Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                                      Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                                Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172  ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta,                               Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172   ...
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A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION AND MORALE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN BANGLADESH

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A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION AND MORALE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN BANGLADESH

  1. 1. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION AND MORALE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN BANGLADESH Jamal Nazrul Islam Emeritus Professor, Research Centre for Mathematical and Physical Sciences University of Chittagong, Bangladesh Haradhan Kumar Mohajan Assistant Professor, Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. E-mail: haradhan_km@yahoo.com Rajib Datta Department of Finance, Faculty of Business Studies, Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh. E-mail: supta_part@yahoo.com___________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn today’s changing world the business environment is changing rapidly. The emergence of e-commerce anddevelopment of information and technology plays a significant role in the nature of work as well as their attitudetowards the organization. We have been experiencing a tremendous growth in banking sector of Bangladeshduring the last decade of the twentieth century. Private commercial bank plays a vital role in the overalldevelopment of our economy. Though it is a challenging profession, people working in this sector haveincreased notably during last few years. In recent time banking sectors have become the first choice for careerdevelopment. In consideration of that factor, this study investigates job satisfaction among employees of allpublic and private commercial bank limited. The research method used an anonymous survey that wasvoluntarily completed and returned to the researcher. The study determined that morale and job satisfactionplays a vital role in overall performance of the employees in the workplace. The study also determined thatsocial status, supportive colleagues and feeling secure about the job were the top three best reasons for workingin the banks. It was also determined that pay, decision making authority, and promotional policy were the threetop priorities for improving the work environment.Keywords: Job satisfaction, Morale, Social status, Supportive colleagues, Pay, Decision making authority,Promotional policy._________________________________________________________________________________________INTRODUCTION economic advantages to businessJob satisfaction can be defined as an organizations (Aronson et al. 2005). Aindividual’s general attitude toward his or satisfied, happy, efficient, dedicated andher job (Robbins et al. 2003). Price (1997) hard working employee is the biggest assetdefined job satisfaction as the degree to of any organization. Vijayashreea andwhich employees have a positive affective Jagdischchandrab (2011) tried to identifyorientation towards employment by the the type of locus of control (i.e. internal ororganization. Cranny et al. (1992) defined external) present in Public Sector Unitsjob satisfaction as an affective (emotional) (PSU) in Bangalore of India on jobreaction to a job that results from the satisfaction of PSU employees. Theirincumbent’s comparison of actual research indicates that there is a positiveoutcomes with those that are desired. This correlation between internal locus oflater definition seems to be generally control and job satisfaction as well asagreed upon throughout the literature. Job between external (other) locus of controlsatisfaction is the degree to which people and job satisfaction. They show thatenjoy in doing their job. internal control is the term used toJob satisfaction plays an important role in describe the belief that control of futureimproving the financial standing of outcomes resides primarily in oneself andorganizations. Dissatisfaction amongst external control refers to the expectancyhigher-level employees will most likely that control is outside of oneself, either inreflect on lower-level employees thus the hands of powerful other people or dueresulting in economic, financial and to fate/chance. Akinbobola (2011)morale problems which indicates that a expressed that there is significantpositive relationship between job independent prediction of job involvementsatisfaction and job level conveys certain by age, job satisfaction and some 152IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  2. 2. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158characteristics which are supervision, and 1 i.e., total 7 Islamic Banks (IBs) infringe benefit, contingent reward, Bangladesh. After March 2008 there areoperating procedure, co-workers and six thousand three hundred eight (6,308)communication. She discussed the branches of schedule bank in our countryimplications of the result in line with (Bank and Financial Institutions’corporate governance and conflict Activities 2004-2005, Finance Division,resolution. Mokaya and Gitari (2012) have Ministry of Finance, People’s Republic oftried to determine the effect of workplace Bangladesh). In spite of thousands ofrecreation on employee performance at people working in this sector, there is notKenya Utalii College and take attempt to enough research going on to know thecover aspects of job satisfaction, service actual job satisfaction of employees of thisquality, customer satisfaction, and sector. For the success of banking sector ofemployee productivity. Varatharaj and Bangladesh it is essential to manageVasantha (2012) analyzed the women human resource effectively and to findworking in service sector of Chennai city of whether its employees are satisfied or not.India and tried to identify the various Morale of employee reflects the overallfactors which help to maintain work life attitude toward their work, i.e., how muchbalance among women employees in service committed an employee towards hissector. Daneshfard and Ekvaniyan (2012) organization and his job, as well as hisdiscussed the comparison job satisfaction willingness to achieve the goal of theand organizational commitment in all of organization and its shareholders. Efficientemployees (including managers, staffs and human resource management andfaculties), student areas, education and maintaining higher job satisfaction level inresearch, financial and administrative banks determine not only the performancebranches of the delegation in Islamic Azad of the bank but also affect the growth andUniversity of Kogiluyeh and Boyer performance of the entire economy of theAhmad province of Iran. country.In today’s competitive business world,satisfied employees are treated as the STATEMENT OF PROBLEMessential human capital. Though it is very In today’s changing world the businesseasy to measure the financial performance environment is changing rapidly. In theof a firm by using various financial tools age of information and technology, weand techniques, but it is very difficult to have seen change has occurred in everydetermine whether the organization doing aspect of our life from personal tothe right thing for its employees to remain business, government to private, nationalsatisfied in their workplace. There were so to international, so the nature of peoplemany extensive research conducted to and their expectation from the job is alsomeasure job satisfaction of employees changing. We have come across variousworking an organization. During the last human resources and behavioral issuesfew decades banking sector of Bangladesh which we think play a significant role inplays a dominant role in the financial their job satisfaction and morale. Theservice industry. At present, there are purpose of the study is to describe theforty-nine (49) schedule banks among current level of job satisfaction and moralethose, four (4) are Nationalized of the employees.Commercial Banks (NCBs), five (5) areSpecialized Banks (SBs), thirty (30) are OBJECTIVESPrivate Commercial Banks (PCBs) and ten This study will focus on the following(10) are Foreign Commercial Banks three objectives:(FCBs) in Bangladesh. Among those 30 • to determine the level of jobPCBs and 10 FCBs there are respectively 6 satisfaction reported by employees, 153IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  3. 3. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158• demographics will be identified such pleasurable or positive emotional estate as age, gender, marital status, religion, resulting from the appraisal of one’s job department and tenure to verify if they experience.” Job satisfaction is a result of relate to job satisfaction, and employee’s perception of how well their• to determine the relationship between job provides those things that are viewed factors of job satisfaction by using a as important. It is generally recognized in descriptive as well as inferential the organizational behavior field that job statistical tool in relation to overall satisfaction is the most important and satisfaction ratings. frequently studied attitude. There are three important dimensions to job satisfaction asRESEARCH HYPOTHESIS follows (Locke 1976):It is hypothesized that factors of job • Job satisfaction is an emotionalsatisfaction and morale will be associated response to a job situation. As such, itwith performance of the employees in all cannot be seen; it can only be inferred.commercial banks. Job satisfaction is • Job satisfaction is often determined byimportant for organizations to address due how well outcomes meet or exceedto its impact on absenteeism, turnover, and expectations. For example, ifpro-social citizenship behaviors such as organizational participants feel thathelping co-workers, helping customers and they are working much harder thanbeing more cooperative with all social ties other in the department but are(Karl and Sutton 1998). Literature also receiving fewer rewards, they willshows that increased productivity was probably have a negative attitudefound to be related to higher satisfaction toward the work, the boss and/or co-(Wilkinson and Wagner 1993). Job is not workers and they will be dissatisfied.only just obeying the boss; it provides On the other hand, if they feel that theyinternal satisfaction and is something for are being treated very well and arewhich employees bear to live. being paid equitably, they are likely toOrganizations put efforts and provide have a positive attitude toward the job,excellent conditions for satisfying their and then they will be job satisfied.employees (Jain et al. 2011). Job • Job satisfaction represents severalsatisfaction today is a topic of major related attitudes (Mitchell and Larsoninterest for many researchers and is an 1987).organizational variable that should be A satisfied employee tends to be absentunderstood and constantly monitored for less often, to make positive contributionsthe welfare of any organization (Eyupoglu and to stay with the organization veryand Saner 2009). eagerly (Hakim 1993). But a non-satisfied employee may be absent more often, mayLITERATURE REVIEW experience stress that disrupts co-workers,The study will summarize current and may be continually looking forliterature on job satisfaction and morale, another job. Contrary to what a lot ofexplore theories related to job satisfaction, managers believe, however, high levels ofand discuss the importance of being aware job satisfaction do not necessarily lead toof employee’s current satisfaction levels. higher levels of productivity. One surveyThroughout this discussion the definitions indicated that, also contrary to popularof job satisfaction and morale stated above opinion, Japanse workers are less satisfiedwill be applied. with their jobs than their counterparts in the USA (Lincoln 1989).Job Satisfaction and Morale The history of job satisfaction stems backLocke (1976) gives a comprehensive to the early 1900’s with the situationistdefinition of job satisfaction as “a perspective on job satisfaction. This 154IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  4. 4. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158perspective states that satisfaction is 1969” (Gregson 1991). This measure isdetermined by certain characteristics of the basis itself on five facets of jobjob and characteristics of the job satisfaction.environment itself. This view has been The first facet is the work itself,present in the literature since the first satisfaction with work itself is measured instudies by Hauser, Taylor and the various terms of the core job characteristics suchprojects at the Western Electric plants in as autonomy, skill variety, feedback, taskHawthorne (Cranny et al. 1992). These identity, and task significance (Hackmanstudies follow the assumption that when a and Oldham 1975).certain set of job conditions are present a Supervision, the second facet, is measuredcertain level of job satisfaction will follow. in such ways as how supervisors provideThe Hawthorne Studies are considered to feedback, assess employees’ performancebe the most important investigation of the ratings, and delegate work assignments.human dimensions of industrial relations Co-workers, the third facet, are measuredin the early 20th century. They were done in terms of social support, networking, andat the Bell Telephone Western Electric possible benefits attached to thosemanufacturing plant in Chicago beginning relationships (Cranny et al. 1992).in 1924 through the early years of the Pay, the fourth facet, is an importantDepression. The Hawthorne plant created source of satisfaction because it provides aan Industrial Research Division in the potential source of self-esteem as well asearly 1920’s. Personnel managers the generic opportunity for anythingdeveloped experiments to explore the money can buy (Brockner 1988).effects of various conditions of work on Obviously satisfaction with pay ismorale and productivity (Brannigan and measured primarily by current income butZwerman 2001). Today, reference to the also by opportunities for salary increases.“Hawthorne Effect” denotes a situation in Promotion is the final facet and the onewhich the introduction of experimental that the JDI explicitly assesses howconditions designed to identify salient perceptions about the future can affect jobaspects of behavior has the consequence of satisfaction. Today the facets of the JDIchanging the behavior it is designed to are generally assessed by modifying theidentify. The initial Hawthorne effect adjective checklist and using a Likert scalereferred to the observation that the on statements such as, “opportunities forproductivity of the workers increased over advancement are plentiful” measured fromtime with every variation in the work one (strongly disagree) to five (stronglyconditions introduced by the experiments agree) (Cranny et al. 1992).(Brannigan and Zwerman 2001). Simply According to a study, ‘5-Year 1992-1997stated when people realize that their and 10-Year 1987-1997’, the 100 “bestbehaviors are being watched they change companies to work for”, those with thehow they act. The development of the highest levels of satisfaction and moralHawthorne studies also denotes the outperformed the 300 largest USbeginning of applied psychology, as we companies over both 5- and 10-yearknow it today. These early studies mark periods (figure-1).the birth of research on job satisfactionrelating to ergonomics, design and Another popular and highly researchedproductivity. measure of job satisfaction is theOne of the most popular and researched Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnairemeasures of job satisfaction is the Job (MSQ). The MSQ can be scored forDescriptive Index (JDI). “The JDI is a 72- twenty facets; scores from one question foritem adjective checklist type questionnaire each facet provide a single overalldeveloped by Smith, Kendall, and Hulin in composite score. The MSQ is commonly 155IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  5. 5. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158used in conjunction with the Minnesota career changers, that is, adults withImportance Questionnaire (MIQ). considerable work experience in one orThompson and Blain (1992) expressed that more chosen occupations who are“These instruments were designed for use dissatisfied with their work and remainwith adult career counseling clients with undecided about their career future.” Thework experience. They are particularly MIQ assesses the relative importance ofuseful for clients that might be called each vocational need to the respondent. 30% 25% 20% 100 Best 100 Best 15% Russell 300 Russell 300 10% 5% 0% 5-Year 1992-1997 10-Year 1987-1997 Figure 1: Impact of job satisfaction.The MSQ, a measure of job satisfaction, satisfaction can be vital to organizationalassesses the degree of respondent success (Cranny et al. 1992). Propersatisfaction with each need in their current management can only be attained throughwork environment. Scoring for the MSQ is knowing what affects job satisfaction.relatively simple: percentile scores of 25 A study conducted in Europe, Asia, Africa,or lower indicate low satisfaction, and the Americas reported similaritiespercentile scores of 26 to 74 indicate among workers. Yankelovich Partnersmoderate satisfaction, and scores of 75 or (1998) survey reported that “10,339higher indicate high satisfaction. The MIQ workers were surveyed across 10uses scale scores ranging from –1.0 to 3.0. European countries, Russia, Japan, and theLow importance is indicated by scores USA. Researchers consistently identifiedbelow 0.0, moderate importance is the same top five key attributes in a job,indicated by scores between 0.0 and 1.4, ability to balance work and personal life,and high importance is indicated by scores work that is truly enjoyable, security forof 1.5 or higher (Thompson and Blain the future, good pay or salary and1992). enjoyable co-workers. Across the fourJob satisfaction is one of the most studied major geographic regions studied, workersconstructs in the areas of industrial specifically emphasized the importance oforganizational psychology, social potential advancement and the opportunitypsychology, organizational behavior, to build skills as a way to maintainpersonnel and human resource employability and job security”.management, and organizational A survey polling members of themanagement. This makes sense in that Association for Investment Managementknowledge of the determinants, the and Research found that 81% of theconsequences, and other correlates of job managers said they were satisfied or very 156IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  6. 6. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158satisfied with their job. When asked to standpoint, job satisfaction is importantidentify the factors that create positive due to its impact on (1) absenteeism (2)feelings about their job, most managers turnover, and (3) pro-social citizenshipnamed ‘professional achievement, behaviors such as helping coworkers,personal or professional growth, the work helping customers, and being moreitself and their degree of responsibility’ cooperative. Thus, to redesign jobs, rewardmore important than compensation. systems, and human resource managementFactors they viewed as creating negative policies that will result in optimum jobfeelings about their jobs were ‘company satisfaction and productivity, managerspolicies, administration, relationships with need to know what employees value.” Insupervisors, compensation and the order to know what employees value it isnegative impact of work’ on their personal necessary for organizations to assess andlives (Cardona 1996). In order to decrease pay attention to current levels of jobsome of these negative feelings and satisfaction.increase productivity it has been proposed Current studies on job satisfaction areto reduce the number of work days plentiful with some interesting results. Inemployees miss by increasing job one study the relationship among careersatisfaction, redesigning disability plans experience, life satisfaction, andand involving supervisors in management organizational factors for managers of(Maurice 1998). healthcare organizations is explored.Employers interested in remaining Within this study a two-stage Delphicompetitive in today’s world economy analysis of American College ofneed to concentrate on retaining quality Healthcare Executives (ACHE) membersemployees. Walker (1998) expressed that identified nine domains of important job“Rewarding employees for work well have skills, knowledge, and abilities necessarydone increases satisfaction and for success as healthcare managers. Theproductivity.” Simple practices like this nine domains, ranked in order ofcan aid the atmosphere of the work importance, are ‘cost/finance, leadership,environment. Metzler (1998) cited that professional staff interactions, healthcare“Giving recognition and rewards outside delivery concepts, accessibility, ethics,the paycheck such as recognizing key quality/risk management, technology, andemployees by name may also help.” marketing’ (Wiggins and Bowman 2000).McDonald and Hutcheson (1999) have Notice leadership and professional staffshown that “Other research indicates that interactions falling in second and third incustomer satisfaction and loyalty are order of importance for domains necessaryexcellent predictors of profitability…the for success. The same study shows thatstrongest predictors of customer managers aspiring to become CEOs andsatisfaction: employees’ general those who do not reported similar levels ofsatisfaction with their jobs and employees’ job satisfaction. It is also stated thatsatisfaction with their work/life balance.” personal satisfaction from one’sAgain it is important to note that job employment, peer recognition,satisfaction is subject to change. Osipow advancements, and positive feelings about(1968) indicated that “Results of studies personal success are excellent subjectivecomparing differences between age groups measures of career success (Wiggins andand level of job satisfaction report an Bowman 2000).increase in job satisfaction with age.” Karl Another study focusing on organizationaland Sutton (1998) expressed that “From an citizenship behaviors (OCB) analyzingemployee’s standpoint, job satisfaction is a peer ratings of altruistic OCB in a sampledesirable outcome in itself. From a of 96 US nurses showed that themanagerial or organizational effectiveness contextual variables of job satisfaction, 157IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  7. 7. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158organizational commitment, and trust in and recognition for achievement,management were pertinent for the autonomy, growth and development, theparticipants (Wagner and Rush 2000). quality of students, the reputation of theOrgan (1990) indicated that “Such institution and one’s colleagues,behaviors have been described as having responsibility, the interaction betweenan accumulative positive effect on students and teachers and its effect onorganizational functioning.” Job students’ learning, and the work itself.satisfactions, pay satisfaction, and trust in Factors that prevent job dissatisfactionmanagement and peers, and organizational describe relationships to the context orcommitment as antecedents of OCB in US environment in which individuals work,populations. Of these attitudes, job representing such variables assatisfaction has been most consistently interpersonal relationships, salary, tenure,associated with OCB. Feeling satisfied policies and administration, rank,reflect appraisals of the fairness of the supervision, working conditions, the fitsocial exchange that the employee has between the faculty role and the personwith the organization. It is also suggested involved, and collective bargaining (Tackthat satisfaction is a by-product of leader and Patitu 1992). A recent report on jobfairness and job satisfaction is one of the satisfaction among American teachersmost reliable predictors of OCB (Wagner identified that more administrative supportand Rush 2000). and leadership, good student behavior, aUntil recently most researches on job positive school atmosphere, and teachersatisfaction were done in the industrial autonomy as working conditionssector with attempts to adapt finding to associated with higher job satisfaction. Ahigher education. While the above findings weak relationship was found betweenhave relevance, job satisfaction for faculty faculty satisfaction and salary and benefits.must be examined. Given the impending Research also shows that demographicshortage of prospective faculty to fill the variable such as age and gender have littlenumerous vacancies, the topics of job or no significant impact on job satisfactionsatisfaction for faculty, recruitment, and (National Center for Education Statisticsretention must be given attention. 1997).Consequently, university officials and Folami and Bline (2012) discussed in theircurrent faculty in higher education must research the evidence on the link betweenrecognize the factors that lead to job job satisfaction and employee affectivedissatisfaction among faculty and outcomes, including turnover and jobeliminate them; as well as, recognize the performance. They examine thefactors that increase job satisfaction and association between task complexity,enhance them (Tack and Patitu 1992). Low organizational context variables oflevels of satisfaction and morale can lead centralization, organizational complexity,to decreased teacher productivity and formalization, and environmentalburnout, which is associated with a loss of uncertainty with job satisfaction.concern for and detachment from the Some workers are satisfied with their workpeople one works with, decreased quality and are poor performers. Of course, thereof teaching, depression, greater use of sick are employees who are not satisfied but areleave, efforts to leave the profession, and a excellent performers (figure-2).pessimistic and dehumanized perception ofstudents (Mendal 1987).The research suggests that internalstressors on faculty include achievement 158IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  8. 8. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158 causes1. Job satisfaction Job Performance “The Satisfied worker is more productive” is caused by2. Job satisfaction Job Performance “The more productive worker is satisfied” causes3. Job satisfaction Job Performance “There is no specific direction or relationship”Figure 2: Satisfactions and performance relationships, Source: Gibson, Ivancevich andDonnely 1997, p-109.Theories of Job Satisfaction A number of theories exist which relate to job satisfaction. The following are the relevanttheories of job satisfaction which are highlighted in brief manner:The Facet Model of Job Satisfaction Job Facet Example Description Achievement The extent of a feeling of accomplishment. Creativity Being free to come up with new ideas. Recognition Praise for doing a good job.Hertzberg’s (Hertzberg 1966) Motivator-Hygiene Theory of Job SatisfactionWhen Motivator needs are met, workers will be satisfied; when these needs are not met,workers will not be satisfied.When Hygiene needs are met, workers will not be dissatisfied; when these needs are not met,workers will be dissatisfied. Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction Figure 3: Two factor theory of job satisfaction. Hygiene factors • Quality of supervision • Pay • Company policies • Physical working conditions • Relations with others Job Motivators • Promotion opportunities • Opportunities for personal growth • Recognition • Responsibility • Achievement 159IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com Job
  9. 9. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158Two Views of Job Satisfaction Figure 4: Two views of job satisfaction.The Discrepancy Model of Job what one thinks the job should be like,Satisfaction what one expected the job to be like, whatTo determine how satisfied they are with one wants from a job, or what one’stheir jobs, workers compare their job to former job was like.some ideal job. This ideal job could beJob Satisfaction as a Steady State Figure 5: Job satisfaction as a steady state.The Dispositional Model of Job • research by Staw and Ross hasSatisfaction established the longitudinal stability ofThe dispositional model of job satisfaction job satisfaction, andbeing as follows: • twin studies suggest a weak genetic• the dispositional model suggests that basis for job satisfaction. some people are inherently more satisfied than others, 160IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  10. 10. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158METHODOLOGY Data Collection/InstrumentationThe research study will be conducted on We collected the primary data throughpersonal interview of the employees of the personal interview of the selectedorganization, who are working more than 2 respondents of public and private banksyears, as well as a questionnaire used to be of Bangladesh. At the same time acollected various information related with questionnaire consisting of number ofjob satisfaction and morale, and questions related with job satisfaction andobservation method will be used in various morale were given to select respondents ofsensitive issues to know the actual public and private banks of Bangladesh.behavioral aspects of employee. The secondary data are mainly collected from Annual Report of various banks andSpecific Procedures bank website, published journal, internetSeveral procedures needed to be publication, and various publications ofcompleted in order for this study to occur. Bangladesh Bank as well as Bank andFirst, a research proposal needs to submit Financial Institutions’ Activities. Theto the respective authority for getting the instrument uses a five point Likert scale togreen signal from head office. Then, rank the items.before conducting personal interviews The ranges are as follows: (1) stronglyprior notice should be given as well as disagree, (2) disagree, (3) neutral, (4)questionnaire will be prepared in the mean agree, and (5) strongly agree.time by considering all the relevantinformation required proving the research Data Analysishypothesis. Then, data collected through The collection of respondent’s responsequestionnaire as well as personal was analyzed by using Microsoft Excelinterviews will be check to find out the Sheet. The following manipulations wereacceptable one. Then we have to edit and carried out on the data: mean, standardcode the data for our convenient use in the deviation, co-efficient of variance,research report, at this stage it is necessary frequencies, and chi-square test (tables 5, 6to check the consistency by using various and 7).techniques then we have to enter the datain the computer for statistical analysis with RESULTSthe help of descriptive as well as Employee’s Morale and Job Satisfactioninferential tools. We take an effort to study Survey was composed of 36 questionsthe job satisfaction level among employees designed to elicit information on the workof selected private and public banks of environment. The first part of theBangladesh. questionnaire was based on demographics such as age, gender, marital status,Population and Subjects department, and number of years with theAt present there are many branches of organization. The first 19 questions werecommercial banks in Bangladesh. Among based on a Likert scale and coded asthe working employees of all commercial numbered in the methodology section.banks, the total numbers of respondent The following 12 questions were aboutwere 23 and selected participants were the what are the most important reasonspermanent and working in the organization behind choosing to work in thefor more than 2 years and especial organization (table-1). Levels ofemphasis were given on those employees satisfactions are as follows: 1= Highlywhom are in charge of various dissatisfied, 2 = Moderately dissatisfied, 3departments. A random selection process = Neutral, 4 = Moderately satisfied, 5 =was used to select those respondents Highly satisfied.among employees of the banks. 161IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  11. 11. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158 1 2 3 4 51 How would you rate your job satisfaction within the Department?2 How would you rate the management style of your Manager?3 Do you feel Management allows you to perform your job effectively?4 Do you currently voice any concerns or issues in your work area to management?5 Did you receive a response to your concerns about your voice?6 Do you feel staffing levels in your Department/Division are adequate?7 Do you have the opportunity for beneficial job related training?8 Are you satisfied with the current evaluation process of your organization?9 Do you think promotional opportunities are handled fairly?10 Do you feel Acting Pay is handled fairly and equitably in your Department?11 Are you provided the proper tools and training to perform your job?12 Do you feel appreciated for the job you perform by Management? Table 1: First 12 questions are based on a Likert scale.The next 7 statements are about the opinions of respondents about the working environment(table-2). The respondents are advised to put tick (√) in the box. Highly Moderately Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied 1 Nature of work 2 Reward system 3 Support from the superior 4 Support from colleagues 5 Working environment 6 Decision making authority 7 Promotional opportunity Table 2: The rest 7 statements are based on a Likert scale.In the middle of questionnaire there are 12 dichotomous questions to cross check therespondent’s response (table-3). In the following 12 questions respondents are advised to puttick (√) on Yes or No box. Yes No1 Do you think that it is a challenging job?2 Is salary justifiable in proportion to work?3 Are you satisfied with authority and responsibility given to you?4 Are you feeling secure in your job?5 Is relationship with peers and supervisors congenial?6 Will you leave your present organization if you get a better chance with higher salary?7 Do you have enough scope to show your ability and loyalty towards your organization?8 Do you like to tell others about your present profession?9 Do you think that it is respective job in our society?10 Do you think you can achieve your goal by working in this organization?11 Is adequate information available to perform the job effectively?12 Is there any available opportunity for advancement? Table 3: The 12 questions to cross check the respondent’s response. 162IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  12. 12. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158The last 5 statements are closed end questions to know the way of expressing dissatisfactionand overall level of satisfaction of individual employee (table-4). The following 5 statementsare about their experiences and advised to put tick (√) in the box. Highly Moderately Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied 1 This company is a pretty good place to work 2 I can get ahead in this company if I make the effort 3 My job makes the best use of my abilities 4 I know what my boss expects of me 5 I think I have made the right decision to work hereTable 4: To know the way of expressing dissatisfaction and overall level of satisfaction ofindividual employee.The questionnaire was hand delivered to Moreover, the attitude of any employeethe different departments of the banks. affects a lot. One gets satisfaction in any ofFifteen surveys out of 23 were returned for the activities depending upon how he/shea response rate of sixty-five percent (65%). perceives the situation and what isThe purpose of the study is to describe the expected in exchange of effort. There maycurrent level of job satisfaction and morale be the difference between two employees,and its relationship to performance of working at a different place and onpermanent employees of the banks. different cadres. It all depends upon viewing of the situation and the effect ofResearch Findings rest of the factors which are crucial at anyJob satisfaction is the result of effect of so point of time. A display of the satisfactionmany factors. The terms are highly levels for the employees is given belowpersonalized, as the level of satisfaction which contains the Microsoft Excel Sheetdiffers from time to time and situation. printout of the encoded data. Co-efficient of variance Rank order in terms of Factor x δ (COV) Mean A-1 3.87 0.96 0.248 4 A-2 3.40 0.85 0.250 8 A-3 3.47 0.86 0.248 6 A-4 4.33 1.12 0.259 1 A-5 4.13 1.05 0.253 2 A-6 4.07 1.02 0.251 3 A-7 3.47 0.86 0.248 7 A-8 3.53 0.87 0.247 5 Average 3.78 0.95 0.250 Table 5: Aggregated results of the survey of the factor types A. 163IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  13. 13. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158Chi-square test:H 0 = there is no significant effect of employee morale in employee’s performance; Chi-square ( χ 0.05 = 3.841 ) at 5% significance level. 2 Observation Expected observation (O − E )2 (O − E )2 (O) (E) E 1 3 4 1.333333 2 3 1 0.333333 1 3 4 1.333333 0 3 9 3.000000 2 3 1 0.333333 Table 6: Reports of the survey by Chi-square test, where χ 0.05 = 3.841 . 2Hypothesis is rejected i.e., employee morale significantly affects the performance in theorganization. Factor x δ COV Rank order in terms of Mean B-1 4.4 1.149 0.261 2 B-2 4.5 1.176 0.263 1 B-3 4.1 1.023 0.251 5 B-4 4.3 1.096 0.257 4 B-5 4.4 1.149 0.261 3 Average 4.3 1.118 0.258 Table 7: Aggregated results of the survey of the factor types B.This data contains the information that was opportunity, reward system, decisioncollected, analyzed, and used to determine making authority, and basic salary.the important constructs relating to • The lowest rated (lowest mean)employee satisfaction. After analyzing the satisfaction level deemed important bytables, we have observed that employees the employee were: basic salary,are moderately satisfied and the deviation decision making authority and rewardamong the respondents response is very system for which mean remains bellowinsignificant as result they are very much 3.5 (5 point Likert scale as mentionedconsistent with each other. The primary in Methodology)descriptive results for each factor are as • The mean age of the respondents wasfollows: approximately 29 years old. There• Overall the results are positive. The were twelve male and three female employee views this organization as a respondents. good place to work. • The mean number of years working• The top rated (highest mean listed with the banks was approximately first) satisfaction level deemed three (3) years. important by the employee were: • Due to the purpose of this study the support from superior, support from primary relationship examined was the colleagues, working environment, correlations between all the variables nature of work, promotional 164IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  14. 14. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158 and the rating of overall job Frequency: Total satisfaction (overall this is a good Respondents Frequency place to work).• Several associations were found that support the hypothesis that constructs Pay/Salary 15 15 job satisfaction and morale will be associated with the performance of the Training 15 12 employees.• The bulk of the instrument composed Fair promotional of questions rated on a Likert scale handling 15 11 provided some interesting information.• The qualitative data involving the three best things about working at the SIBL EXAMINING THE DETERMINANTS and the three things that could best OF JOB SATISFACTION AND improve the work environment were MORALE analyzed according to frequency of Job satisfaction and morale is derived from responses and tabulated. and is caused by many inter-related• Several other constructs evolved from factors. Although these factors can never the qualitative data that were be completely isolated from one another interesting. Most of the employee’s for analysis, they can by the use of thing that job satisfaction can lead to statistical techniques, be separated enough increase performance. Almost all the to give an indication of their relative respondents believe that satisfied importance to job satisfaction and morale employees usually not absent from the to employees’ performance. job. Dominant portion of respondents think dissatisfied employee should Personal Factors leave the organization and others believe that they should actively and 1) Sex constructively try to improve the Though the number of women working in condition. a bank is increasing, but the investigation finds that women are less with bankingThree best things about working as job. Study reveals that woman to man ratiofollows: per branch is 4:20. Another reason is that banking is a challenging profession itFrequency: Total requires tremendous determination to Respondents Frequency succeed. Those who are working they are doing for their pleasure or for the income aspect. Generally tendency is such thatRespective job unless women feel necessary she will notin the society 15 15 go for job. Though the scenario is changing very few women are careerColleagues/ oriented. Out of the surveyed almost allSupervisors 15 13 are job oriented, having a little desire for further progress. Male employees areFeeling secure thinking of competition era now, and theyin the job 15 12 are thinking of promotion to the next cadre. But, in a country like BangladeshThree things that could best improve the opportunity to have a highly securedthe work environment as follows: job is rare. 165IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  15. 15. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-61582) Age suits to their educational background, andAge is an important factor to decide about hence satisfied.job satisfaction. Maximum age limit forprobationary officers/officer grade-II to 5) Religionjoin bank is of 28-30 years which varies The factor which should be considered asover situation. Study finds that employees an important determinant of jobirrespective of age factor are satisfied with satisfaction and morale of employee isthe job in sub-staff and clerical cadre. religion. Religious belief among theWhile officers above the age group of 35 employees resists them to act any unlawfulseems to be settling somewhere permanent and unethical activities as well as theas frequent transfer is not a conducive one religious believe motivates them to befor them. So far female employees are satisfied with what they get. So, in thatconcerned, they are highly satisfied as the case substantial research should take placegeneral duty is related to children bringing as various Islamic Banks are emergingup and taking care of beloved ones. For around the world.them increasing age means greaterresponsibility for homely affairs. FACTORS INHERENT IN THE JOB3) Time on Job 1) Type of workThe study finds that those employees who The most important factors inherent in thehave got higher need for achievement time job are type of work. In the research it ison the job may become crucial factor if not clear that employees working in the bankspromoted, hence they are dissatisfied. It are satisfied with their work. As we knowhas been seen that job satisfaction level that job market is not expanding inamong officers level employee is Bangladesh, most of the people who getsomewhat below par as they wanted to the job of a bank are very satisfied. Thereshow their competence to the higher level are mainly four departments in a bank andand demand promotion. It is observed that study reveal that employees working in themost of the employees put a lot of efforts Cash Department suffer stress and theirin their work at the initial stage of their satisfaction level is reduced substantially.career. Most satisfied employees found in the Investment Department. Banking sector4) Education has got a tradition of rotational servicesAs bank is engaged with commercial especially for entry level officers. It meansactivities, it requires better aptitude changing of counter, brings some level oftowards figure and calculation. The survey dynamism. While for the rest of thereveals that the employees are from employees repetitive and monotonous taskvarious disciplines Science, Commerce, looks boring.Arts etc. It clearly proved by theperformance of the respondents that 2) Skill requiredregardless of educational disciplines they Skill in relation to job satisfaction has aare quite successful in their profession. As bearing on several other factors, kind ofbanking is a field where more practical work, responsibility and others. A study ofimplication is required rather than the relation of skill to job satisfactiontheoretical knowledge. Another, concluded that where skill exists to ainteresting think reveal the study that considerable degree, it tends to become thepeople with less qualification suppose to first source of satisfaction to the workman,be satisfied with their job and their satisfaction in condition of work. Researchsatisfaction level is quite static over the indicates that most of the employees inperiod of time and they think that this job every department get required skills to 166IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  16. 16. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158perform their job effectively and in the research on an average there are 27efficiently. Again, many respondents think employees working in each branch whichthey are not appropriately suited to the job is well above the industry average andthat they are specified and ultimately this considered to be overcrowded. Still manyreduces their job satisfaction and morale employees blame they have to take tootowards the organization. much responsibility because there are not enough workforces to do the job3) Occupation status effectively.Occupation status is related to, but notidentical with job satisfaction. 6) Present place of workOccupational status is always valued in Employees’ level of job satisfaction variesterms of others opinion. It has been seen with the present place of work. Employeesthat employees who are working at the working in rural and semi urban brancheslower position seems to look for other job, seem less satisfied than employees withwhere they can have greater job urban and metropolitan branches. As thesatisfaction. It has been seen that business is carried in branch wise, this isemployees are more dissatisfied in jobs located in rural, semi-urban, urban and inthat have loss social status and prestige. metropolitan cities. In comparison toStudy discloses that most of the employees metro and urban branches, semi-urban andworking in the banks seem to be quite rural branches are small and the employeessatisfied with their occupational status and of these branches are having a betterthey are quite happy to say other about opportunity to interact with one another,their job in the society. while in big city branches, this seems to be a rare one. Most of the respondents in the4) Commitment to the organization research response positively that is, theyLevel of commitment to the organization are quite satisfied with their present placeis such an important factor in the of work.performance of employee. Ultimately,level of commitment indicates how much FACTORS CONTROLLABLE BYemployees are satisfied with their work MANAGEMENTand toward organization. Study indicatesthat though dominant percentage of 1) Securityemployees are very much committed with An average employee will think of jobthe organization few of them responded security first rather than other factors tonegatively and saying that they will leave get settle in life. It has been seen thatthe organization if they get better chance employees secured in job are moreany where, this eventually indicates lower satisfied in their job. But security is of lesssatisfaction level and morale of the importance to the better educated person,employees towards their work and perhaps because there is not so much fearorganization. of layoff in the kind of jobs that the highly educated obtain, or the highly educated are5) Size of organization justifiably more confident of being able toIn a small organization, employees get a find other jobs if necessary. Researchgreater chance to interact with other indicates that all the employees are highlyemployees and can seek co-operation of secured hence they are satisfied.others very easily. While in a largeorganization this can be possible but 2) Paydepending upon requirement of the The importance of pay as a factor in joborganization and the task which it has satisfaction has been greatly overassigned to the employees. It is observed emphasized by management. Most studies 167IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  17. 17. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158have found that pay ranks well below want to be near their friends. Survey findssecurity, type of work etc. The research that co-workers seem to be co-operativeexposes that the pay structure is well one. After working for many yearsbelow the industry average. Though, many together brings a sense of mutual co-employees think they are paid reasonably operations, which is there with the bank.but most of the top and mid level But nature of man is such that anything isexecutive/officers think they are less paid. offered with the expectation of return.It is observed that because of low level of Above all, employees are moderatelypay structure many mid level employees satisfied with their support fromalready switched to another bank and it is colleagues.a potential threat for the bank. 6) Supervision3) Opportunity for advancement/ Good supervision ranks about average inPromotional opportunity importance of the first ten things peopleIn today’s time this factor is of greater want in a job. To the subordinate hisimportance. Young ones are more supervisor is the company; hence worker’sinterested in advancing because it is feelings towards his supervisor are usuallypossible only in his earlier years. Belief similar to his feelings towards thethat individual merit is rewarded would company. Supervision is without question,appear to be closely related to belief that one of the most important factors related tothere is chance to advance even where a job satisfaction, which is correlated withperson does not believe that he deserves a factors that also are important in assessingpromotion it is still highly important to job satisfaction level of bank. Researchhim that the best man be prompted. indicates that employees are moderatelyResearch finds out that employees are satisfied with supervision they get frommoderately satisfied with their their superior. It is necessary to mentionpromotional opportunity and most of them that still some of the respondents expressbelieve that the promotional policy their dissatisfaction with superior supporthandled fairly, though it is observed that and they blame that they are not gettingfew young employees were dissatisfied enough support from superior to performwith promotional policy because they the task effectively and efficiently.think seniority is given more preferenceover performance. 7) Other Factors Other factors include culture, relationship4) Working conditions with peers and subordinates andWorking conditions rank variously from recognition of work are importantsecond to eighth in importance, there determinants of job satisfaction andseems to be a tendency for working morale. Whenever any employee in anconditions to be ranked lower, perhaps underdeveloped economy finds a job withbecause they have been improved in higher security and regular return, he/shebanking sector. The study observed that is satisfied. Moreover, the culture of statemanagement ensured a comfortable also believes in earn and enjoymentworking condition suitable for employees. philosophy. In addition to that the peopleAll the employees are satisfied with of this region believe in business muchworking conditions. than the job. So a tendency of lack of commitment has been noticed among5) Co-workers employees.One’s associations have frequently beenmentioned as a factor in job satisfaction.Certainly this seems reasonable as people 168IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  18. 18. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH • The top level management of bankTo measure the actual level job should keep an eye on the existent paysatisfaction and morale of employees is a structure, as study reveals that manydaunting task. Instead of the best effort it respondents are not satisfied with theirwould not be possible to collect the actual salary. So, the company should try toinformation from the respondents. While provide the competitive pay structureconducting this study following limitations considering industry situation.are encountered: • It is recommended that the top level• Absence of corporate culture: As manager should give enough decision there is no Research and Development making authority and responsibility to Department in bank sector, there is no the mid and lower level specific source of collecting necessary executives/officers so that they can act data. independently and make their best• Fear of information leakage: It is the effort to increase their performance. main obstacle of getting accurate • Though, most of the employees are response from the respondents as most quite satisfied with the present of the employees did not provide promotional policy which is basically appropriate answer to the questions based on seniority and length of work. because they think it will be disclosed It is recommended that the company to others. should try to implement the• Poor knowledge of the respondents: promotional policy based on both In many cases respondents did not have seniority as well as performance so any knowledge about subject matter of that the young and energetic the study. employees are motivated to perform• Busy schedule: Because of the busy better in their job. schedule, most of the cases respondents • The study observed that there are some were unable to give time for personal employees who are not competent interview. enough to perform their job effectively• Perception of respondents: Many and efficiently. That is why it is respondents think that it is worthless to required to give enough concentration give time to answer such questions by the top management while which ultimately gives nothing as result recruiting new employees and standard they are very non-cooperative. recruitment system should be followed.It is very clear that if it would be possible • To increase the morale of theto overcome the above limitations, the employee it is required to make theirfindings of the research may be more job more interesting and managerrepresentative and can easily prove the should always appreciate his/herhypothesis. subordinates for doing a good job. • It is strongly recommended that theRECOMMENDATIONS team work among employees of eachThe impact of job satisfaction and morale department should be encouraged andin the performance of the employee is very superior should try to create animplicit issue. Satisfied employees always atmosphere suitable for group workmotivated to perform their job in a better and relationship building activities.way as well as morale keep the employees The organization first understand theto be committed to the organization. From employees welfare, their financial issues,the extensive study on the commercial their interest of domain, their problems,banks reveals that though employees are their family problems and how much timesatisfied but there are some factors which is devoted to their families, the exploit-should be taking into consideration: tation in workplace (Jain et al. 2011). 169IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
  19. 19. Jamal Nazrul Islam, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Rajib Datta, Int. J. Eco. Res., 2012, 152-172 ISSN: 2229-6158Finally, it is recommended that these be communication throughout the workforcereplicated in the future before policy were among some others associated.changes are made that involve the Feeling motivated at work is just asemployees work environment. This will important as having work assignmentsensure that levels of job satisfaction be delegated fairly. Finally the employeesmaintained at an above average level. believe they are providing a valuable service to their clients and makeCONCLUSIONS contribution to the overall development ofThe research suggests that job satisfaction the bank. The in-charge of differentcan affect employee morale, turnover, department also enjoys its job autonomy.absenteeism, and pro-social behavior, Other ideas were expressed when asked towhich can be crucial for organizational inform the three best things about workingsuccess. This not only applies to traditional at the Bank. These ideas include:business but also the financial institutions Respective job in the society, friendlylike bank. The job satisfaction of colleagues/supervisors and feel secure inemployees of the commercial banks is the job.critical for the success. However, the majority of the respondentOverall the employees are quite satisfied feels that more pay would be the best wayand view the bank as a good place to work, to improve the work environment. Moremajority of them think that they can go training and necessary equipment toahead if they try hard to achieve their goal. perform the job would also be appreciated.They are very much satisfied with the The respondents also strongly expressedsupervisory relationships as well as they that the work-loads are not equal betweenknow what their superior expects from colleagues.them. Almost all of the respondents think The results of the current study support thethat they made the right choice to work notion that job satisfaction and morale arewith the organization. major factors in improving theThe bank’s missions as well as motivation performance of the employee. It isand hygiene factors are important for their recommended that these results be kept injob satisfaction. In order from most to least mind when structuring all aspects ofthey are: feeling comfortable talking to employee positions in the bank and furthersenior management about job content, change. While not all suggestions arefeeling comfortable talking to the feasible due to budget constraints it issupervisor about job content, having open recommended to be aware of currentcommunication throughout the workplace, satisfaction levels of employees in order tohaving performance evaluations done by address problems efficiently. This willhis supervisor be fair and based on clear result in a smoother operating of theperformance standards, and pay structure banking system that is more apt toof the organization. successfully serve its purpose as anHowever they were not the only organization.associations. As shown in the resultssection satisfaction with career REFERENCESadvancement had a strong association with Akinbobola, O.I. (2011), Conflict in Humanjob satisfaction. Working in an Capital Relationships: The Impact of Job Satisfaction on Job Involvement in aenvironment of cooperation and mutual Workplace, International Journal ofrespect was also important to the Social Science and Humanity, 1(2): 92-95.employees’ job satisfaction. Topics such Aronson, K.R.; Laurenceau, J.P.; Sieveking, N. andas talking with senior management about Bellet, W. (2005), Job Satisfaction as aproblems with and simple open Function of Job Level, Administration Policy Mental Health, 32(3): 285-291. 170IJER | Jul - AUg 2012Available online@www.ijeronline.com
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