Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Scope of Biotechnology by Rajesh sahu
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Scope of Biotechnology by Rajesh sahu

  • 213 views
Published

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
213
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • This slide shows the basic steps of plant tissue culture. Some plant part is placed is on a defined culture media. That media induces the the tissue to develop callus. Callus is an undifferentiated mass of cells. These cells then grow into plant shoots, which are later rooted. The small seedling will then grown into a mature, seed-producing plant. When developing transgenic plants, the transformation cassette is introduced into that plant part that can be induced to grow new plants.

Transcript

  • 1. Submitted by Dr Rajesh Kumar Sahu
  • 2. What is BIOTECHNOGY ? Biology+Technology Involves the exploitation of biological agents or their components for generating useful products/services The use of living microorganisms in systems or processes for the manufacture of the useful products , it may be algae, fungi, yeast bacteria ,viruses , cells of higher plants and animals or their subsystems or isolated components from living matter - It consists of scaling up of biological processes
  • 3. Biotechnology We’ll examine: Animal cloning Gene cloning for pharmaceutical production The promise and perhaps perils of embryonic stem cells
  • 4. CONTINUE.....
  • 5. BIOTECHNOLOGY- ITS APPLICATION SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE Biochemistry Cell biology Computer science Genetics Immunology Physiology Microbiology Molecular biology Biochemical engineering
  • 6. BIOTECNOLOGICAL TOOLS Biosensor technology Cell & tissue culture technology Genetic engineering technology(recombinat DNA tech) Monoclonal antibody technology Protein engineering technology Antisense technology Bioprocessing technology
  • 7. ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING POLLUTION PREVENTION BIOREMEDIATION
  • 8. AGRICULURAL FIELD DEVLOPMENT OF GOOD QUALITY CROP PREVENTION OF DISEASES IN LIVESTOCK SECTOR NEWER VARITIES OF CROP YIELD TRANSGENIC PLANT AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION Alternatives of expensive fertilisers
  • 9. MEDICAL SECTOR Efficient diagnostic technique Vaccine productiobn & application Therapeutics
  • 10. BIOSENSORS Biosensor technology couples our knowledge of biology with advances in microelectronics A biosensor is composed of a biological component,such as cell, enzyme,or antibody, linked or tiny transducer. HELPFUL IN 1- Measuring nutritional value, freshness & safty of food 2-Locate & measure the environmental pollution 3-Detect & quantify explosive, toxins and biowarfare agents
  • 11. CELL CULTURE It is the growing of cells outside the living organisms 1- plant cell culture 2- animal cell culture 3- insect cell culture BENEFICIAL . Production of transgenic plant & animal
  • 12. RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY 1- Recombinant DNA technology, joining together of DNA molecules from two different species that are inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations those are of value to science, medicine, agriculture, and industry. 2- Since the focus of all genetics is the gene, the fundamental goal of laboratory geneticists is to isolate, characterize, and to manipulate genes
  • 13. COUNITUE........
  • 14. The Inner Cell Mass is the Source of Embryonic Stem Cells The embryo is destroyed by separating it into individual cells for the collection of ICM cells.
  • 15. A Site With Three Alleles Useful for DNA Fingerprinting DNA fragments of different size will be produced by a restriction enzyme that cuts at the points shown by the arrows.
  • 16. DNA Fingerprinting Basics If DNA is cut with a restriction enzyme that recognizes sites on either side of the region that varies, DNA fragments of different sizes will be produced. A DNA fingerprint is made by analyzing the sizes of DNA fragments produced from a number of different sites in the genome that vary in length. The more common the length variation at a particular site and the greater the number the sites analyzed, the more informative the fingerprint.
  • 17. NANO-BIOTECHNOLOGY Nanobiotechnology is a new technology that works at the scale of a single molecule or about a thousandth of a micron. It is the study and manufacture of super‐small structures and tiny machines made on the molecular scale. These can be used to build structures that might be used in microchips for super‐fast computers made of DNA rather than silicon. Nano biotechnology could be used to miniaturize sensors and improve drug delivery
  • 18. BIOTECHNOLOGY – DIOGNOSTIC Help diagnose prostate cancer or cholera or high cholesterol Determine if women have a predisposition to breast cancer Ensure that our blood supply is safe and doesn’t carry diseases from blood donors, such as HIV or mad cow disease and find out if a baby in the womb have issues like Down syndrome or spina bifida Biotechnology is allowing us to diagnose disease earlier in the disease process, which greatly improves patient’ s prognosis
  • 19. PROTEIN ENGINEERING Protein engineering is used often in conjuction with recombinant DNA technology to improve existing proteins, such as enzymes, cell receptor,antibodies. These proteins may be used in drug devlopment, food processing, industrial devlopment
  • 20. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY Monoclonal antibody technology allows us to produce large amounts of pure antibodies in the following way: We can obtain cells that produce antibodies naturally; we also have available a class of cells that can grow continually in cell culture. If we form a hybrid that combines the characteristic of "immortality" with the ability to produce the desired substance, we would have, in effect, a factory to produce antibodies that worked around the clock. In monoclonal antibody technology, tumor cells that can replicate endlessly are fused with mammalian cells that produce an antibody. The result of this cell fusion is a "hybridoma," which will continually produce antibodies. These antibodies are called monoclonal because they come from only one type of cell.
  • 21. Biotechnology Dolly and surrogate Mom Genetically modified rice. Embryonic stem cells and gene therapy
  • 22. (Science (2002) 295:1443) Carbon Copy– the First Cloned Pet Significantly, Carbon Copy is not a phenotypic carbon copy of the animal she was cloned from.
  • 23. CONTINUE...........
  • 24. ORGANISM BIOTECHNOLOGY Help the organism live better or be more productive Goal – improve organisms and the conditions in which they grow
  • 25. SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY  Is important because it brings science closer to creating life in the lab  Cells and tissues may be developed to treat human injury and disease
  • 26. THERAPEUTICS Treat cancer, arthritis, asthma, heart disease, and hemophilia. New drugs have been developed that Produce antibiotics, birth control pills, vitamins, and growth hormones. Treat the side effects of chemotherapy and give cancer patients a better chance for a cure. Prevent hepatitis, meningitis, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus through vaccines. Grow skin replacements for burn victims and materials that help broken bones heal better
  • 27. FOOD PRODUCTION & PROCESSING Agriculture companies are also using biotechnology to improve production of meat and dairy products and to improve processing of other foods. Examples include: Using Bovine somato‐tropin (BST), a hormone that helps to increase milk production. Cloning cows that are high milk producers or beef stock. Reducing soy sauce fermentation from a few months to a few days. Improving the processing of cheese, cocoa and tea. Using industrial enzymes to process corn syrup to high fructose corn syrup which is used in many food products such as sodas, sauces, salad dressings tomato paste and ketchup. Developing preservatives to replace sulfur and nitrates. Developing healthier vegetable oils with reduced saturated fats
  • 28. crop produced  Have the resistance power against the worms Have production ability maximum Better improvement prior to previous practice High % of food suppliments
  • 29. CONTINUE...................
  • 30. HUMAN HEALTH The biotechnology pharmaceutical industry has grown immensely in the past 25 years. The first drug produced through biotechnology, human insulin, has been helping to save lives since 1982. Since then, the biotechnology industry has brought to market more than 200 new drugs and vaccines that treat and prevent diseases. More than 400 new biotechnology drugs are in the process of being tested to see if they can be brought to market.
  • 31. MICROARRAYS Micro arrays technology is transferming laboratory research because it allows us to analyse tens of thousands of samples simultaniously 1‐ DNA micro arrays 2‐ protein micro arrays 3‐Tissue micro arrays 4‐whole –cell micro arrays
  • 32. SOME OF IMPORTANT POINTS MULE HINNY etc……….. THEY ARE THE PRODUCTS OF SPECIES HYBRIDISATION IT IS THE CROSS BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT TWO SPECIES & SPECIES DEVLOPS CONTAIN BOTH OF CHARACTER OF TWO SPECIES
  • 33. USU’s Contribution – A Cloned Mule and the First Cloned Equine
  • 34. The Biotechnology of Reproductive Cloning Even under the best of circumstances, the current technology of cloning is very inefficient. Cloning provides the most direct demonstration that all cells of an individual share a common genetic blueprint.
  • 35. Plant Tissue Culture A Requirement for Transgenic Development A plant part Is cultured Callus grows Shoots develop Shoots are rooted; plant grows to maturity
  • 36. Harnessing the Power of Recombinant DNA Technology – Human Insulin Production by Bacteria
  • 37. Human Insulin Production by Bacteria 6) join the plasmid and human fragment and cut with a restriction enzyme
  • 38. Human Insulin Production by Bacteria Mix the recombinant plasmid with bacteria. Screening bacterial cells to learn which contain the human insulin gene is the hard part.
  • 39. Bioremediation Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition.
  • 40. Genetically Modified Food  It’s the blessings of biotechnology.  tomato is incorporated with cat fish gene which will be the fishy in taste
  • 41. Personality As the work is largely related to scientific research. It becomes quite important to have a good academic background in science. Hard work and high level of intelligence with a scientific bent of mind, determination, perseverance, imagination, innovative attitude, ability to work for long hours, originality, team spirit, These are some important essentials for becoming a successful biotechnologist!!
  • 42. Professional Courses Candidates having background in science at the intermediate level can take up B.Tech. programme in Biotechnology. P.G. courses available are M.Sc. Biotechnology, Agriculture Biotechnology, M.V.Sc. (Animal) Biotechnology, M.Tech. Biotechnology, Biomedical Engineering M.Sc./M.V.Sc. in Veterinary Biotechnology, M.Sc. (Marine) Biotechnology,Medical Biotechnology, M.Tech. in Biomedical Engineering /Biotechnology. - PHD in biotechnology.
  • 43. Qualified biotechnologists are employed in leading business companies, pharmaceutical companies, chemical industries, bio-processing industries, agriculture related industries and pollution control activities of the major industries etc. They can even join government and corporate run research and development organizations. On the whole making it a good career opportunity for the bright young people like you.
  • 44. THAT MUCH OF DISSCUSSION IS NOT SUFFICIENT ABOUT SCOPE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 45. THANK U ALL HAVE A NICE DAY Dr Rajesh Kumar Sahu MVSc( VPH) 2013V 21M