Team Building

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  • I will start this with a story: Shakleton Expedition
  • will illustrate with examples
  • According to Bob Mendonsa and Associates’ web page http://www. trainingplus.com on Team building : Team Building is a process and not an event. Team Building is about both willingness and ability. Sometimes teams problems occur because team members lack important skills. Sometimes there are trust issues. Team Building must address individual and group issues. People do not “disappear” when they choose to belong to a group. Any team building effort must address the strengths and development needs of individual team members that impact the group as a whole. Of course the corollary is true and groups or teams fail when they: Think differently Have poor leadership Have communications difficulties Have competition between members
  • As the team matures, members gradually learn to cope with each other and the pressures that they face. As a result, the team goes through the fairly predictable stages noted on the slide.
  • To help the students adapt to their team, it might be wise to have them to simple activities to build trust and establish communication between the members. However, in the context of the computational science project many of the forming actions are undertaken as the team determines what their project topic will be and narrows the focus to reach their project goal. Teachers can help students as they "form" their teams by making sure that they understand the process they will go through to get their topic. You may want to include some activities to illustrate trust and/or communication skills in a team.
  • This is probably the most difficult stage for the team. They may be floundering trying to find a project topic that is narrow enough to study or a mentor to help them. They begin to realize that this project is different than other ones that they have done in the past. Teachers can help students through this stage by encouraging members to use their individual skills and assume more responsibilities. Understanding how personality types interact can ease some of the tensions in the storming stage.
  • As a teacher, you can help your students when they are in the “storming” stage, by focusing their attention on the questions above. The students may want to answer the first question both in general terms and more specifically, in conjunction with their project goals.
  • See The Team Book by Peter R. Scholtes, Brian L. Joiner and Barbara Streibel for more background on the various ways people or teams deal with conflict . Avoiding Conflict – you must avoid both the issues likely to lead to conflict and the people with whom you are likely to conflict with Smooth the conflict – minimizing conflict so that group relationships aren’t strained. Forcing the conflict – attempts to overpower others and force them to accept your position. Compromising – tries to get others to give up some of what they want in exchange for giving up some of what you want. Sounds good, but this can be lose-lose strategy because no one achieves their goals. Underlying assumption: everyone should accept less than they want because that is the best that they can hope for. (Should be tried after problem solving hasn’t worked) Problem Solving – Win-win approach. Personal goals and group relationships are highly valued. Purpose to find a path forward that meets everyone’s goals and preserves group relationships. Continued on next slide
  • Problem solving includes strategies aimed at taking diverse viewpoints into account, clarifying the issues, clearing the air constructively and enabling everyone to move forward together. You can clarify core issues by sorting out areas of agreement from areas of disagreement When listening to each person’s point of view – Accept that they believe/want this even if you don’t!! Look for the reasons (maybe something would be good for both)
  • During this stage, team members begin to work out their differences and now have more time and energy to spend on their work. Thus they are able to start making significant progress. In the context of the computational science project, the students have probably found a mentor who is helping them and have narrowed their project focus.
  • During this stage, you should encourage team members to: do detailed planning develop criteria for completion of goals build on positive norms and change unhealthy norms encourage continued team spirit Now that the team is working well, it is important for team members to learn to communicate with each other including how to constructively criticize when necessary.
  • Be descriptive -- relate what you saw or heard the other person do. Give specific recent examples Don’t use labels -- Be specific and unambiguous. Don’t use words like immature, unprofessional, irresponsible which are labels attached to behavior. For example, say “ You missed the deadline we had agreed to meet rather than, “You’re being irresponsible and I want to know what you are going to do about it. Don’t exaggerate. Be exact. To say, “You’re always late for deadlines” is probably untrue and unfair. It invites the receiver to argue with exaggeration rather than respond to real issue Don’t be judgmental. Don’t use words like good, better, bad, worst or should which place you in the role of controlling parent. This invites the receiver to respond as a child. Speak for yourself. Don’t refer to absent, anonymous people. Avoid references like “A lot of people here don’t like it when you…” Encourage others to speak for themselves
  • Talk first about yourself, not about the other person. Use a statement with with “I” as the subject not “you”. People are more likely to remain open to your message when an “I” statement is used. Phrase the issue as a statement, not a question. “I” statements allows the receiver to see what effect the behavior had on you. Restrict your feedback. Don’t present your opinions as facts. Help people hear and receive positive feedback. Many people fell awkward when told good things about themselves. It may be important to reinforce the positive feedback and help the person hear it, acknowledge it and accept it.
  • Listen carefully. Don’t interrupt. Don’t discourage the feedback-giver. Ask questions for clarity. You have the right to receive clear feedback. Ask for specific examples. Acknowledge the feedback. Paraphrase the message in your own words to let the person know what you have heard and understood what was said. Acknowledge the valid points. Agree with what is true. Agree with what is possible. Acknowledge the other person’s point of view and try to understand their reaction. Agreeing with what’s true or possible doesn’t mean you agree to change your behavior or mean agreeing with any value judgment about you. You can agree that your reports are late with out thereby agreeing that your are irresponsible Take time to sort out what you heard. You may need time for sorting out or checking with others before responding to feedback. It is reasonable to ask the feedback-giver for time to think about what was said and how you feel about it. Don’t use this time as an excuse to avoid the issue.
  • During the performing stage, the team is now an effective and cohesive unit. As a team, the emphasize quality work; utilize each member’s talents; meet deadlines; and continue to work on team commitment. Examples of the results of good team work can be seen on the Video tapes and CDs from the National Expos. The presentation itself is an example of team work. The duration and intensity of these stages vary from team to team. Sometimes Stage 4 is achieved in a meeting or two; other times it takes months. Understanding the stages of growth will keep you from overreacting to normal problems and setting unrealistic expectations. Don’t panic. With patience and effort the assembly of independent individuals will grow into a team.
  • To summarize, even though these points are addressing teams in the workplace, they are applicable in the classroom setting. They can also form part of the rubric to evaluate the team’s performance. Clarity in team goals: has a clear vision and can progress steadily toward its goals. A work plan: helps team determine what advice, assistance, and other resources they need from teachers, mentors or research Clearly defined role: Uses each member’s talents and involves everyone in team activities so no one feels left out.
  • Clear communication: Speak with clarity and be succinct. Listen actively; explore rather than debate each speaker’s ideas. Avoid interrupting. Beneficial team behaviors: Should encourage all members to use the skills and practices that make discussions and meetings more effective; suggest procedures for meeting goals, clarify or elaborate on ideas; keep the discussion from digressing Well-defined decision procedures: discuss how decisions will be made; use data as a basis of decisions; explore important issues by polling Balanced participation: Everyone should participate in discussions and decisions, share commitment to the project’s success and contribute their talents Established ground rules: Establish ground rules for what will and will not be tolerated in the team Awareness of group process: Be sensitive to nonverbal communication; be aware of the group process and how the team works together Use the scientific approach: Of course this is the underlying assumption in a project development, but in team building it helps members avoid team problems and disagreements. Opinions must be supported by data
  • Team Building

    1. 1. Team Building: A Leadership Strategy
    2. 2. <ul><li>“ Individual commitment to a group effort is what makes a team work…” </li></ul><ul><li>Vince Lombardi </li></ul>
    3. 5. chieves ore! ogether T veryone E A M
    4. 6. I TEAM
    5. 7. Teams vs. Groups <ul><li>What are the differences between teams & groups? </li></ul>
    6. 8. Team Building Twelve tips for successful team building: <ul><li>Clear expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Charter </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Change </li></ul>
    7. 9. Principles of Teamwork <ul><li>Benefits of Teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the Best Team Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Great Team Members </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Effective Teams </li></ul>
    8. 10. What are the Benefits of Teamwork? <ul><li>How can it aid in decision making? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it affect communication? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the benefits to members? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the benefits to organizations? </li></ul>
    9. 11. Characteristics of the Best Team Leaders <ul><li>What skills do they have? </li></ul><ul><li>What traits do they exhibit? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they communicate? </li></ul><ul><li>What motivates them? </li></ul>
    10. 12. Characteristics of Great Team Members <ul><li>What makes individual members a valuable part of the team? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they communicate? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they participate? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s their attitude? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s their motivation? </li></ul>
    11. 13. Characteristics of Effective Teams <ul><li>What is the atmosphere like? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the work get done? </li></ul><ul><li>What is communication like? </li></ul><ul><li>How are decisions made? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the focus? </li></ul>
    12. 14. Qualities of a Team <ul><li>Members care for one another </li></ul><ul><li>Members know what is important </li></ul><ul><li>Members communicate with one another </li></ul><ul><li>Members grow together </li></ul><ul><li>There is a team fit </li></ul>
    13. 15. Qualities of a Team… <ul><li>Members place individual rights beneath the best interest of the team </li></ul><ul><li>Each team member plays a special role </li></ul><ul><li>Team has enough members to share the work </li></ul><ul><li>Members know exactly where the team stands </li></ul><ul><li>Members are willing to pay the price </li></ul>
    14. 16. “ Achieving a common purpose through collaboration with others is a unique work experience. Individuals working effectively together for a common purpose create a force: a power to perform .” Defining Team Work
    15. 17. Team-building Basics <ul><li>What is team-building? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About team ability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams are here to stay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more team able, the better the library </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. Team-building Basics… <ul><li>How to do it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know what the team must do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition the team for the work </li></ul></ul>
    17. 19. What It Means to be Team Able <ul><li>Team Members Should... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work well with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On a level playing field </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribute knowledge and expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right amount </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be patient with the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ccompassionate, good humor </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 20. When Is A Group A Team? <ul><li>Common purpose: a vision </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables team to perform effectively </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses the talents of all its members </li></ul><ul><li>Finishes the game together </li></ul>
    19. 21. How To Build a Team? <ul><li>Know the individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills and abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengths, weaknesses, blind spots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Know what the team needs to do </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Match talents to team purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try it; course correct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condition the team for the work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coach individuals and the team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor team conditions </li></ul></ul>
    20. 22. Nurturing Team Ability <ul><li>Believe in the team </li></ul><ul><li>Be honest with the team </li></ul><ul><li>Be who you are equally to everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Inspire the team </li></ul>
    21. 23. Basic Team-building Skills <ul><li>Develop a realistic assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Match up team talent </li></ul><ul><li>Provide effective leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Secure adequate resources </li></ul><ul><li>Coach individuals and the team </li></ul>
    22. 24. Summing Up Team-building <ul><li>Team ability = apex of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Teams exist for a purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Teams end but team ability carries on </li></ul>
    23. 25. The 2X2: A Multipurpose Tool <ul><li>2 X 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Johari window </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team-building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul></ul>
    24. 26. Two-By-Two For Sam’s Work Unit
    25. 27. Summing Up Excellence in Supervision... <ul><li>Provide a vision and clarify expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce beneficial behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Confront inappropriate behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Interact purposefully, consistently, and predictably </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate coaching and team-building </li></ul>
    26. 28. How do Teams Work Best? <ul><li>Teams succeed when members have: </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to common objectives; </li></ul><ul><li>Defined roles and responsibilities; </li></ul><ul><li>Effective decision systems, communication and work procedures; and, </li></ul><ul><li>Good personal relationships. </li></ul>
    27. 29. Stages in Team Building Forming Storming Norming Performing
    28. 30. FORMING <ul><li>Team Building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine individual roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop trust and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop norms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define problem and strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify information needed </li></ul></ul>
    29. 31. Team Roles - Leader <ul><ul><li>Encourage and maintain open communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help the team develop and follow team norms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help the team focus on the task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deal constructively with conflict. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 32. Team Roles - Recorder <ul><ul><li>Keep a record of team meetings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain a record of team assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain a record of the team's work. </li></ul></ul>
    31. 33. Team Roles – PR Person <ul><ul><li>Contact resource people outside of the team. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correspond with the team's mentor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work to maintain good communication among team members. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 34. Team Norms <ul><ul><li>How do we support each other? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do we do when we have problems? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are my responsibilities to the team? </li></ul></ul>
    33. 35. STORMING <ul><li>During the Storming stage team members: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realize that the task is more difficult than they imagined; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have fluctuations in attitude about chances of success; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be resistant to the task & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have poor collaboration. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 36. Storming Diagnosis <ul><li>Do we have common goals and objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we agree on roles and responsibilities? </li></ul><ul><li>Do our task, communication, and decision systems work? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we have adequate interpersonal skills? </li></ul>
    35. 37. Negotiating Conflict <ul><li>Separate problem issues from people issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Be soft on people, hard on problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for underlying needs, goals of each party rather than specific solutions. </li></ul>
    36. 38. Addressing the Problem <ul><li>State your views in clear non-judgmental language. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify the core issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen carefully to each person’s point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Check understanding by restating the core issues. </li></ul>
    37. 39. NORMING <ul><li>During this stage members accept: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their team; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team rules and procedures; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their roles in the team & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The individuality of fellow members. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team members realize that they are not going to crash-and-burn and start helping each other. </li></ul>
    38. 40. Behaviors <ul><li>Competitive relationships become more cooperative. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a willingness to confront issues </li></ul><ul><li>and solve problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Teams develop the ability to express criticism constructively. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a sense of team spirit. </li></ul>
    39. 41. Giving Constructive Feedback <ul><li>Be descriptive. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't use labels. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t exaggerate. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be judgmental. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak for yourself. </li></ul>
    40. 42. <ul><li>Use “I” messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict your feedback to things you know for certain. </li></ul><ul><li>Help people hear and accept your compliments when giving positive feedback. </li></ul>Giving Constructive Feedback
    41. 43. Receiving Feedback <ul><li>Listen carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions for clarity. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the valid points. </li></ul><ul><li>Take time to sort out what you heard. </li></ul>
    42. 44. PERFORMING <ul><li>Team members have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gained insight into personal and team processes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A better understanding of each other’s strengths and weaknesses; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gained the ability to prevent or work through group conflict and resolve differences; and, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed a close attachment to the team. </li></ul></ul>
    43. 45. Recipe for Successful Team <ul><li>Commitment to shared goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly define roles and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use best skills of each </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows each to develop in all areas </li></ul></ul>
    44. 46. Recipe for Successful Team <ul><li>Effective systems and processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficial team behaviors; well-defined decision procedures and ground rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of the group process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good personal relationships </li></ul></ul>
    45. 47. Team Building: An Introduction <ul><li>Leadership style that promotes team building is positively associated with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profitability </li></ul></ul>
    46. 48. Team Building: An Introduction… <ul><li>Teamwork is often associated with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large production increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gains in quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved customer service </li></ul></ul>
    47. 49. Team Building: An Introduction… <ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job gets done efficiently and harmoniously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer interpersonal relations problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive effect on the physical and psychological well-being of employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher levels of job satisfaction and less stress </li></ul></ul>
    48. 50. Team Building: An Introduction <ul><li>Synergy is another positive outcome of teamwork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The interaction of two or more parts to produce greater results than the sum of the parts taken individually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Especially important when organizations value creativity </li></ul>
    49. 51. Teamwork Doesn’t Come Naturally <ul><li>The concept of teamwork has been around a long time </li></ul><ul><li>Many organizations work hard to get all employees to pull together as a team </li></ul><ul><li>Most jobs today require ongoing interaction between coworkers and managers </li></ul>
    50. 52. Teamwork Doesn’t Come Naturally… <ul><li>Need commitment and cooperation of every employee </li></ul><ul><li>Requires meaningful employee participation in planning, solving problems, and developing ways to improve </li></ul>
    51. 53. Teamwork Doesn’t Come Naturally… <ul><li>Barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some value individualism over teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict can cause a breakdown in relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy workloads and long hours lead to weary employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teamwork flourishes under strong leadership </li></ul>
    52. 54. Teamwork: The Employee’s Role <ul><li>Most valued employees are willing to assume leadership roles and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Each team member should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume an active part in helping the work unit achieve its mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a team builder </li></ul></ul>
    53. 55. Employees as Leaders <ul><li>Effective leaders are helping work team members develop leadership skills </li></ul><ul><li>The team’s success does not always ride on one person </li></ul><ul><li>Merit in establishing diversity of leadership within work group </li></ul>
    54. 56. Valued Team Members <ul><li>Every employee has potential to be a leader </li></ul><ul><li>Success often depends on your ability to be an effective team member </li></ul>
    55. 57. Becoming a Valued Team Member <ul><li>Avoid any action that might sabotage the team </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that effective team membership depends on honest, open communication </li></ul><ul><li>Do not feel the need to submerge your own strong believes, creative solutions, and ideas </li></ul>
    56. 58. Summary <ul><li>Teamwork ensures that a job gets done and that it gets done efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork can mean the difference between a profitable and unprofitable organization </li></ul><ul><li>Team-building leadership style is suited to today’s employees </li></ul>
    57. 59. Summary… <ul><li>Many companies are forming specific types of teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-directed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-functional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two ways to learn about teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders who promote teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholars who discuss it </li></ul></ul>
    58. 60. Summary… <ul><li>Effective teamwork is informal and relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>People are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eager to participate in work-related problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals and objectives are clearly understood </li></ul>
    59. 61. Summary… <ul><li>Two dimensions of supervisory leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional qualities of effective managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional intelligence </li></ul></ul>
    60. 62. Summary… <ul><li>Consideration reflects the maintenance of employee relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Structure reflects direction through planning, goal setting, communication, scheduling, and evaluating </li></ul>
    61. 63. Summary… <ul><li>Effective work group members should assume leadership roles </li></ul><ul><li>Each helps the group achieve its mission </li></ul>
    62. 64. Summary… <ul><li>Employees are in a unique position to give guidance and support to their supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Bosses need assistance and support to achieve success </li></ul>
    63. 65. Summary… <ul><li>Learn to understand your boss </li></ul><ul><li>Assess your strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Identify personal characteristics that might impede or facilitate a working relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Be frank and candid </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes you need to disagree with your boss </li></ul>

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