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  • 1. RESEARCH ON MIDDLEWARE APPLICATION TO SUPPORT WSN Submitted by D.Rajeswari IIIMCA Under the guidance of Vanithasidambaranathan M.Phil.,P.hd., Assistant professor
  • 2. Agenda 1. Wireless Sensor Network 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Application Examples 1.3 Sensor Network Architecture 1.4 sensor node view 1.5 Sensor Network's Features 2. Middleware for Sensor Network. 2.1 Why do we need Middleware for SN? 2.2 Challenges in designing middleware. 2.3 Middleware approaches for SN. 3. Conclusion 4. References
  • 3. 1.1 INTRODUCTION
    • Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are distributed systems typically composed of embedded devices, each equipped with
    • processing unit,
    • memory
    • Battery,
    • wireless communication interface,or radio transceiver,
    • Sensors and/or Actuators .
    • Used to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions.eg.sound,temp,pressure
    • A sensor network normally constitutes a wireless ad-hoc network .
  • 4. Agenda 1. Wireless Sensor Network 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Application Examples 1.3 Sensor Network Architecture 1.4 sensor node view 1.5 Sensor Network's Features 2. Middleware for Sensor Network. 2.1 Why do we need Middleware for SN? 2.2 Challenges in designing middleware. 2.3 Middleware approaches for SN. 3. Conclusion 4. References
  • 5. 1.2 WSN APPLICATIONS
    • Military applications:
    • - target detection
    • - battlefield surveillance
    • - nuclear, biological and chemical attack detection etc.
    • Enviromental applications:
    • - forest fire detection
    • - flood detection
    • - structure monitoring
    • Health applications
    • - monitor human physiological data
    • - drug administration
  • 6.  
  • 7. Agenda 1 . Wireless Sensor Network 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Application Examples 1.3 Sensor Network Architecture 1.4 sensor node - hardware 1.5 Sensor Network's Features 2. Middleware for Sensor Network. 2.1 Why do we need Middleware for SN? 2.2 Challenges in designing middleware. 2.3 Middleware approaches for SN. 3. Conclusion 4. References
  • 8. 1.3 Sensor Network Architecture
  • 9. Agenda 1. Introduction of Sensor Network 1.1 Application Examples 1.2 Sensor Network Architecture 1.3 Sensor node -hardware 1.4 Sensor Network's Features 2. Middleware for Sensor Network. 2.1 Why do we need Middleware for SN? 2.2 Challenges in designing middleware. 2.3 Middleware approaches for SN. 3. Conclusion 4. References
  • 10. 1.4 Sensor Node-hardware
    • Sensing : sensor --a transducer that converts a physical, chemical, or biological parameter into an electrical signal
    • Processing: microprocessor(CPU)
    • data storage (Mem)
    • AD converter
    • Communicating : data transceiver(Radio),
    • Energy source: battery
  • 11. Agenda 1. Introduction of Sensor Network 1.1 Application Examples 1.2 Sensor Network Architecture 1.3 Hardware and Software 1.4 Sensor Network's Features 2. Middleware for Sensor Network. 2.1 Why do we need Middleware for SN? 2.2 Challenges in designing middleware. 2.3 Middleware approaches for SN. 3. Conclusion 4. References
  • 12. 1.5 Sensor Network's features
    • Restricted Resources: energy, computing power, memory, and communication bandwidth.
    • Network Dynamics: node mobility, environmental obstructions, hardware failures.
    • Scale of Deployments: thousands or millions of nodes.
  • 13.
    • Real-world intergation: seperation of events in time and space and correlate information from multiple sources
    • Collection and Processing of Sensor Data: preprocess data at the source
      • e.g. smart sensor ( IEEE 1451 )
    • Integration with Background Infrastructures: tasking the sensor network, and provide resources (eg. computing power)
  • 14. Agenda 1. Introduction of Sensor Network 1.1 Application Examples 1.2 Sensor Network Architecture 1.3 Hardware and Software 1.4 Sensor Network's Features 2. Middleware for Sensor Network. 2.1 Why do we need Middleware for SN? 2.2 Challenges in designing middleware. 2.3 Middleware approaches for SN. 3. Conclusion 4. References
  • 15. 2.1 Why do we need Middleware for WSN?
    • What is it?
    • A software infrastructure that glues together the network hardware, operating systems, network stacks, and applications.
    • Role
      • Provide standardized system services to diverse applications.
      • Provide a runtime environment that can support and coordinate multiple applications.
      • Provide mechanisms to achieve adaptive and efficient utilization of system resources.
  • 16.
    • Traditional middleware systems
      • Normally heavyweight in terms of memory and computation and therefore not suitable for SNs.
        • Java RMI (Remote Method Invocation)
        • EJB (Enterprise JavaBeans)
        • CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture)
    • A middleware for WSN
    • - should facilitate development, maintenance, deployment and execution of sensing-based applications.
  • 17. Agenda 1. Introduction of Sensor Network 1.1 Application Examples 1.2 Sensor Network Architecture 1.3 Hardware and Software 1.4 Sensor Network's Features 2. Middleware for Sensor Network. 2.1 Why do we need Middleware for SN? 2.2 Challenges in designing middleware. 2.3 Middleware approaches for SN. 3. Conclusion 4. References
  • 18. 2.2 Challenges in designing middleware.
    • Limited power and resources.
    • Middleware should provide mechanisms for efficient processor and memory use while enabling lower-power communication and prolong sensor node lifetime.
    • Scalability, mobility, and dynamic network topology.
    • Middleware should maintain performance and robust operation while network changes dynamically. Also, It should support mechanisms for fault tolerance and sensor node self-configuration and self-maintenance.
    • Heterogeneity.
    • CPU-power, networking, memory and storage, operating systems.
    • Middleware should able to interface various kinds of hardware, software and networks.
    • Dynamic network organization.
    • Middleware should support Ad-hoc capability to discover resource and its location which affect the trade-offs among latency, reliability, and energy.
  • 19. Challenges in designing middleware.
    • Real-world integration.
      • Middleware should provide real-time services.
    • Application knowledge.
      • Middleware design should balance between application specificity and middleware generality.
    • Data aggregation.
      • Middleware should able to aggregate data to eliminate redundancy and minimize the number of transmissions to the sink.
    • Security.
      • Middleware efforts should concentrate on developing and integrating security in the initial phases of software design,
  • 20. 2.3 Middleware approaches for WSN.
    • Virtual Machine (Cluster-Based)approach
      • Because of its similarity to the virtual machine concept in traditional distributed systems in terms of providing application semantic transparency from the physical infrastructure.
    • Pros:
        • Common abstraction.
        • Sand-boxing.
    • Cons:
        • High overhead
        • Difficult to exploit heterogeneity.
    • Examples
    • Mate
    • Magnetos
  • 21. Middleware approaches for WSN.
    • Modular programming approach
    • Pros:
        • Only parts of the program need to be updated, propagate efficiently.
    • Cons:
        • High overhead, Doesn’t allow hardware heterogeneity.
    • Example:
    • IMPALA
        • As modular as possible, efficiency of updates and support dynamic applications.
        • Doesn't allow hardware heterogeneity.
        • Application Adaption with different profiles possible. (energy efficient)
        • Use in the ZebraNet project (wildlife monitoring).
  • 22. Middleware approaches for WSN.
    • Database approach
      • Pros:
    • Entire sensor network is abstracted as a virtual relational database. Ease to interoperate with existing systems.
      • Cons:
    • Doesn’t support real-time applications, and provides only approximate results.
    • Example:
      • Cougar
        • Represents all sensors and sensor data in a relational database.
        • Allows the scheduling of ongoing queries that provide incremental results.
        • Decentralized Implementation, message passing based on controlled flooding.
      • SINA (System Information Networking Architecture)
        • Based on a spreadsheet database, wherein network is a collection of data-sheets and cells are attributes.
        • Queries again performed in an SQL-like language.
        • Decentralized Implementation based on clustering.
  • 23. Middleware approaches for WSN.
    • Message Oriented
      • Pros:
        • Use Publish-subscribe to support asynchronous communication, allowing a loose coupling between the sender and the receiver
      • Cons:
        • Overhead
    • Example:
      • MIRES
        • Publish-subscribe
        • Multi-Hop Routing
        • Additional Service (e.g. data Aggregation)
        • Sense – advertise over P/S and route to Sink.
  • 24. Conclusions
    • Sensor Network can be used in many applications, such as Military, Environmental and Health…etc.
    • Its characteristics are tiny node, low power, limited resources, dynamic network topology and various scales of network deployment.
    • Middleware is used to connect the network hardware, operating systems, network stacks, and applications in different approaches.
    • For examples, Virtual Machine, Mobile Agent, Database and Message Oriented.
  • 25.
    • References
    • Kay Römer, Oliver Kasten and Friedemann Mattern. “ Middleware Challenges for Wireless Sensor Networks ”. Mobile Computing and Communications Review, Vol. 6, Nr. 2, 2002
    • Ian F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam and ErdalCayirci. “ Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey ”. ComputerNetworks, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2002”
    • Kirsten Terfloth and Jochen Shiller. Driving Forces behind “ Middleware Concepts for Wireless Sensor Networks” . Proc. of the REALWSN Workshop, 2005
  • 26.
    • References
    • W. Heinzelman, A. Murphy, H. Carvalho and M. Perillo.
    • “ Middleware to Support Sensor Network Applications ”. IEEENetwork Magazine Special Issue, January 2004
    • “ Middleware Approaches for Sensor Networks ”Summer School on WSNs and Smart ObjectsSchloss Dagstuhl, Aug. 29th – Sept. 3Rd , 2005
    • Kay Römer, Oliver Kasten and Friedemann Mattern.” Middleware Challenges forWireless sensor Networks ”. In COMSWARE, volume 6, pages 1321–1329, July 2005.