(mental exercise), gain stability from critical and pressuring. It is very helpful torelationships (family/friends), practice have relationships with people we feelrelaxation/meditation and participate in comfortable with. The common supportreligion. systems usually include, friends, familyMcKeown (2005) expresses that prevention members, peer support, professionals andand careful management of psychological members of one’s religious or spiritualillnesses will ease the strain on the economy, group. If our feelings are very stressful, thenhealth care systems and individual well we do not keep them bottled up but we canbeing. share them with others who are very helpful and benevolent. We always talk in mindHOW CAN WE PREVENT STRESS? with positive sides if we feel stress for someIf we eliminate some of the avoidable stress works, which prevent us from stress.in our life, it frees us up to enjoy ourselves Laughter is the best medicine to preventmore and to accomplish more of our goals. stress and we can spend few minutes of eachWe have to be aware of situations that day with amusement.caused stress us in the past. For example, ifwe notice that we become irritable whenever ANALYSIS OF FINDINGSwe catch the bus at rush hour, we have to try From the study of all respondents’ views wecatching it at a less busy time. We can found that most of the sources of stress are 15IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  16. 16. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158organizational workload and family related Barling, J. et al. (ed.) (2004), The Handbook of Workproblems. 70% of respondents told that their Stress, Sage, California. Bashir, A. (2007), Employees’ Stress and Its Impactstress mainly comes from workload and a on Their Performance, First Proceedings oflittle bit from family, 30% told their stress International Conference on Business andmainly from family related problems and Technology, 17 December 2007, Iqramoderately from organizational workload, in University, Islamabad: 156-161.organizational level 70% of women told that Bharatai, T.A. and Newman, J.E. (1978), Job Stress, Employee Health and Organizationalthey feel stress due to social insecurity, Effectiveness, Personnel Psychology, 31:among the 40 respondents of organizational 665-669.level 75% think that due to over control and Cannon W.B. (1918), Bodily Changes in Pain,excessive supervision they feel stress. From Hunger, Fear, and Rage: An Account ofthe study we found that most of the stress Recent Researches into the Function of Emotional Excitement, New York: D.we can minimize by individual approaches. Appleton & Co.In this study we observed all physicians told Clarke, S.G. and Cooper, C.L. (2000), The Risk7 ways to control the stress and among the 7 Management of Occupational Stress, Health,ways we found Do Nothing is the most Risk & Society, 2(2): 173-187.popular one and 80% suggest it as the first Cooper, C.L. (1983), Identifying Stressors at Work: Recent Research Developments, Journal ofchoice and scored 4.0 point in the five point Psychosomatic Research, 27: 369-376.scale, Laugh Out and Rise Relaxed stood the Cooper, C.L. (1996) The Handbook of Stress,2nd and 3rd position with 3.5 and 3.0 scale Medicine and Health, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press.point respectively. Cooper, C.L. and Marshall, J. (1976), Occupational Sources of Stress: A Review of the Literature Relating to Coronary HeartCONCLUDING REMARKS Disease and Mental Ill-health, Journal ofThe study indicates that nobody can be free Occupational Psychology, 49: 11-28.from stress, everybody under the stress a Cooper, C.L.; Sloan, S.J. and Williams, S. (1988),little bit or more. Managing stress is a Occupational Stress Indicator Managementcollaborative effort especially within an Guide, Windsor, NFER-Nelson. Cox, T. (1978), Stress, London, MacMillan.organization that helps individual to focus Cummings, T. and Cooper, C.L. (1979), Aproblem-solving in a structured and Cybernetic Framework for the Study ofsystematic way. The objective of this study Occupational Stress, Human Relations, 32:is not to eliminate the stress rather to prevent 345-419.the negative stress that hinders the Daniels, K. (2004), Perceived Risk from Occupational Stress: A Survey of 15individual and group’s performance. Choose European Countries, Occupational andthe best way to prevent stress in individual’s Environmental Medicine, 61: 467-470.organizations and within individuals. It is Greenberg, J.S. (1990), Comprehensive Stressalso necessary to remind that the negative Management (3rd ed.), Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Browneffect of stress could never be over looked Publishers. Gruner, T. (2006), Stress, Journal of Comp.and it is necessary to consult with physicians Medicine, 5(6): 12-20.or psychiatric consultant. Heller, D.; Judge, T.A. and Watson, D. (2002), The Confounding Role of Personality and TraitREFERENCES Affectivity in the Relationship between JobAriëns, G.A.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; and Life Satisfaction, Journal of Houtman, I.L.D.; Wal, G. van der and Organizational Behavior, 23: 815–835. Mechelen, W. van (2001), High Quantitative Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M.; van Koes, Job Demands and Low Co-worker Support B.W. and Bouter, L.M. (2000), Systematic are Risk Factors for Neck Pain: Results of a Review of Psychosocial Factors at Work and Prospective Cohort study, Spine, 26(17): Private Life as Risk Factors for Back Pain, 1896-1903. Spine, 25: 2114-2125. 16IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  17. 17. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, v3i6, 01-17 ISSN: 2229-6158Houtman, I.L.D. (2007), Work-related Stress, of an Integrated Model, Human Relations, European Foundation for the Improvement 57(9): 1205-1231. of Living and Working Conditions, Ireland. Rahim, S.H. (2010), Emotional Intelligence andHoutman, I.L.D., Kornitzer, M. et al, (1999), The Job Stress: An Analytical Study of Pakistan Stress, Absenteeism and Coronary Heart Banks, International Journal of Trade, Disease European Cooperative Study (the Economics and Finance, 1(2): 194-199. JACE-study)-Design of a Multicentre Rehman, H. (2008), Occupational Stress and a Prospective Study, EJPH, 9: 52-57. Functional Area of an Organization,Imtiaz, S. and Ahmad, S. (2009), Impact of Stress on International Review of Business Research Employee Productivity, Performance and Papers, 4(4): 163-173. Turnover: An Important Managerial Issue, Selye, H. (1976), The Stress of Life, New York: International Review of Business Research McGraw-Hill. Papers, 5(4): 468-477. Stress and Stress Management (2010), KlinicIngram, J.S. and Pilla, S.D. (2007), Stress in the Community Health Centre, Canada. Workplace, Global Risk Control Services, Truch, S. (1980), Teacher Burnout and What to Do Occupational Health and Safety, Research About It. Novato: Academic Therapy White Paper, ESIS, Inc. Publications.Jones, J.R.; Hodgson, J.T.; Clegg, T.A. and Eluott, R.C. (1998), Self-reported Work-related Illness in 1995: Results from a Household Survey, Sudbury, HSE Books.Kivimäki, M.; Leino-Arjas, P.; Luukkonen, R.; Riihimäki, H.; Vahtera, J. and Kirjonen, J. (2002), Work Stress and Risk of Coronary Mortality: Prospective Cohort Study of Industrial Employees, British Medical Journal, 325: 857-863.Kumar, K.S. (2011), A Study on Job Stress of the Employees with Reference to Banking Sector, International Journal of Management and Transformation, 5(1): 67- 78.Landsbergis, P.A. (2003), The Changing Organisation of Work and the Safety and Health of Working People: A Commentary, Journal of Occupational Environmental Medicine, 45(1): 61-72.McKeown, A. (2005), Use of Technology in the Prevention of Psychological Illness and Stress Management, (Unpublished Manuscript).Meneze M.M. (2005), The Impact of Stress on productivity at Education Training & Development Practices: Sector Education and Training Authority.Porth, C. (1998), Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.Provino, R. (2010), The Role of Adaptogens in Stress Management, Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism, 22(2): 41-49.Quick, J.C. and Quick, J.D. (1984), Organisational Stress and Preventative Management, New York, McGraw-Hill.Rode, J.C. (2004), Job Satisfaction and Life Satisfaction Revisited: A Longitudinal Test 17IJER | NOVEMBER - DECEMBER 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com

×