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ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
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ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

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  • 1. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, so, v3i5, ISSN: 2229-6158 ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Jamal Nazrul Islam Emeritus Professor, Research Centre for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh Haradhan Kumar Mohajan * Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh, E-mail: haradhan_km@yahoo.com Rajib Datta Department of Finance, Faculty of Business Studies, Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Cell: +8801819895389, E-mail: datraj@ymail.com * Corresponding authorIJER | Sep - Oct 2012 1Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  • 2. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, so, v3i5, ISSN: 2229-6158 ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Jamal Nazrul Islam Emeritus Professor, Research Centre for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh Haradhan Kumar Mohajan Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh, E-mail: haradhan_km@yahoo.com Rajib Datta Department of Finance, Faculty of Business Studies, Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Cell: +8801819895389, E-mail: datraj@ymail.comAbstractThis paper aims at developing a taxonomy, which uses both institutional and functional criteria. Departing from theassumption that there are several evolutionary stages in the development of university-industry collaboration, whichembrace unstructured to fully structured and complex modes, the paper identifies five stages: (i) ad hoccollaboration at an individual level, (ii) development of internal support structures, (iii) creation of autonomoussupport structures, (iv) setting up of individual enterprises and (v) national and transnational networking. These fivedevelopment stages include organizational forms, such as Industrial Liaison Offices, University-Industry ResearchCenters, Trading Companies, Foundations, and, Affiliate programs and Consortia. Each of these organizationalmodels is reviewed in terms of its objectives, functioning and predominance in different regions of the world.Without attempting to be exhaustive specific case examples are included from the African, Western European andLatin American countries. These case examples draw particular attention to some of the crucial management aspectsin the development of university-industry collaboration. These lessons will refer to the choice of an appropriateorganizational model. It will provide also some guidelines for the strategic and operational management of theserelations.Key Words: Collaboration, Organizational model, University, Industry.1. INTRODUCTIONThe relations of business schools with their  Research in inherent difference insocioeconomic environment have become a mission and objective focusestopical issue in the literature on higher directly on company issueseducation over the past twenty years or so. (Dierdonck and Debackere 1988,Recently universities are receiving a single Ditzel 1998, Fassin 2000).funding stream of Higher Education  Research in the difference inInnovation Funding (HEIF) in terms of organization structure and policydirect funding, which creating supports a pays little attention to the firms thatwide range of business–university commercialize inventions, but ratherinteraction and rewards success in focuses on issues relating to thegenerating business income. As a result university (Caroline and Jeannettecontribution of science and technology to 2011).business competitiveness is improving  Research in differences ofgraduate enterprise and employability, and orientation philosophy and interestsaddressing specific business skills of individual researchers isrequirements (Wilson 2012). beginning to receive attentionThe economic literature concerning recently (Kathrin 2010, Waverly anduniversity-to-industry knowledge transfer Emily 2011).can be divided into six categories as follows  Research in effectiveness of(Wei et al. 2011): University-Industry arrange-ments and mechanisms for collaboration (Carayannis et al. 2000);IJER | Sep - Oct 2012 2Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  • 3. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, so, v3i5, ISSN: 2229-6158  Research in benefits and costs in the (vi) improved employment prospects process of University-Industry for students, collaboration (Geisler 1995, Siegel (vii) supplemental income from and Waldman 2003). consulting, allowing academic staff  Research in evaluation of the to improve their salaries, and university-industry collaboration (viii) enhancement of the business performance (Michael and Alok schools’ image as a contributor to 2002, Timothy et al. 2007). the economy. From the practical evidence it is proved thatLikewise, this issue has moved high on the placements, internships and other workagenda of business school’s success. Some experience of the university students inaspects in this regard are discussed here. industries are extremely valuable to students, both in terms of their academic1.1. Benefits of Business School-Industry performance and their employability skillsCollaboration for Business Schools (Driffield et al. 2011, Green 2011, ReddyAt the present time, some benefits for and Moores 2006, Little and Harvey 2006,business schools are seen as underlying National Council for Work Experiencestronger collaboration with industry as (NCWE) 2003).follows: (i) opportunity to attract additional 1.2. Determining Factors of Type of funds for initial teaching and Collaboration and Its Degree of Intensity research thereby increasing Most business schools worldwide have by financial autonomy of business now some type of interaction with local, schools, especially if government national or multinational industry. The type core funding is tightly linked to of interaction and its degree of intensity specific academic purposes, depends on many external and internal (ii) cooperative research with factors for instance the existence of: enterprises as a lever to attract (i) research capacity within the more public funds if there are business school, governmental project funds for (ii) an industrial base involved in collaborative research programs, ‘Research and Development’ (R & (iii) acquisition or access to up-to-date D) activities, equipment, (iii) the existence of governmental (iv) opportunities for faculty and policies, initiatives structures or students to become familiar with programs to stimulate collaborative state-of-the-art industrial R & D, management systems and (iv) a tradition of interaction between enhancement of their familiarity of business school and industry, the constraints of industry, (v) an entrepreneurial culture within (v) improved interaction for the the higher education sector, and development and adaptation of (vi) an academic reward system and degree programs, incentives.IJER | Sep - Oct 2012 3Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  • 4. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, so, v3i5, ISSN: 2229-61582. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY unstructured to highly structuredThe primary objective of this paper is to organizational models can be distinguished:highlight the different models of university- (i) Informal collaboration.industry collaboration. Specific objectives (ii) Setting up internal supportare as follows: structures. (a) To present the readers with a (iii) Creating autonomous support continuum of organizational models structures. encompassing both the least and (iv) Setting up independent support most structured. structures. (b) To explore the benefits of (v) National and transnational ‘university-industry collaboration’. networking. (c) To study the feasibility of different models of ‘university-industry 4.1. Informal Collaboration collaboration’. The informal links of individual academics with enterprises have been and still current3. METHODOLOGY practice in higher education institutions. TheThe paper is based mainly on secondary extent of such linkages depends mainly ondata. Helpful information from different the type and professional specialty ofmagazines, and articles published in institution. In many cases, informaldifferent journals were abundantly used. interactions with the productive sectorDifferent models of university-industry represent an important means for individualcollaboration have been studied. Some cases researchers to upgrade their salaries. Higheron these models have been presented to education institutions may benefit from thisprepare this paper. interaction because it reduces the risk of brain drain for economic reasons. However,4. ORGANIZATIONAL MODELS OF if there are no rules and control of the use ofCOLLABORATION DEVELOPED IN staff time, such informal links with industryDIFFERENT COUNTRIES can conflict with professional commitments,In North America and in several Western i.e., teaching or research.European countries university-industryrelations have a long-standing tradition and Case 1: 20% Formula (Kelly 1992)they have developed into a multitude of 20% formula is applied by some Westernorganizational models. In Latin America and European universities. Under this formula, aAsia, relations have been developing rapidly staff member may, under certainover the past decade. In other regions, in circumstances, and with the permission ofparticular in Africa, relations are not as the head of institution, take one day off perdensely interwoven and less structured. The week for private consultancy under theAfrican continent perhaps with the condition that work is not done during termexception of Nigeria and certainly of South time and that it should complement theAfrica, has a much lesser developed profile research interest of the academic and his/herof university-industry relations. Five department.categories of interaction relation to differentstages in the evolution of university–industry relations from the mostIJER | Sep - Oct 2012 4Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  • 5. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, so, v3i5, ISSN: 2229-61584.2. Setting up Internal Support order to provide a ‘one-stop-shop’ forStructures faculties and outside organizations.The most developed organizational models INTRO’s main aim is to bridge theare to be found in countries where ‘development gap’ between the university’sinstitutions are located in a market oriented research output and industrial application. Inenvironment and enjoy simultaneously a order to accelerate interaction betweenhigh degree of autonomy, i.e., in North business and academia, INTRO introducedAmerica and more recently so in Western an active company visit program and inEurope. In Western Europe, such an return invites companies to visit universityapproach has been strongly supported by facilities. INTRO manages the INTRO Link,national governments, which have keen an industrial affiliate program which wasinterest in technology transfer and joint established to provide companies orcontinuous education activities as a means to individuals who undertake research &upgrade the international competitiveness of development direct access to Nationaltheir economies. University of Singapore (NUS) facilities and research output. Member of the INTROThe Industrial Liaison Office Link program make an annual contributionThe attempt to institutionalize and structure to the university according to their categorythe collaboration of an institution with and are offered special services, such asindustry has become most visible with the general assistance in research andcreation of ‘Industrial Liaison Offices’ development, direct access to databases and(ILOs). The function of such units is to other information and assistance in theprovide an interface for the supply and identification of their training needs.demand of higher education products, thatis, (i) to identify all resources available for The setting up of Industrial Liaison Officescollaborative ventures; (ii) to set up data has become quite common practicebases and any other required information worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, a surveysource; (iii) to promote and market the conducted by Blair (1992) found that six ofinstitutions’ relevant expertise and services; the 15 universities surveyed possessed an(iv) to negotiate and advise on commercial institutional structure, dedicated to pursuit ofcontracts, their costing and legal terms. Such consultancy, such as a university consultingoffices are generally part of the central company, or an industrial liaison office. Inadministration and closely supervised by the the case of the University of Dar-es-Salaam,academic authorities. the Faculty of Engineering comprises anThese units may be regarded as serving the industrial liaison office, which is attached touniversity community and be funded out of the dean’s office in order to coordinate thethe university budget; or they may be practical training of students and industry’sunderstood as a commercial enterprise, and needs for qualified engineers.fees may be charged for services rendered. 4.3. Creation of Autonomous SupportCase 2: The Industry and Technology StructuresRelations Office of the National Many universities worldwide have createdUniversity of Singapore (Chou 1993) structures enjoying a certain amount ofIn 1992, the National University of management autonomy such as University-Singapore established the Industry and Industry Research Centers, HigherTechnology Relations Office (INTRO) in Education Trading Companies, ConstancyIJER | Sep - Oct 2012 5Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  • 6. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, so, v3i5, ISSN: 2229-6158Centers, Foundation, Incubators and Science participation of academic staff as paidParks. consultants. Since they may be companies with limited liability, the mother instituteUniversity-Industry Research Centers: may be protected from the economic risksSetting up Sectoral Structures these structures face.The University-Industry Research Centerscan be created by some particularly The University Consultancy Centerenterprising researchers, by national The Consultancy Center model is quiteauthorities, and also by the universities predominant in African Countries. Its aim isthemselves. The University-Industry to provide a university interface for all thoseResearch Center is a predominant model in who are interested in expert advice byNorth American and Western Europe. In university staff. For instance (Djangmahmost countries in this region, “the group of 1992) in Ghana, the three nationalthe directors of the center is recruited from universities: Legon, University of Sciencethe faculty of the university; in fact they are and Technology, and the University of Capeprofessors at several institutes in the Coast have all set up University Consultancydepartment of information technologies Centers.(Gering and Schmied 1992). Case 3: The Technological Consultancy4.4. Commercializing University Center of the University of Science andProducts-Setting up Independent Support Technology at Kumasi, GhanaStructures: Consultancy Center, Trading (Djangmah 1992)Company and Foundations The Technology Consultancy Center (TCC)With a view to promoting the of the University of Science and Technologycommercialization of university projects, at Kumasi, was already established by themore and more institutions are establishing council in 1972. The TCC at Kumasi has,separate structures. Such structures may be over the years, developed into a major centercalled ‘University Consultancy Centers’, if for the development, promotion and transferthey concentrate on the provision of export of appropriate technologies, in particular foradvice, or ‘Higher Education Trading small-scale industries, despite the fact thatCompanies’, more predominant in Western its initial mission was the provision ofEurope, or ‘Foundations’ in Latin America, consultancies. The TCC at Kumasi is anif the services offered by the university autonomous university unit with aencompass a wide range of products. All management board chaired by Vice-these external structures aim at creating Chancellor and on which all the deans of thefavorable conditions for commercial faculties serve. This principle was set up toactivities or exploiting the results of make the board a high-level decision-technology transfer with the primary making body which represents thepurpose of creating financial benefits for the University at large. The TCC director ismother institution. Their higher degree of appointed by the Vice-Chancellor. Theautonomy allows them to constitute University of Science and Technologygoverning bodies with the needed expertise provides funds for the payment of staffand experience, the development of their salaries, office expenses and transport. It is,own strategic plans the ability to employ in particular, the production units thatstaff with a required specialty unfettered by contribute widely to the total income ofpublic employment constraints, the direct TCC. The TCC experienced considerableIJER | Sep - Oct 2012 6Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  • 7. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, so, v3i5, ISSN: 2229-6158difficulties in its attempt to transfer Trading Company does not need to have anytechnology from the university to the employees, as all its management andentrepreneurs until it set up the Intermediate support services are bought as required fromTechnology Transfer Unit (ITTU). The the parent institution (Leonard 1992).objective was to assist local craftsmen andengineers to establish their own workshops Foundationsand to apply the improved production Foundations have been established intechniques they have seen in practice. The particular in Latin American universities,TCC at Kumasi can be considered as a but their functions and functioning is quitesuccessful structure for technology transfer. similar to that of the Trading Companies.However, its role in attracting funds for the They have private non-profit-making statusuniversity and supplementary income to the with the purpose of bypassing bureaucraticstaff has been rather limited. The Center has rules existing within universities, inbeen very successful in attracting funds particular, in the area of financialtechnical assistance, travel grants and management of the projects contracted withdonations from many nongovernmental firms. Foundations may cover the activitiesorganizations, development agencies United of all departments, or only a single one.Nations Educational, Scientific and CulturalOrganization (UNESCO), foreign Case 4: The Foundation of the Centralgovernments and sector ministries of the University of Venezuela (ProjectGhana Government, but less so from the Columbus 1990)private sector. The Foundation at the Central University of Venezuelan Research Type University wasThe Higher Education Trading Company created in 1982 as a non-profit makingThese specific companies were established private association with legal personality,in almost of the Western European countries with a capital of 80 million bolivars. Itsand they are particularly frequent in the UK. function is to commercialize universitySeveral Western European governments research products and to act as a body thathave supported the setting up of these receives donations for the University. Asorganizations, such as through the creation such, the Foundation can be considered asof a favorable legal environment, allowing a being primarily concerned with incomehigher education institution to become a generation.shareholder in a private company. Thus, in The Foundation works through a network ofIreland, the universities have been entitled to so-called enterprises which produce goodshold some shares in an enterprise (Frain and services out of university research. Such1992). enterprises exist in five areas:Trading Companies are autonomous  production, distribution of productsinterfaces for the management of the for the health sector,university’s commercial activities, usually at  laboratory analysis,a non-profit making basis. They may run  production and distribution ofspecialist facilities, consultancies, short cosmetic products,course work and even run Science Parks. In  production of educational andgeneral, they support technology transfer, or training materials, andthey conduct R & D tasks for industry or  expert advice in petrol extraction.government, as well as produce and market Some enterprises are tightly controlled bya good or a service (Osterrieth 1993). A their academic unit; others have a higherIJER | Sep - Oct 2012 7Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  • 8. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, so, v3i5, ISSN: 2229-6158degree of autonomy. Some do limit their (i) formal industry-universityaction to contractual research or to research program often organizedcommercialize the results of their research; under the auspices of a nationalothers are involved in activities, such as agency concerned withproduction, which are outside the traditional promoting R & D,scope of university activities. The (ii) a university-wide or centralizedmanagement structure of these enterprises is affiliate program, andrelatively simple since their executives are (iii) a focused or decentralizeduniversity professors and they have their affiliate program, typicallyoffices on the university campus. These operating within an academicenterprises have emerged from the Faculties department.and research Centers. They are private The focused affiliate program is by far thecompanies. 90% of the capital belongs to the most common type to be found in the USA,Foundation and 10% to the University. An organized by the university, firms withagreement has been established between the interest in a given area “affiliate” with aUniversity and the Foundation that profits department or faculty possessing a nationalwill not be distributed according to the reputation in that area. Member firms payproportion of share holding, but shall benefit affiliation fees. Such type of affiliationuniversity research. 15% goes to the allows firms to have an influence on theFoundation, 15% to the Faculty in which the direction of university-based research in anresearch is conducted, 60% goes to the area of direct interest to the corporation, anresearch unit to which the enterprise is inside track on acquiring technologicalattached and the remaining 10% is kept as a information, access to researchers andreserve in the enterprise. graduate students of the department (Burke and Light 1990).4.5. National and TransnationalNetworking The National ConsortiumAnother model independent from the above The consortium model is well developed andlogic of development stages in university- has been particularly successful in countriesindustry relations is that of networking of the European Union (EU) with lessnumerous institutional partners. The developed national R & D policies anduniversity may be the driving force behind programs and where opportunities forthe networking of a number of enterprises, collaboration with industry were lesssuch as through the creation of an ‘affiliates developed. In these countries, such asprogram’, or a national or government or Portugal (Sellar 1990), Italy (Romagnoliinternational non-government organization. 1991), and Spain (Castillo et al. 1995) such consortia represent the most developedThe Industrial Affiliate Program structures for collaborative activities withSuch programs have a long-standing enterprises.tradition in North America, but arespreading also to Western Europe and Asian Transnational Initiativescountries (cf. Example of National In the Western European context forUniversity of Singapore). They may cover instance, the European Union (EU) hasthree related, but different types of played an important role in the networkinguniversity-industry relations as follows: of several industries and universities in a selected number of research areas, inIJER | Sep - Oct 2012 8Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  • 9. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, so, v3i5, ISSN: 2229-6158particular in the pre-competitive research i) Collaboration through designing anddomain. The purpose of such networking is updating business course curriculum:the pooling of expertise and knowledge forR & D activities in some of the high tech To make the curriculum more effective, theareas such as information and industrial executives may be co-opted as thecommunication technologies and members of the academic body of theimplementation of an applied research business school, who can provide significantproject with a particular development inputs to the designing and updating theobjective. curriculum. However, the survey of some literature indicates that ‘business school-Discussion methods: industry collaboration’ for a better businessSome public as well as private universities curriculum can operate at four major stages.wish to organize some program to improve These are as follows:their visibility along with generating somefunds. But within the existing status of the i) policy perspective,university system, public financed university ii) designing and developing thedepartments/faculty in Bangladesh cannot curriculum,collect fund by any other means except the iii) review of the existingallocation of the government. The present curriculum, andstudy observes that most business school in iv) implementing the curriculum.Bangladesh organize some seminars,workshops and conferences every year and ii) Collaboration through summerthe industry meets the faculty members of internship project:the business schools at such venues. Suchtype of seminars provides a forum for a As a part of the course requirement, in mostdialogue between business school and of the business school in Bangladesh,industry. students are expected to work on a project in the industry involving fieldwork. The return,University-Industry Collaboration which may be expected from such type ofBangladesh Perspective interface through ‘summer internshipSeveral researches indicate that there is a project’, is that some real problems of thepositive role of Business school-industry industry are intimated to the businessCollaboration in improving the quality of schools through this process. Also some ofbusiness education. In this view the level of the projects reports with suitable additionalcollaboration between business school and information can be developed into goodindustries in Bangladesh that may exists in cases for the classroom discussion. For this,the form of: i) Collaboration through students require the support to the industrydesigning and updating business course in providing the necessary information. Incurriculum, ii) Collaboration through this regard, the initiative has to come fromSummer Internship Project, iii) the top management of firms in respond toCollaboration through consultancy, and iv) the request from business schools.Collaboration through seminars, workshopsand conferences.IJER | Sep - Oct 2012 9Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  • 10. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, so, v3i5, ISSN: 2229-6158iii) Collaboration through consultancy:The broad terms of reference of consultancy 6. CONCLUSIONare added commercial value to academic As the relations of higher educationexpertise and knowledge, and to market the institutions with enterprises are developing,intellectual and infrastructural resources of they become also more difficult to manage.business school for national and industrial Management of these relations refers to bothdevelopment. Emanating from this broad strategic and operational managementobjective, the specific objectives of such issues. Strategic management of university-consultancy may include the following: industry relation means that guidelines have i) to provide technical support to to be established which allow universities to industry, make use of these relations to better fulfill ii) to promote and foster goal- their overall mission. Operational oriented industrial research and management relates to structures, rules and development both at industrial procedures, such as those concerning the premises and business schools, control of newly created semi-autonomous and structures. Also financial and personnel iii) to foster exchange of information management as well as management of and technical experts between contracts and intellectual property issues are business school and industry, to becoming increasingly important. work in generic areas of interest. A program concerned with developing university-industry relations must receiveiv) Collaboration through seminars, top management backing in order to receiveworkshops and conferences: recognition by the academic community,Seminars, workshop and conference are who, in many cases will have to collaborateimportant means for ‘business school- actively in it. Indeed, such programsindustry collaboration’. But paucity of fund perform a secondary function at theis a barrier for arranging such type of university whose traditional tasks arediscussion methods. Some public as well as teaching students and doing basic research.private universities wish to organize some Academic staff will only support aprogram to improve their visibility along university-industry program if they perceivewith generating some funds. But within the its usefulness for the institution, for instanceexisting status of the university system, in terms of generating income and wideningpublic financed university research opportunities. Finally, it isdepartments/faculty in Bangladesh cannot important to ensure that the thrust of thecollect fund by any other means except the program matches the needs of industry. Inallocation of the government. The present that respect, it is essential to link a limitedstudy observes that most business school in number of leading local business peopleBangladesh organize some seminars, through their membership in a centralworkshops and conferences every year and governing board. Likewise, the board mustthe industry meets the faculty members of include senior academics and administratorsthe business schools at such venues. Such from the university to ensure that activitiestype of seminars provides a forum for a and policies are consistent with thedialogue between business school and academic strengths and aspirations of theindustry. university and that they will have the support of its academic community.IJER | Sep - Oct 2012 10Available online@www.ijeronline.com
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