AssignmentTopic: Evolution of Library Science, Documentation & Information Science Submitted to; Dr. Salma Chowdhury Chairperson Department of Information Science & Library Management University of Dhaka Submitted by; Rajib Hossain Khan Roll no.: 38 3 year 6th semester rd Department of Information Science & Library Management University of Dhaka
Evolution of Library Science, Documentation and Information ScienceLibrary Science is a generic term for the study of libraries and information units, the role theyplay in society, their various component routines and processes, and their history and futuredevelopment. It is used in the United States in preference to the British term „Librarianship‟. Theterm Librarianship is used, in a restrictive way, to indicate the management activity and care oflibrary patrimony.Root of Library Science: Library Science can trace its roots to the period 669-630 B.C. and tothe cuneiform inscriptions on clay tablets collected in Nineveh by the Assyrian kingAssurbanipal. The clay tablets found in one of the world‟s oldest libraries, the large royalarchives of Assurbanipal (7th century B.C.) contained a catalogue that divided the works into thefollowing main classes as: a. Grammar b. History c. Law d. Natural History e. Geography f. Mathematics g. Astronomy h. Magic i. Religion j. LegendsEach main class is being subdivided into several subclasses.No actual classification scheme from Greek and Roman libraries has survived, but the catalogueof the great Alexandrian library, the Pinakes (“tables”) compiled by Callimachus (3rd centuryB.C.) was apparently classified into: a. Poets b. Law makers c. Philosophers d. Historians e. Rhetoricians f. Miscellaneous writersFurther subdivisions were by form, subject and time.The libraries of China at the end of the Western Han period (1st century A.D.) were classifiedinto seven large groups:
a. Encyclopedia b. The Six Arts c. Philosophy d. Poems and Songs e. Military Art f. Sooth Saying g. MedicineDuring the later Wei and Tsin dynasties (3rd to 5th centuries), a system was designed thatsurvived practically unchanged until the 20th century. It consisted of four main classes assubdivisions: a. Classics b. Philosophy, Military art, Mathematics, and Theology c. History, Government and Miscellanea d. LiteratureFoundation of Librarianship: According to Sayers, “The foundation of the library is the book;the foundation of librarianship is classification.” In 1876, Melville Dewey (1851-1931) devisedDDC scheme of classification which is considered as the foundation of modern librarianship. Inthe same year Dewey organized American Library Association (ALA) with the aim to promotelibraries and librarians to serve the society better by providing professional standards for thelibrarians. The British Library Association (BLA) was organized in the next year.Professional Aspect: The emergence of librarianship as a recognized profession is a fairlymodern development. Librarianship became more conscious of its status and occupationalidentity as did many other fields in the latter part of the 19th century.Library Science Education: Formal library education began in North America in1887 with thefirst class at the school of Library Economy, Columbia University, under the direction ofMelville Dewey. Library education began in Britain in the latter half of the 19th century. Therewere 17 schools in the UK in 1986.Maturity of Library Science: Till the end of the 19th century librarianship continued to remain asan art of organizing and managing the collection of reading materials in the libraries. During thatperiod the term „Science‟ emerged as a popular term. At that time few library professionals viz.Melville Dewey, C.A. Cutter, H. Putnam, H.E. Bliss, Paul Otlet, etc. also started developingdifferent kind of techniques employing certain rules, codes, methods and principles based onobservation and experience. The contribution of them to this discipline not only enhanced theprestige of librarianship but also increased the potentialities of the newly emerging discipline asper with other recognized subjects.
SL. M. Harold said that, “Librarianship is treated as science as it is the knowledge and skillconnected with the administration of libraries and their contents; library economy and utilized.”Foundation of Documentation: Belgian lawyer Paul Otlet is recognized as the founder of the„Documentation‟. The Documentation has the Otlet concept as its first concept, and developedepistemologically. Its fundamental work is the „Traite de Documentation‟, by the Belgian PaulOtlet (Otlet, 1934).Documentation in Library Science: In 1930s a new terminology „Documentation‟ appeared inthe scenario of Library Science. For many years it remained the subject matter of discussionsamong the library professionals as to whether documentation should form an integral part ofLibrarianship or it is altogether a separate profession. The majority of library professionals‟ viz.Kuntz, Shera and Ranganathan accepted it as an extension of Library Science. They believed thatboth are primarily concerned with the same techniques and services for the order presentation,organization, and communication of recorded knowledge.J.H. Shera addressed that, “Documentation is nothing more than a form of aspect ofLibrarianship it is Librarianship in a high key.”So we can say that, Documentation as an extended area of modern Librarianship came intoexistence only after the First World War. Documentation in EuropeBelgium: The lawyers Paul Otlet (1868-1944) and Henri La Fontaine (1854-1943) were thementors of the International Institute of Bibliography (IIB), created in 1895, in Belgium. But itmade significant impact when the name of the International Institute of Bibliography (IIB) waschanged to International Institution of Documentation (IID) in 1931 and International Federationof Documentation (FID) in1938. The 1931 name change, to incorporate the wordDocumentation, signaled a clear separation from the word Bibliography and an emphasis onpractical aspects.France: If the birthplace of Documentation is Belgium, its normalization and organizationhappened permanently in France, in the period from 1895 to1937. According to Fayet-Scribe,Otlet and the general Hippolyte Sebert (1839-1930), one of the founders of IIB in France, playedan important role in the consolidation of the Documentation sector.Spain: The work of Lopez Yepes - book, Teoria De La Documentation – is identified as the onethrough which professors from the incipient Spanish schools of Librarianship andDocumentation knew and learned the object and the internal and external limits of the discipline.Portugal: According to Ribeiro (2005, p.19) the Superior Course of Librarian-Archivist, inPortugal was replaced by the Course of Specialization in Documental Sciences, in 1982.
Documentation in U.S.The presence of the term Documentation in the U.S. in the name of associations and courses inprofessional practices and in literature happened, in fact, from 1950s. Watson Davis created theAmerican Documentation Institute (ADI). The first course on Documentation in the U.S. wasoffered in 1950 by Helen Foche of Western Reserve University, Cleveland. Documentation in BrazilThe history of Documentation in Brazil may be identified in at least three moments; in thebeginning of the 20th century, because of involvement with the project of IIB, a movement thatled to the creation of the Instituto Brasileiro De Bibliographia E Documentacao (IBBD), in1954. Documentation in the Sub-continentIndian National Scientific Documentation Center (INSDOC) was established in September, 1951in New Delhi. Dr. S.R. Ranganathan published a journal entitled “Library Science with Slant toDocumentation”.Pakistan National Scientific and Technical Documentation Center (PANSDOC) were establishedin 1957 by the government of Pakistan with the technical assistance from UNESCO.Subsequently in 1971, after the Liberation War of Bangladesh the regional office of PANSDOCbecame the Bangladesh National Scientific and Technical Documentation Center (BANSDOC).Appearance of Information Science: Before the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite in1958, the phrase „Information Science‟ rarely appeared in encyclopedias, books, or journals. In1960s the invention of automation brought many changes in library operations especially in thestorage and retrieval of information. This technological revolution paved the way fortransforming the concept of Documentation to Information Science.J.H. Shera said, “Information Science is an area of research which draws its substance, methods,and techniques from variety of disciplines to achieve an understanding of the properties,behavior and flow of information. Information Science contributes to the theoretical andintellectual base of librarians operations”.Need for Information Science: According to Koblitz, the term Documentation was not enough todesignate a complete area of specialized information. The researchers Chernyi, Gilarevski andMikhailov, invested in the search for the alternative denomination to the term Documentation.Looking for a broader term based on the concept of information, they state that the replaced termwhich was more broadcasted would be information Science.Documentation to Information Science: After the 1950s, Documentation started to represent bythe area then named Information Retrieval or Information Storage and Retrieval. TheInformation Retrieval is understood as the set of studies and activities of storage and retrieval of
information by means of computers. It configures itself as one of the main origins of InformationScience in the United States in the 1960s.Gradual Development of Information Science: The first conference whose title in anywayreferred to „Information Science‟ was the second International Congress on Information SystemSciences at Hot Springs, Virginia, in 1962. The first separate department of Information Sciencewas established in 1967 at the University of Dayton, in Dayton, Ohio; offering a program leadingto a graduate degree specifically identified as Information Science. The AmericanDocumentation Institute (ADI) was changed their name as American Society for InformationScience in1968. The journal of ADI, American Documentation was renamed as AmericanJournal for Information Science. In the year 1974, an expanded project namely PakistanScientific and Technological Information Centre (PASTIC) was build around the nucleus ofPANSDOC and was transferred from PCSIR Karachi to Pakistan Science Foundation,Islamabad.Hence the emergence of Information Science by replacing the term Documentation is anoutcome of technological revolution. It provides greater access to information by usingcommunicative technologies. With the application of the technologies to information activitiesled to the development of the concept of Information Science. Information Science is aninterdisciplinary science which derived from and related to the field like Library Science,Computer Science, Social Science and others.