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O.b. c 11 communication

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR, COMMUNICATION, ROBBINS

ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR, COMMUNICATION, ROBBINS

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  • 1. COMMUNICATION Dr. Rajesh Kamath Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health Manipal University
  • 2. COMMUNICATION • “Constantly talking is not necessarily communicating.” • Poor communication is most probably the most common source of interpersonal conflict. • Individuals spend nearly 70% of their waking hours communicating – Writing, reading, speaking, listening. • Recruiters rank Communication skills at the top of their list of desired characteristics.
  • 3. COMMUNICATION • Communication is the Transfer and the Understanding of meaning. • What would perfect communication be?.. • When a thought or idea was transmitted so the receiver perceived exactly the same mental picture as the sender. • Is perfect communication ever achieved?..
  • 4. COMMUNICATION – Functions of Communication • 4 major functions within a group or organisation : • 1. Control • 2. Motivation • 3. Emotional expression • 4. Information
  • 5. COMMUNICATION - Functions of Communication • 1. Control : • Organisations have authority hierarchies and formal guidelines employees are required to follow. • When employees are required to communicate any job-related grievance to their immediate boss, to follow their job description, or to comply with company policies, communication is performing a control function. • Does Informal communication also control behaviour? • When work groups harass a member who produces too much..?..
  • 6. COMMUNICATION - Functions of Communication • 2. Motivation : • Communication motivates by clarifying what needs to be done, how well they are doing, and how to improve performance if it is below par.
  • 7. COMMUNICATION - Functions of Communication • 3. Emotional expression : • For many employees, their work group is a primary source of social interaction. • The communication within the group is a fundamental mechanism by which members show their satisfaction and frustration.
  • 8. COMMUNICATION - Functions of Communication • 4. Information : • Communication provides the information needed for decision making. • All these 4 functions are equally important.
  • 9. COMMUNICATION – The Communication Process. • Communication Process : The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transfer and understanding of meaning. • The key parts of this process model are: • 1. Sender – encodes the thought. • 2. Encoding • 3. Message – speech, writing, movements of arms, expression on our faces. • 4. Channel – Formal or Informal • 5. Decoding - • 6. Receiver • 7. Noise – communication barriers • 8. Feedback – tells us how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended.
  • 10. COMMUNICATION – The Communication Process.
  • 11. COMMUNICATION – Direction of Communication • Direction of Communication : • 1. Downward communication. • 2. Upward communication. • 3. Lateral communication.
  • 12. COMMUNICATION – Direction of Communication • 1. Downward communication : • Used by group leaders and managers communicating with employees to assign goals, provide job instructions, explain policies and procedures, point out problems that need attention and offer feedback about performance. • As managers, one must explain why a decision was made. • Employees are twice as likely to be committed to changes when the reasons behind them are fully explained. • It is one-way in nature. Managers inform employees but rarely solicit their advice or opinions.
  • 13. COMMUNICATION – Direction of Communication • 2. Upward communication : • Feedback to higher ups, inform them about progress towards goals, relay current problems. • Keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs, co-workers, and the organisation in general; how conditions can be improved. • For effective upward communication, remove distractions : Meet in a conference room rather than the boss’s cubicle; Communicate in headlines; Support your headlines with actionable items.
  • 14. COMMUNICATION – Direction of Communication • 3. Lateral communication : • Communication taking place among menbers of the same work group, members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any horizontally equivalent workers. • Saves time, facilitates communication. • Some lateral relationships are formal, most are informal. • When done with management’s support, it can be beneficial. • When formal vertical channels are breached, it can create dysfunctional conficts.
  • 15. COMMUNICATION – Interpersonal communication • Interpersonal communication : • 1. Oral communication. • 2. Written communication. • 3. Non verbal communication.
  • 16. COMMUNICATION – Interpersonal communication • 1. Oral communication : • The chief means of conveying messages. • Speeches, formal one-on-one and group discussions, and the grapevine. • Advantages : Speed, feedback. • Rapid feedback allows sender to quickly detect and correct it. • Disadvantage : The more people the message has to pass through, the greater the distortion.
  • 17. COMMUNICATION – Interpersonal communication • 2. Written communication : • Memos, letters, faxes, e-mail, instant messaging, organisational periodicals, notices placed on bulletin boards. • Tangible and verifiable. • Both the sender and the receiver have a record of the communication. • The message can be stored for an indefinite period. • Physically available for later reference. • Particularly relevant for lengthy communication. • Eg. : The Marketing plan for a new product may contain a number of tasks spread over several months. • Writing something down makes you think about it more, think logically, and clearly. • Disadvantages : Time-consuming, eg. Written exam vs Viva. • No built-in feedback mechanism.
  • 18. COMMUNICATION – Interpersonal communication • 3. Non verbal communication : • The 2 most important messages body language conveys are : • 1. The extent to which we like another and are interested in his or her views. – We are more likely to position ourselves closer to people we like. • 2. The perceived status between a sender and receiver. – If you feel you are of a higher status than another, you are more likely to adopt a casual approach- sit slouched or with crossed legs. • Facial expessions, intonations, physical distance.
  • 19. COMMUNICATION – Organisational communication • Formal small group networks : • 1. Chain – rigidly follows the formal chain of command. Eg. Rigid 3 level organisation. • 2. Wheel – Central figure to act as the conduit for the entire group’s communication. Eg. Team with a strong leader. • 3. All-channel – All group members to actively communicate with each other. Eg: Self managed teams. • Grapevine
  • 20. COMMUNICATION – Organisational communication
  • 21. COMMUNICATION – Organisational communication • The Grapevine : • It is the informal communication network in a group or organisation. • A survey found it is where 75% of employees hear about matters first. • Word-of-mouth has important effects on whether job applicants join an organisation.
  • 22. COMMUNICATION – Organisational communication • 3 main characteristics : • 1. Not controlled by management. • 2. Most employees perceive it as more believable and reliable than formal communication from top management. • 3. It is largely used to serve the interests of the people within it.
  • 23. COMMUNICATION – Organisational communication • One interesting study: • When on executive decided to resign, 81% of the others knew about it, but only 11% had transmitted the information to someone else. • Research suggests about 75% of information that flows along the grapevine is acurrate. • As widely believed, • Rumours do not arise because they make good gossip. • Rumours arise when there is ambiguity in situations that are important to us, when there is anxiety.
  • 24. COMMUNICATION – Organisational communication • As managers, it can give you a feel for the morale of your organisation and identify issues your employees consider important. • For employees, small talk creates a sense of closeness and friendship among those who share information. • As managers, try to minimise the negative consequences of rumours. How? • 1. Provide information. • 2. Explain actions and decisions that may appear inconsistent, unfair, or secretive. • 3. Refrain from shooting the messenger – rumors are a natural byproduct – respond calmly, rationally, respectfully. • 4. Maintain open communication channels – encourage employees to come to you with concerns and suggestions.
  • 25. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • Electronic communication – Advantages and challenges : • 1. E mail. • 2. Instant messaging and short messaging service. • 3.Networking software. • 4. Blogs. • 5. Video Conferencing.
  • 26. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 1. Email : • Advantages : • Can be quickly written, edited, stored. • They can be distributed to one person or thousands with the click of a mouse. • Recipients can read them at their own convenience. • Cost is minimal.
  • 27. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • Drawbacks : • 1. Misinterpreting the message. • 2. Communicating negative messages. • 3. Time consuming nature of e-mail. • 4. E-mail emotions. • 5. Privacy concerns.
  • 28. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 1. Misinterpreting the message : • One research team at New York university found we can accurately decode an e mail’s intent and tone only 50% of the time. • 2. Communicating negative messages : • Email may not be the best way to communicate negative messages. • 3. Time consuming nature of e mail : • An estimated 62 trillion e mails are sent every year. 60%, i.e. 36 million are non spam. • A survey of Canadian managers revealed that 58% of them spent 2-4 hours per day reading and responding to e mails.
  • 29. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • Strategies to deal with email overload: • 1. Don’t check e mail in the morning. Take care of other important tasks which might otherwise never get done. • 2. Check e mail in batches. Maybe twice a day. Don’t log in 50 times a day. • 3. Unsubscribe from newsletters and subscriptions that you do not need. • 4. Stop sending e mail that you do not need to send. Shorter e mails get shorter responses. • 5. Declare e-mail bankruptcy. Wipe out your entire inbox and start over.
  • 30. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 4. E mail emotions. The lack of visual and vocal cues means emotionally positive messages, including praise, will be seen as more emotionally neutral than the sender intended. • Without real time feedback from the receiver, senders write things they would never be comfortable saying in person. • When writing an e mail when angry and upset, save it as a draft and look at it again later. • When others send flaming messages, remain calm and do not respond in kind. • Try to see the message from the other party’s point of view.
  • 31. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 5. Privacy concerns : • 2 privacy issues with e-mails: • 1. E mails may be monitored. • 2. You can’t always trust the recipient of the e- mail to keep it confidential. • Never write anything that you would not want made public.
  • 32. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 2. Instant messaging and short messaging service : • Pros: • Flexible, one can be reached anywhere, anytime. • Preferable for 1 or 2 line messages that would otherwise clutter up an e-mail inbox. • Cons: • Can disturb concentration and focus. Eg. During meetings. • Security risk:Can be intercepted. • Informality of text messaging may spill over into business e mails. Eg.: omg, wth..
  • 33. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 3. Networking software : • Facebook, Myspace. • To get the most out of social networks and to avoid irritating your contacts, use them for high-value items only. • A prospective employer might check your Facebook or Myspace profiles.
  • 34. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 4.Blogs: • A website where entries are written, and generally displayed in reverse chronological order, about news, events and personal diary entries. • 112 million blogs and 350 million blog entries are written everyday. • Millions of employees have blogs. • Many organisations and organisational leaders have blogs that speak for the organisation. • TWITTER : A free blogging and networking service where users send and read messages known as tweets, may of which concern OB issues. • “Micro-blog” • Tweets can come from any employee about any work topic, with organisations having less control over it. • Can invite action against employees.
  • 35. COMMUNICATION – Electronic communication • 5. Video Conferencing : • Permits employees in an organisation to have meetings with people at different locations. • Travel savings. • Important for everyone to be informed of the agenda beforehand and equal time to be provided to people at all locations, or remote participants can feel left out.
  • 36. COMMUNICATION – Managing information • Managing information : • 1. Dealing with information overload. • 2. Always on call. • 3. Information security.
  • 37. COMMUNICATION – Managing information • 1. Dealing with information overload : • Intel designed an 8 month experiment to see how limiting information overload might aid productivity. • One group of employees was told to limit both digital and in-person contact for 4 hours on Tuesdays, while another group followed its usual routine. • The first group was more productive and 75% of its members suggested the program be expanded.
  • 38. COMMUNICATION – Managing information • 2. Always on call : • Some business travellers were disappointed when airlines began offering wireless internet connections in flight because they could no longer use their time in flight as a rare opportunity to relax without a constant barrage of organisational communications. • Both workers and their spouses relate the use of electronic communication technologies outside work to higher levels of work-life conflict. • Risk of burnout from being on call 24 hours a day.
  • 39. COMMUNICATION – Managing information • 3. Information security : • A Merrill Lynch survey of 50 executives found 52% rated leaks of company information as their number one information security concern, topping viruses and hackers. • In response, most companies actively monitor employee internet use and e mail records, and some even use video surveillance and record phone conversations. • Such practices may seem invasive to employees. • As managers, you can address their concerns by involving them in the creation of information-security policies and giving them some control over how their personal information is used.
  • 40. COMMUNICATION – Choice of Communication channel • Channel richness : The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode. • Why do people choose one channel of communication over another-say a phone call instead of a face to face talk? • A model of media richness helps explain channel selection among managers.
  • 41. COMMUNICATION – Choice of Communication channel • Home work : Diagram : Information richness of Communication channels.
  • 42. COMMUNICATION – Choice of Communication channel • Channels differ in their capacity to convey information. Some are rich in that they can • 1. Handle multiple cues simultaneously. • 2. Facilitate rapid feedback. • 3. Be very personal. • Others are lean in that they score low on these factors. • Face to face conversation scores the highest in channel richness, because it transmits the most information per communication episode – multiple information cues (words, postures, facial expressions, gestures, intonations), immediate feedback(both verbal and nonverbal), and the personal touch of being present.
  • 43. COMMUNICATION – Choice of Communication channel • The choice of channel depends on whether the message is routine or non routine. • Routine messages tend to be straightforward and have minimal ambiguity;channels low in richness can carry them efficiently. • Non-routine communications are likely to be complicated and have the potential for misunderstanding. Managers can communicate them effectively only by selecting rich channels. • Evidence indicates high performing managers tend to be more media sensitive than low performing managers. • They are better able to match appropriate media richness with the ambiguity level in the message.
  • 44. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 1. Filtering • 2. Selective perception • 3. Information overload • 4. Emotions • 5. Language • 6. Silence • 7. Communication Apprehension • 8. Gender differences • 9. “Politically correct” communication
  • 45. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 1. Filtering : • A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver. • Eg: A manager who tells his boss what he feels his boss wants to hear. • The more the levels, the more the filtering. • Status differences increase filtering. • Fear, eagerness to please.
  • 46. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 2. Selective perception : • Receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, inte rests and expectations. • Eg: An interviewer who expects a female job applicant to put her family ahead of her career is likely to see that in all female applicants, regardless of whether they actually feel that way. • We do not see Reality • We interpret what we see and call it reality.
  • 47. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 3. Information overload : • When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, the result is information overload. • When this condition strikes, what do individuals do? • They tend to select, ignore, pass over, or forget information. • Or they may put off further processing until the overload situation is over. • The result is lost information and less effective communication.
  • 48. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 4. Emotions : • You may interpret the same message differently when you are angry or distraught than when you are happy. • Extreme emotions such as jubilation or depression are most likely to hinder effective communication. • The rational and objective thinking process is disregarded.
  • 49. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 5. Language : • Words can mean different things to different people. • Age and context are the 2 biggest factors. • Our use of language is far from uniform.
  • 50. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 6. Silence : • Absence of information. • One survey found over 85% of managers reported remaining silent on atleast one issue of significant concern. • Employee silence means managers lack information about ongoing operational problems. • Silence regarding discrimination, harassment, corruption and misconduct means top management cannot take action to eliminate this behaviour. • Employees who are silent may also experience psychological stress. • As managers, you must make sure you behave in a supportive manner when employees voice divergent opinions or express concerns. • One act of ignoring or belittling an employee for expressing concerns may well lead the employee to withhold important future communication.
  • 51. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 7. Communication Apprehension : • 5 to 20 % of the population. • Also called Social anxiety. • Undue tension and anxiety in oral communication, written comunication, or both. • May rely on faxes or memos when a phone call would be faster and more appropriate. • As managers, be aware that oral communication apprehensives may severely limit their oral communication and rationalise this practice by telling themselves it is not necessary for them to do their job effectively.
  • 52. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 8. Gender differences : • Research shows men tend to talk to emphasize status. • Whereas women tend to use it to create connections. • Men – status, power, independence. • Women – connection, intimacy.
  • 53. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • Men frequently complain that women talk on and on about their problems. • Women criticise men for not listening. • What’s happening is that when men hear a poblem, they assert their desire for independence and control by offering solutions. Many women, on the other hand, view telling a problem as a means to promote closeness and gain support and connection, not to get advice. • Mutual understanding is symmetrical. But giving advice is asymmetrical. Its sets up the advice giver as more knowledgeble, more reasonable, and more in control. This creates distance.
  • 54. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • 9. “Politically correct” communication : • Communication that is so concerned with being inoffensive, that meaning and simplicity are lost or free expression is hampered. • Eg: • 1. The Los Angeles times allows its journalists to use the term “old age” but cautions that the onset of old age varies from “person to person”, so individuals in a group of 75 year olds are not necessarily all old. • 2. CNN has fined its broadcasters for using the word “foreign” instead of “international”. • 3. The Little People of America (LPA) association prefers the term “little people” to “dwarfs” or “midgets”.
  • 55. COMMUNICATION – Barriers to Effective communication • Downside : • It can complicate our vocabulary and make it harder to communicate accurately. • Garbage – Postconsumer waste materials • Quotas – Educational equity • Women – People of gender
  • 56. COMMUNICATION • HOME WORK: • GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS. • SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGERS.
  • 57. • References : • ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR - STEPHEN ROBBINS – 14TH EDITION
  • 58. THANK YOU

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