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Architectures and Technologies for Optimizing SP Video Networks

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Architectures and Technologies for Optimizing SP Video Networks

Architectures and Technologies for Optimizing SP Video Networks

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  • 1. Architectures and Technologies for Optimizing SP Video networks Rajesh Rajah Consulting Engineer Cisco Systems Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
  • 2. Session Objectives  At the end of the session, the participants should be able to: Understand the trends for video in the SP Industry Provide a high level End-to End system architecture Understand the possible architectures and technologies for Video transport Understand of Network-to-Video-layer linkages that enable optimized Video transport Provide a deep dive on key mechanisms and technologies to enhance and monitor Video quality Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
  • 3. How do you get your TV today ? Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
  • 4. What is IPTV? IPTV = IP network delivered TeleVision Today it usually includes: Broadcast channels/Switched Digital Broadcast (SDB) Video-on-Demand services (VOD) Digital Video Recorder services (DVR/PVR) Interactive TV applications (ITV) Broadband IP Access Network Today: xDSL, Cable Modem, IP-STB Analog or Digital TV FTTx, Carrier Ethernet, Subscriber (Set Top Box) (increasingly HDTV) Future?: 3G, WiMax, ... Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
  • 5. IPTV Architecture – View from space “Glass to glass” experience Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
  • 6. Delivery Networks with IP as Underlying Transport Satellite XM-, L-, S-, K-Band… Regional Local Access HE/VHO National Content Servers/ Content Portal DVB-H Local/Regional WAN Content WiMax Rcv, Enc HSDPA WAN Radio Tower Mux,Encap, Stream Mobile EVDO Local Access ILEC-VSO DSLAM Receive, Encode Mux, Encapsulate IPmc VQE CORE DISTRIBUTION AGGREGATION Wireline Local Access Content Servers MSO-Hub Super HeadEnd (SHE) Mux EQAM Rcv, Enc Mux,Encap, Cable Stream Regional Local Access HE/VHO Local/Regional Content Content HFC NET Servers/Portal WAN CORE DISTRIBUTION AGGREGATION ACCESS Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
  • 7. To IP network as MPEG/UDP/IP multicast stream. MPEG/RTP/UDP/IP Encrypted Analog or Analog or MPEG Digital Digital Encrypted MPEG Local Compress and encode Affiliate one channel Ad Splicer will take programming in Demodulate and in the multicast MPEG-2 or 4; SD, HD demultiplex TV signals. stream and insert and/or PiP. Output is IP Local channels include new ad content and multicast stream. PEG (Public, output two streams Educational, with the same Government) channels. Multicast address, but different source addresses. Middleware is the ‘brain’ of an IPTV network. It includes: -  Electronic Program Guide To IP network as -  Entitlement System VoD Servers store video unicast streams. -  Asset Distribution assets. The Middleware with -  Navigation Server the Entitlement system, It communicates with Session Manager On demand all set top boxes manager, Policy Server for CAC, and video pump enable Encrypted MPEG Used by both broadcast the streaming of programs. and VoD Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
  • 8. Next Generation Video Service Trends Driving network and in-home architectures…   More HD Channels   Massive VoD Libraries   Time Shifted TV   Internet Video   Any Stream to Any Screen   Targeted Advertising   Next Generation User Interfaces   Service Velocity   3DTV “The vision is to give our customers the ability to watch ANY movie, television show, user generated content or other video that a producer wants to make available On Demand” – Brian Roberts, CEO Comcast – CES 2008 Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
  • 9. Evolution to IP Video Unified experience and enhanced monetization Traditional Cable – 1st Wave IPTV – 2nd Wave IP Video – 3rd Wave   On-net only   On-net only   On-net or Off-net   TV   TV   TV, PC, mobile   Limited service velocity   Higher service velocity   Highest service velocity   Business Model: B2C   Business Model: B2C   Business Model: B2B2C More Open, More Flexible, More Monetization Opportunities Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
  • 10. 3rd Wave Drives Infrastructure Requirements Internet Content Personal 3rd Wave Video Requirement (Hulu, Netflix) Media (YouTube) (including Time-Shift TV) Live, VoD, Interactive, Live, Time-shift, VoD, Services Social VoD, Interactive, Social Interactive, CDN Ready M Copies : N Subs 1 Copy : N Subs 1 Copy : N Subs Usage / Devices PC, some mobile PC, some mobile STB, PC, Mobile Ingest Feeds Scale / 10s, 1,000s, 100s, Real-time and Non real Performance Non real-time Non real-time time 10-20K Titles, 100M+ Titles 100K Titles Storage Scale / 10s of Terabytes, Petabytes, 100s of Terabytes Resiliency Med Resiliency Low Resiliency High Resiliency Ingest : Playout 1 : 10,000s 1 : < 10 1 : 10,000s Streams Scale 10,000s Millions 100,000s Latency Tolerance High (secs) High (secs) Low (<1 sec) HTTP, MS, Adobe MPEG, H.264, Internet Content File Formats / Protocols Adaptive Emerging HTTP, MS, Adobe Ready File Sizes, Small to Med, Small, Large, Caching Benefits High Caching Low Caching High Caching Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10
  • 11. IP Video Solution – 3rd Wave High Level Functional Areas Video  Datacenter   Unified  CompuVng   Service  PlaXorm   ApplicaVon  Servers   Backoffice   Security   PlaXorm   • Session  and  Resource  Management   • RUI  HosVng   • Billing   • DRM   • Metadata   • ApplicaVon  Services   • EnVtlement   • License  Servers   • Content  Management   • Security  OperaVons   • AdverVsing   Content  Ingest  and  Transport   Edge    Network     CPE  /  So(ware  /  UI  /  Apps   • IP  Edge,  QAM  and  HFC   • Home  Gateway   • FTTH   • STBs   • xDSL   • PCs   • On-­‐Net  and  Off-­‐Net   • Game  Consoles   • Mobile  Phones   Encoding   Content  Delivery  Network   • H.264  Encoding   • Library  Server   • MP4  Wrapping   • Caching  Gateway   • Internet  Streamer   Linear  /SDV   • Splicing   • Grooming   Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
  • 12. IP Video Solution - 3rd Wave Functional Blocks, Components, and Flows Video  Datacenter   Unified  CompuVng   Service  PlaXorm   ApplicaVon   Backoffice  /  Billing   Security  /  DRM   PlaXorm   SRM   Servers   PATH   BSS/   DRM   Discovery: EnVtlement/   Navigation IdenVty   Service   Ad  Decision   ApplicaVon   Policy   and Router   System   Router   Server   Selection Content  Ingest  and  Transport   Edge    Network     CPE  /  So(ware  /  UI  /  Apps   (IP  Edge,  QAM  and  HFC)   Off-­‐Net   OpVon   Video   Management   Internet   File-­‐based  OnDemand  Assets   STB/PC  with   and  Linear  Programs   player   Encoding   Content  Delivery  Network   Home   Network   CDN   CCPH   C2   IPSTB  with  player   H.264  Encoder  and   Content   Cache   Internet   MP4  wrapping   Library   Nodes   Streamer   PC  with  player   Linear  /SDV   HFC   Home   Gateway   Game  Console   Splicer/   Groomer   Mobile  Phone   Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
  • 13. Broadcast Media Content Delivery Architecture Key Building Blocks Transport Post Production Primary Content Adquisition Secondary Production Consumption & Playout Distribution & Signal Processing Distribution Direct to Home Headend Post Production Over the Air Headend News Gathering IP IP MWP Headend Home Connected Telco Core Gateway Home Network IP IP Network Studio-to-Studio Cable Headend Video Data Center IP Sport Events Broadband CDN IP IP IP Network Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
  • 14. Video Service Providers: Taxonomy & Characteristics Higher bw streams More end points Uncompressed, Lossless Very High bit-rate stream: SD Compressed (270Mbps), HD (1.5-3Gbps) Compressed Low/moderate bit-rate streams ~ P2P and P2MP same as or similar to secondary dist Low bit-rate streams: SD (3-4Mbps (unicast and multicast) MPEG2, 2-3Mbps MPEG4), HD P2P and P2MP (unicast and multicast) (16-20Mbps MPEG2, 6-10Mbps P2MP MPLS focused MPEG4) e.g. BT M&B, RAI MPLS & IP technology P2P for VOD (unicast) & P2MP for e.g. Contribution providers, US IPTV & CATV (multicast) national backbones MPLS & IP technology e.g. DT, FT, Comcast, … Studio Stadium Final Studio Home Network IP/MPLS Core IP/MPLS Core IP/MPLS Mobile Studio Core Access and Fixed Studio Aggregation DCM VOD content CDS distributing to scale CDS DCM VQE National Local Content Super Head Head VSOs Homes Content Insertion End (×2) Insertion End (×2) (×100s) × millions Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
  • 15. Video Transport Services in the SP Video Ecosystem Increase number of end points Production Contribution Post Production Distribution Consumption Primary Secondary Increase Bandwidth and SLA Requirements Direct To Home News Headend Gathering Telco IP Headend Studio to Ingest Cable Studio Core IP Network IP Headend Mobile Sport Video Data Events Center IP IP Contribution Service Primay Distribution Service Secondary Distribution Service Studio to Studio Content origination to Provider Provider to Consumer Uncompressed Compressed Compressed Very High bit-rate Low to high Low to Moderate bit-rate Unicast and Multicast Unicast and Multicast Unicast and Multicast Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
  • 16. Access Independence One headend, one IP network Multiple access networks, Multiple screens Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
  • 17. Video-to-Network layer Linkages Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
  • 18. IP Video / IPTV Solution Network to Video layer Linkages Network Layer Video Service Video Service Unicast, Multicast Assurance & Network Performance (QoS, QoE Resiliency against and Scalability monitoring etc) failures, DoS attacks Admission Control Visual Quality Video Service of Experience (VQE) Bandwidth Error Repair, RCC Management Video Application Layer Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
  • 19. Video is very Susceptible to Loss   Single packet loss may result in an impairment (unlike voice)   Loss of different packet types result in different types of visual impairment   QoE is measured subjectively, eyes Slice error of the viewer   General definition for QoE: Impairments/time Mean Time Between the Artefacts   Common industry benchmark Pixelisation MTBA = 2 hrs or greater No more than 1 error in a 2 hour movie   Other metrics such as number of support calls may also be important Ghosting Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
  • 20. MPEG: Impact of packet loss   Impairment depends on which MPEG frames lost I-frame loss will result in a visual impairment Limiting loss to a single I-frame in the worst case will limit the level of impairment Detailed paper at http://www.employees.org/~jevans/videopaper/videopaper.html Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
  • 21. What is the most efficient way to control loss? Cost / Complexity Tradeoff Range of viable Causes of packet loss: engineering options Complexity may vary by type of Cost and   Excess Delay video distribution, service or content Prevent with QoS (i.e., Diffserv)   Congestion Number of possible Prevented with Capacity planning, approaches, or combinations of QoS and CAC approaches.   PHY-Layer Errors (in the Core) Insignificant compared to losses due to network failures Loss   Network Reconvergence (Impairments/Time) Potential Over- Engineering Viable- Re-engineering Engineering Required Reduce with high availability (HA) techniques and smart engineering Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
  • 22. Services Comparison and Requirements Services/ Video-on-Demand Broadcast Video Internet Data Attributes (VoD) Transport Multicast Unicast Unicast VLAN-per-DSLAM for Common Video VLAN Common Video VLAN Internet subscriber. L2 Service termination on the U-PE. termination on the U-PE. Point-to-point Separation IGMP/PIM-based multicast L3 routing between VoD Pseudowire from U-PE control flow server and U-PE to BRAS OSPF FC, BFD, Multicast OSPF FC, BFD, MPLS OSPF FC, BFD, MPLS Convergence FC, MPLS TE FRR (Routed TE FRR TE FRR PW) Addressing Private IP addressing Private IP addressing Public/Private IP addr CPE STB STB PC/Laptop Access control IGMP profiles/white-lists Middleware/VoD server BRAS Off-path, RSVP-based Admission IGMP state limits On-path CAC, or BRAS control Integrated CAC Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
  • 23. Services Comparison and Requirements - continued Services/ Video-on-Demand Broadcast Video Internet Data Attributes (VoD) Separate Video Queue Separate Video Queue with QoS Priority with Higher priority than Best effort Higher priority than VoD VoD -6 -6 Acceptable 10 (one artifact per 2-hr 10 (one artifact per 2-hr NA Packet drop rate movie) movie) Latency (RTT) <200ms <200ms NA requirements Jitter <50ms <50ms NA requirements QoS WRED No No Yes Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
  • 24. Video/IPTV Optimized Transport System Primary challenges   The Primary Technology Challenges are common across Distribution and Contribution 1.  Basic transport How to shift the packets … IP or MPLS, native or VPN? 2.  Video service SLA How to ensure that the IP / MPLS network delivers the required SLAs Number of potential deployment models and technology approaches Specific focus on controlling loss Ultimate Goal: Lossless Transport 3.  Service Monitoring and Management How to verify that the IP network is delivering the required SLAs for video, and to identify problem areas Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
  • 25. Transport options – IP/MPLS   For non-multicast traffic and point to point feeds: Native IP or MPLS. L3VPN, P2P TE, etc   For multicast, multipoint topologies: –  IP IP mVPN –  Native (PIM SSM) Multicast P2MP TE MPLS –  mVPN (LSM) MLDP mVPN –  LSM (Label Switched Multicast) –  P2MP TE global –  PW over P2MP TE –  mLDP •  mLDP global •  mLDP + mVPN Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
  • 26. Requirements Comparisons for Multicast Based Services running on a Converged IP network Video Contribution Secondary Managed Distribution Enterprise mVPN PIM mode SSM only SSM only SM and SSM Sources per multicast 1 or 2 1 or 2 1 or 2 group Multicast Group scale < 1000 < 1000 100s (S, G) per VPN; 100s of VPNs Receivers per Group <10 Millions 100s of sites; potentially 1000s Multicast Tree dynamism 100s of new trees per day; Static trees Trees are dynamic; trees static once joins and leaves established may impact core Admission control and Yes No No Bandwidth Reservation (time limited reservations) Fast ReRoute Yes Yes Yes Offload routing Yes No No Path diversity Yes Yes Yes mVPN requirement ? For wholesale Yes services p2mp or mp2mp? p2mp p2mp mp2mp Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26 26
  • 27. Mapping of Multicast Service Requirements to p2mp technology choices Characteristic Plain IP p2mp MPLS TE mLDP Multicast Convergence < ~500ms ~50ms < ~1s Offload routing    IGP metric based IGP metric based traffic engineering traffic engineering Path separation    MoFRR or MTR MoFRR or MTR Admission control and bw reservation    RSVP Scalable mp2mp MVPN    Presentation_ID C25-452149-02 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 2008 Cisco Confidential Cisco Confidential 27
  • 28. PIM Source Specific Mode (SSM) Encoder Result: Shortest path tree rooted at the source, with no shared tree. A B C D Middleware E F STB Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28
  • 29. Advantages of SSM   Very Simple – Easy to implement, maintain & troubleshoot No RP/MSDP configs No SPTswitchover/thresholds Simpler control plane between independent PIM domains   More Secure Sources are known in advance Only one source can send to the SSM channel Prevention of DOS attacks from unwanted sources   More Scalable and Flexible Support for both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses SSM for IGMPv3 clients, SSM-Mapping for IGMPv2 clients Flexibility for Static or DNS-based Mapping in case of SSM Mapping Dissimilar content sources can use same group without fear of interfering with each other (although not recommended for IPTV deployment) Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29
  • 30. End-to-end protocol view – Layer3 Agg Same choices for all access technologies Different by access technology Video Core Distribution Aggregation Access Home Network Headend / regional Eg: PE-AGG DSLAM Home STB Gateway PIM-SSM (S,G) joins IGMP membership Video Stream L3 Transport Options in clouds: Native: PIM-SSM or MVPN/SSM Opt. MPLS: LSM / mLDP RSVP-TE IGMP: {Limits} IGMP IGMP IGMP Source {Static-fwd} snooping Proxy Redundancy PIM-SSM PIM-SSM PIM-SSM Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30
  • 31. End-to-end protocol view digital (non DOCSIS) cable Same choices for all access technologies Different by access technology Video Core Distribution Aggregation Access Home Network Headend / regional PE-AGG HFC Cable STB eQAM HFC PIM-SSM (S,G) joins IGMP membership Video Stream L3 Transport Options in clouds: Native: PIM-SSM or MVPN/SSM Opt. MPLS: LSM / mLDP RSVP-TE IGMP: {Limits} IGMP Source {Static-fwd} snooping Redundancy PIM-SSM PIM-SSM PIM-SSM Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31
  • 32. End-to-end protocol view – Layer2 Agg Same choices for all access technologies Different by access technology Video Core Distribution Aggregation Access Home Network Headend / regional Eg: PE-AGG DSLAM Home STB Gateway L2 access PIM-SSM (S,G) joins IGMP membership Video Stream L3 Transport Options in clouds: Native: PIM-SSM or MVPN/SSM Opt. MPLS: LSM / mLDP RSVP-TE IGMP: IGMP IGMP IGMP Source IGMP {Limits} snooping Proxy Redundancy PIM-SSM snooping {Static-fwd} PIM-SSM Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32
  • 33. Network Resiliency Video-to-Network layer Linkages Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33
  • 34. Fast Convergence - reduces affect of link outage (~ 500ms) Primary Stream X Video Video Source Receivers Rerouted Core Primary Edge Distribution Stream Distribution (DCM) (DCM or VQE)   Implementation and protocol optimisations   Delivers sub second convergence times for unicast (OSPF, ISIS, BGP) and multicast (PIM)   Available on all Cisco core and edge platforms   Lowest bandwidth requirements in working and failure case   Lowest solution cost and complexity   Is not hitless – will result in a visible artifact to the end users Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34
  • 35. Multicast-only Fast Reroute (MoFRR)   MoFRR provides the capability to instantiate resilient multicast trees for the same content If receive IGMP or PIM join on downlink and have multiple paths to source send joins on two paths Utilize IGP Link-State database and knowledge of how networks are designed to ensure streams are path diverse Feed connected receivers from only one of the two received streams Monitor the health of the primary stream and upon failure, use the secondary   A simple approach from a design and deployment and operations perspective = Receiver = IGMP Join   MoFRR depends on natural spatial diversity of large = PIM Join networks, disjointed physical topology with dual edge to = Source dual core   Can be used for both loss and lossless approaches and be implemented in the network or on the video end system Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
  • 36. Mapping of Multicast Service Requirements to p2mp technology choices Characteristic Plain IP p2mp MPLS TE mLDP Multicast Convergence < ~1s ~50ms < ~1s Offload routing    IGP metric based IGP metric based traffic engineering traffic engineering Path separation    MoFRR or MTR MoFRR or MTR Admission control and bw reservation    RSVP Scalable mp2mp MVPN    Presentation_ID C25-452149-02 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 2008 Cisco Confidential Cisco Confidential 36 36
  • 37. Towards Lossless Video/IPTV Transport: Deployment Scenarios TE + Live / Live MTR + Live / Live MPLS TE FRR MPLS TE FRR + FEC or TR MoFRR + Live / Live Fast Convergence + MoFRR FEC or TR Fast Convergence Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
  • 38. Towards Lossless Video/IPTV Transport: Deployment Scenarios Options where a lossless solution is required and the topology does not support path diversity with MoFRR Recommended approach TE + where some loss is Live / Live tolerable and topology Recommended where supports MoFRR lossless approach is •  Lowest bandwidth required and topology used in working and supports path MTR failure cases diversity with MoFRR + Live / Live •  Lowest solution cost •  Lowest bandwidth and complexity used in failure cases •  Constrained impact of •  Low solution cost MPLS TE FRR network failures on and complexity MPLS TE FRR + FEC or TR video •  Does not apply to all topologies MoFRR + Live / Live Recommended approach where some loss is Fast tolerable and topology does Convergence + MoFRR not support MoFRR FEC or TR •  Lowest bandwidth used in working and Fast failure cases Convergence •  Lowest solution cost and complexity •  Constrained impact of network failures on video Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
  • 39. IPv4 and IPv6 Multicast Comparison Service IPv4 Solution IPv6 Solution Addressing Range 32-bit, Class D 128-bit (112-bit Group) Protocol Independent, All Protocol Independent, All Routing IGPs and MBGP with v6 IGPs and MBGP mcast SAFI PIM-DM, PIM-SM, PIM-SM, PIM-SSM, Forwarding PIM-SSM, PIM-bidir PIM-bidir Group Management IGMPv1, v2, v3 MLDv1, v2 Domain Control Boundary, Border Scope Identifier MSDP across Single RP within Globally Interdomain Solutions Independent PIM Shared Domains Domains Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
  • 40. Multicast Feature Recommendations Features / Platform Core Aggregation Aggregation Access Access (N-PE/PE) (PE-AGG if L2 (PE-AGG if L3 U- (Layer3 U- (Layer2 U- U-PE) PE) PE) PE) PIM Sparse Mode     PIM SSM Mapping   (Static or DNS) Multicast Loadbalancing     PIM Fast Hello     RPF Tuning     IGMPv2 Join/Leave    IGMP Snooping    IGMP Fast Leave    IGMP Tuning    ARP Timeout Tuning   (Optional) IGMP Static Joins      Multicast HA      Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40
  • 41. Multicast Feature Recommendations Features / Platform VHE DSLAM Residential Gateway STB (7600) (RG) PIM Sparse Mode  PIM SSM Mapping (Static or DNS) Multicast Loadbalancing  PIM Fast Hello  RPF Tuning  IGMPv2 Join/Leave    IGMP Snooping   IGMP Fast Leave  IGMP Tuning   ARP Timeout Tuning (Optional) IGMP Static Joins Multicast HA  Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41
  • 42. Quality of Service Video-to-Network layer Linkages Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42
  • 43. CE CE Access Aggregation Access Aggregation Edge Edge Core Edge Access CE U-PE Enterprise B PE-AGG P N-PE 10/100/ GE Ring Queuing 10/100/ •  Egress Hub & Spoke 1000 Mpbs 1000 Mpbs •  Congestion Avoidance U-PE Enterprise A •  Egress Queuing N-PE •  Egress Queuing 10/100/ SONET/SDH Hub & N-PE 1000 Mpbs Ring P P Enterprise A Spoke •  Classification •  Policing 10/100/ 1000 Mpbs •  Marking U-PE N-PE Enterprise B •  Egress Queuing U-PE Internet •  Marking •  Traffic Shaping Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43
  • 44. General QoS Guidelines   Do not mix UDP & TCP traffic in the same class   Do not mix Voice & Video traffic in the same class   Per-subscriber SLA for Voice and Data applications   Per-subscriber SLA not applicable for Video/IPTV   Over-the-top (Internet) Video traffic to be treated as best-effort traffic   If Dual Priority queue is supported, then highest priority is for Voice traffic. (Selective) Broadcast Video traffic may be mapped to the lower priority in the Dual PQ. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44
  • 45. QoS Guidelines for Video   Network SLAs Delay: not critical. Most applications are unaffected Jitter: not critical. IP-STBs can buffer 200 msec Packet-loss: critical. Packet loss rate < 10-6 (one noticeable artifact per hour of streaming @ 4Mbps ). 1 video packet lost may lead to >500 ms of visible artifacts.   Packet loss due to queue drops by bursts at aggregation points from multiple sources (also number of hops, link occupation)   Queue depth sizing using probability analysis, so packet loss rate (e.g. 10-6) is below target   Single or Separate Video queue for Broadcast Video and VoD based on BW requirements, No. of Queues, CBWFQ/WRR, & No. of traffic classes   Disable WRED for Video queue   Priority of Broadcast Video traffic higher than VoD traffic   Usually Broadcast Video traffic is not over-subscribed   Use VoD CAC during Insufficient Bandwidth conditions Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45
  • 46. Video optimised Diffserv Schedulers   Cisco leads the R Strict priority queue industry in the EF #1 B development and Policer Tail Drop support of multi- priority schedulers R Bandwidth queue EF #2 implementations B Tail Drop   Enables Classifier Policer Scheduler differentiation Bandwidth queue between premium AF #1 services, requiring RED bounded delays Bandwidth queue AF #n RED Classifier Per-class policy Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 46
  • 47. Video optimised Diffserv Schedulers   With Cisco’s optimised IP Diffserv implementations, worst-case per hop delays <<1ms for high-speed links   End-to-end jitter of <1ms is realiseable today with Cisco’s video optimised products References:   Clarence Filsfils and John Evans, "Deploying Diffserv in IP/MPLS Backbone Networks for Tight SLA Control", IEEE Internet Computing*, vol. 9, no. 1, January 2005, pp. 58-65 http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/routers/ps167/prod_white_paper0900aecd802232cd.pdf   John Evans, Clarence Filsfils, “Deploying IP and MPLS QoS for Multiservice Networks: Theory and Practice”, Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN 0-123-70549-5. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47
  • 48. Service Availability   Network availability is the fraction of time that network connectivity is available between a network ingress point and a network egress point.   For video, however, simply having connectivity is not enough, hence service availability is often a more meaningful metric.   Service availability is a compound metric, defined as the fraction of time the service is available between a specified ingress point and a specified egress point within the bounds of the other defined SLA metrics for the service, e.g. delay, jitter, and loss. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48
  • 49. Five 9s Availability Five 9s availability assured through   Selecting carrier class network elements with high MTBF and low MTTR   Ensuring that the network design is resilient with no single points of failure (links, nodes or shared risks), employing redundancy in both network elements and links.   Using IP and MPLS fast convergence and fast reroute technologies, with fast failure detection techniques (e.g. IPoDWDM) to minimise packet loss from network element failures   Employing high-availability techniques (e.g. NSF, SSO, ISSU) to minimise the impact from route processors upgrades or failures.   Using Diffserv QOS, admission control and capacity planning to ensure that the SLA requirements can be met   Using transport and application level approaches to recover from any loss experienced, and hence provide lossless transport   Use a “closely coupled” service management solution, to rapidly isolate and identify service impacting faults when they occur. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 49
  • 50. Example IPTV DiffServ QOS Domain Core /Edge/ Aggregation Access UNI Traffic Class MPLS/IP Ethernet DSL, ETTX DSL WiMAX PHB DSCP MPLS EXP 802.1P 802.1P ATM 802.16 Control Protocols AF 48 6 (6) (6) VBR-nrt nrtPS Network Management Residential Voice EF 46 5 5 5 VBR-rt rtPS Business Real-time VBR-nrt Residential TV and VoD AF 32 4 4 and 3 4 NA Business Critical In Contract 16 2 2 AF 2 and 1 VBR-nrt nrtPS Business Critical Out of Contract 8 1 1 Residential HSI BE 0 0 0 0 UBR Best Effort Business Best Effort Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 50
  • 51. Example Traffic Classes in an IPTV Network Class EXP % Application Bandwidth Control 6 2 Routing Protocols, BGP, LDP Real Time 5 25 LLQ for Voice over IP IPTV Video 4 (Broadcast) 40 Delay sensitive business 3 (VoD) application, video conferencing Business 2 (in-profile) 20 Telnet, SAP access, Email 1 (out-profile) Best Effort 0 13 Internet Access X Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 51
  • 52. Example QoS Classes to Queue Mapping Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 52
  • 53. Example IPTV QoS Design Traffic Cos/ DSCP 6500/7600 GSR/ Class Prec 1p3q 1p3q 1p3q 1p3q8t/ 7600 1p7q8t OSM SP Control 6 48 P (Q4) P (Q4) P (Q1) P/Q7T1 CBWFQ Realtime/ 5 40 P (Q4) P (Q4) P (Q1) P LLQ Voice IPTV – 4 32 Q3 Q3 Q4T2 Q3T2/Q3T2 CBWFQ Broadcast Video IPTV - VoD 3 24 Q3 Q3 Q4T1 Q3T1 /Q3T1 CBWFQ Business 2 16 Q2 Q2 Q3T2 Q2T2/Q2T2 CBWFQ In-contract Business 1 8 Q2 Q2 Q3T1 Q2T1/Q2T1 CBWFQ Out-of-contract Best effort/ 0 0 Q1 Q1 Q2T2 Q1T1/Q1T1 CBWFQ Internet Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 53
  • 54. Resiliency & High- Availability Video-to-Network layer Linkages Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 54
  • 55. Resiliency/High Availability (HA)   Device/component level Dual RP (Non-Stop Forwarding/SSO) Multiple links (Load-balancing across multiple links) “Fix” Single point of failure conditions (edge card, router, link, source etc)   Multicast convergence Unicast Convergence Multicast Fast Convergence   Multicast Source redundancy Anycast Prioritycast Path redundancy (using duplicate streams) Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 55
  • 56. Multicast Convergence Elements Convergence time T = T1+T2+T3+T4+T5 MCvg = T∆t + U∆t + N(RPF∆t + JP∆t) MCvg = Multicast Convergence Time T∆t = Topology Change Detection Time U∆t = Unicast Convergence Time N = Number of Multicast State Entries RPF∆t = Reverse Path Forward Application Time JP∆t = Join/Prune Message Processing Time Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 56
  • 57. Elements of Convergence.. Fast Failure detection   Loss-of-signal (LOS) - SONET/POS, GigE LOS alarms   Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) - IETF  Protocol-independent method to detect control/data- plane “liveliness” between two peer systems using hello- like mechanism  Provides sub-second failure detection Unicast Routing Protocol Convergence   Non-stop Forwarding (NSF), Graceful Restart   IGP Fast Convergence  Tuning of IGP timers (LSA gen, Throttling, backoff etc) 100%   Incremental SPF (iSPF) 80%   IP Event Dampening 60%   Enable higher priority (route-tagging) for Video 40% Headend Prefixes   BGP convergence optimization 20% 0%  BGP Update Packing, PMTU discovery etc Before BGP With BGP Convergence Convergence Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Optimization Optimization 57
  • 58. …Elements of Convergence   Multicast Sub-second convergence Set of IOS CLI for the following Millisecond timers for PIM hello messages Rapid, triggered RPF interface calculations Improved IGMP and PIM state maintenance Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 58
  • 59. Redundancy models   Dual streams (1+1 streams) Let the receiver decide which one to take More applicable in cable vs. DSL/FTTH   Heartbeat Active sends periodic hello to standby (muted) source   Anycast Source Two (or more) sources actively sending with same origin IP address Network decides which one to use using its metrics Disaster-recovery and redundant headend applications IGMPv3 or IGMPv2   Receiver driven Same group with two sources. STB decides which one to join using IGMPv3 Requires IGMPv3 support on STB Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 59
  • 60. Source Redundancy (Duplicate Streams) S1,G S2,G STB I’m responsible for dropping duplicate packets Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 60
  • 61. Source Redundancy (Server Heartbeat) S1,G S2,G STB I will only receive one stream at a time Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 61
  • 62. Source Redundancy (Server Heartbeat) X S1,G S2,G STB I will only receive one stream at a time Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 62
  • 63. Native IP Multicast Video Triple Play Redundancy : Video Source Failure Source Service Edge National Backbone Regional Backbone Residence Primary X Source 1 Heartbeat Regional Backbone Secondary Source 1 P P Primary PE Source 2 PE P P PE Heartbeat Regional Backbone PE P P PE PE Secondary PE Source 2 P P Primary Source 3 Regional Backbone Heartbeat Secondary Source 3 Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 63
  • 64. Source Redundancy (SSM) S1,G S2,G S1,G Join S1,G IGMPv3 Report STB I’ll try the Primary source, S1,G. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 64
  • 65. Source Redundancy (SSM) X S1,G S2,G S2,G Join S2,G IGMPv3 Report STB It appears the Primary source failed. I’ll switch to the Secondary source, S2,G. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 65
  • 66. Anycast Sources 1.1.1.1 1.1.1.1 v2 join v2 join I will send join I will send join to the nearest to the nearest 1.1.1.1/32 1.1.1.1/32 IGMP Report IGMP Report STB STB Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 66
  • 67. Anycast Sources X 1.1.1.1 1.1.1.1 v2 join I will send join to the nearest 1.1.1.1/32 STB STB Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 67
  • 68. Source Redundancy Anycast/Prioritycast policies Policies Src A Src B primary secondary Anycast: clients connect to the closest instance of 10.2.3.4/32 10.2.3.4/31 redundant IP address Prioritycast: clients connect to the highest-priority instance of the redundant IP address   Policy simply determined by routing announcement and routing config Anycast well understood Prioritycast: engineer metrics of announcements or use different prefix length.   No vendor proprietary source sync proto required   Per program, not only per-source-device failover Use different source address per program Rcvr 1 Rcvr 2 Example: prioritycast with Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Prefixlength announcement 68
  • 69. Source Redundancy Anycast/Prioritycast benefits   Sub-second failover possible   Represent program channel as single (S,G) SSM: single tree, no signaling, ASM: no RPT/SPT   Move instances “freely” around the network Most simply within IGP area Not good for eg: regional to national encoder failover   No vendor proprietary source sync proto required   Per program, not only per-source-device failover Use different source address per program Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 69
  • 70. Anycast-Source with RIPv2 Update redistribute s/32, m=1 s/32, metric 5 s/32, m=16 1 s 1 s ENC ADP X ENC ADP s/32, m=1 s/32, m=1 2 s 2 s ENC ADP ENC ADP redistribute s/32, metric 10 •  The two sources are active and sending •  s/32 routes are generated by both source using RIPv2 updates •  Host routes for anycast source are redistributed into IGP with variable metrics (optional) •  Network selects source (PIM join messages) based on metric •  Upon video failure, sources withdraw s/32 routes using Poison Reverse (infinite metric) updates Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 70
  • 71. Native IP Multicast Video Triple Play Redundancy : Source Router Failure Source Service Edge National Backbone Regional Backbone Residence Primary Source 1 Heartbeat Regional Backbone Secondary Source 1 X P P Primary PE Source 2 PE P P PE Heartbeat Regional Backbone PE P P PE PE Secondary PE Source 2 P P Primary Source 3 Regional Backbone Heartbeat Secondary Source 3 Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 71
  • 72. Multicast Group Based : Multi-path Load Splitting BEFORE (S,G1) Active Video Server R3 (S,G1) (S,G2) Heartbeat (S,G2) (S,G3) Source Based (S,G4) R1 Load Splitting R5 Standby (S,G3) Video Server R2 Hash based on Source R4 (S,G4) Requires unique sources for load splitting Links Unused Now Active Video (S,G1) Server R3 (S,G1) (S,G2) Heartbeat (S,G2) (S,G3) (S,G4) R1 Source + Group Based Load Splitting R5 Standby (S,G3) Video Server R2 (S,G4) R4 Hash based on S,G All Links Efficiently Used! Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 72
  • 73. Multicast HA & Convergence High Availability HA/Convergence features Broadcast Video Traffic Video-on-Demand traffic Redundant RP, Power supply,   Fan tray, Fabric cards OSPF Fast Convergence   OSPF iSPF   Bidirectional Forwarding (BFD)   P2P MPLS Traffic Engineering Not Applicable  (MPLS TE) Multicast sub-second  Not Applicable convergence L2 Pseudowire   Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 73
  • 74. Security Video-to-Network layer Linkages Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 74
  • 75. Multicast Security..   Protect router/switch CPU (control plane) Control Plane Policing (CPP) – Policing on router-wide virtual control plane Hardware Rate-limiters (HRWL mls ratelimiters) MQC-based (per-interface)   Enable multicast protocol filtering/setting administrative boundary Boundary ACL (Filters control/data plane traffic for specified groups using “ip multicast boundary” CLI) Receive ACL   Enable spoof prevention MD5 authentication, PIM Neighbor filters Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 75
  • 76. .. Multicast Security   Prevent Memory (SW) and Hardware (state) overload IGMP, MLD limits /max-groups IP Multicast Route limits (ip multicast limit CLI)   Allow traffic only from STBs to Video Servers (data-plane filtering) Generic ACLs (typically on user-facing intefaces/SVIs)   Restrict access to Channels based on User subscription Offer Tier-based services (Premium, Gold, Silver packages etc) at Network level Use of IGMP Profile/access-group CLI on a per-interface basis   Network Address Translation (NAT) Source address NAT Destination/Multicast Group NAT (aka Service Reflection) Useful when Overlapping address space is present, Integrating existing/ new networks, etc Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 76
  • 77. Multicast Admission control IGMP/MLD Limit Commands What does it do ? unlimited IGMP/MLD max Memory Resources Gasp! Table • Sets quota on the number of cached IGMP/MLD Utilization Memory Entries entries in IGMP/MLD tables Total • Channel Offering Limits in household Other Processes 0 0 How it works: t1 t2 tn t1 t2 tn time time •  Time = t1, router receives valid IGMP/MLD Join(s), populates table(s) and allocates required memory •  Time = t2, router suddenly Valid Periodic Malicious receives malicious IGMP/MLD Join(s) IGMP/MLD Reports IGMP/MLD Reports and table(s) quickly begins to grow •  Time = tn, all memory resources are exhausted and router is unable to time = t1 time = t2 service other processes requesting more memory •  Now, user sets IGMP/MLD limit •  Denial of Service has been mitigated! Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 77
  • 78. Ethernet Access Security Threats Attack targets can be divided into three main categories: Subscribers Switches Infrastructure Layer 2 service isolation L2 Control Protocol Attack Man-in-the-Middle attacks on across switches (STP, CDP, VTP, etc…) critical management traffic Non intentional forwarding of MAC Flooding / Overflow Unauthenticated access to traffic between UNI ports the switch configuration file DHCP Rogue Server MAC Flooding / Overflow Unconfigured Ports providing network access IP & MAC Address Spoofing Unicast, multicast, or Unauthorized network broadcast storms access, junk traffic ARP Spoofing (Man-in-the- Infected users flooding the Unauthenticated network Middle) network / Malicious users access by client devices attacking the Priority traffic queue Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 78
  • 79. Common Security Recommendations How to Secure the Network Against Attacks Leading Practice Category Examples Protects Against Threats ICMP redirects, CDP, IP Source Disable Unnecessary Services Reconnaissance, Denial-of-Service Routing TACACS+, Radius, Password Control Device Access Unauthorized Access Encryption Disable unused interfaces, VLAN Secure Ports and Interfaces Reconnaissance, Denial-of-Service Pruning Secure Routing Infrastructure MD5 Authentication, Route Filters Denial-of-Service Secure Switching Port Security, Storm Control Denial-of-Service Infrastructure Control Plane Policing (CoPP), Control Resource Exhaustion Denial-of-Service Hardware-based Rate Limiters Policy Enforcement uRPF, iACLs IP Spoofing, Denial-of-Service MAC Forced Forwarding, Virtual Reconnaissance, MAC Spoofing, DSLAM MACs, DHCP Option 82, IGMP Theft-of-Service Whitelist Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 79
  • 80. Residential Access Leading Practices How to Secure Users and Services Goal Features Subscriber Identification DHCP Option 60, DHCP Option 82 Subscriber Authentication PPPoE or Web Portal (Using Radius) MAC Forced Forwarding on DSLAM Subscriber Isolation Private VLAN/PVLAN Edge on Switch Rogue DHCP Server DHCP Snooping Virtual MAC Addresses on DSLAM Prevent MAC/ARP Address Spoofing DHCP Snooping + ARP Inspection on Switch IGMP Whitelist on DSLAM Prevent Theft of BTV Service IGMP Profile/Access-group on Switch DHCP Snooping + IP Source Guard (IPSG) on IP address spoofing Switch Limiting No. of Channels/IGMP/Multicast IGMP State limits/max-groups & Multicast limits on states Switch Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 80
  • 81. Layer 2 Leading Practices How to Secure the Network Against Layer 2 Attacks Attack Defensive Features/Actions MAC Attacks Port Security, Per VLAN MAC Limiting (CAM Table Overflow) Broadcast/Multicast Storm Attacks Storm Control Thresholds Hardware Rate Limiters, Control Plane Policing, L2PDU DoS Attacks Storm Control Thresholds Disable Auto-trunking, Use Dedicated VLAN-ID for Trunk Ports, Set User Ports to Non-trunking, VLAN Hopping, DTP Attacks VLAN 1 Minimization/Pruning, Disable Unused Ports DHCP Starvation Attack Port Security, DHCP Snooping, DHCP Rogue Server Attack VLAN ACLs to block UDP port 68 Spanning Tree Attacks BPDU Guard, Root Guard Infected users flooding the network / Malicious users attacking the Priority traffic Rate-limiting, Priority policing queue ARP Man-in-the-Middle Dynamic ARP Inspection Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 81
  • 82. Infrastructure Security Leading Practices Security Threats Man-in-the-Middle attacks on critical Out-of-Band Management, SNMPv3, management traffic SSH, per-command AAA Unauthenticated access to the switch Password recovery disable configuration Unauthenticated network access by client 802.1x devices Unconfigured Ports providing network UNI Default Port Down access Unauthorized network access, junk traffic Access Lists Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 82
  • 83. Visual Quality of Experience Video-to-Network layer Linkages Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 83
  • 84. Improving Cisco IPTV Experience Visual Quality Experience Non-Stop Visual Quality Experience (VQE) Technology (VQE) Aggregation Router • Caches all Video channels • Retransmits lost packets to STB VQE Server Access Node Access Node Noisy Last Mile Without VQE VQE Enabled Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 84
  • 85. Channel change Events Summary Wait for arrival of PSI – PAT, PMT, CAT Jitter buffer full Wait for arrival of I-frame Start filling jitter buffer SW recognizes UDP pkt STB MPEG buffer processing complete 1st UDP packet arrives at STB * t=0 STB Network STB STB MPEG Buffer STB STB starts decode Leave/Join/Network Latency Video/Audio is played STB sends IGMP join (wire) Channel change complete STB sends IGMP leave (wire), clear old buffers SW starts channel change User hits channel STB Related to STB implementation change on remote NetworkRelated to network delays STB Not to scale* Related to STB MPEG buffer MPEG Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 85
  • 86. Sample Channel change time calculation AVC/H.264 SD on IPTV DSL Channel Change Latency Typical Cumulative Device/Location Factor Latency Latency 1 Send IGMP Leave for channel X STB < 10 ms 2 Send IGMP Join for channel Y STB < 10 ms DSLAM gets Leave for channel 3 DSLAM/Network < 10 ms X 4 DSLAM gets Join for channel Y DSLAM/Network < 10 ms ~ 20 - 40 ms DSLAM stops channel X, and 5 DSLAM/Network ~ 30 – 50 ms ~ 50 – 90 ms sends Channel Y 6 DSL Latency (FEC/Interleave) DSLAM/Network ~ 10 ms ~ 60 - 100 ms 7 Core/Agg Network Latency Router/Network ~ 20 – 60ms ~80 – 160ms 8 De-jitter buffer STB ~ 300 ms ~ 380 - 460 ms 9 Wait for PAT/PMT STB MPEG buffer ~ 125 ms ~ 500 - 580 ms 10 Wait for ECM/CA STB MPEG buffer ~ 125 ms ~ 620 - 700 ms 11 Wait for I-frame STB MPEG buffer ~ 250 ms to 2s ~ 870 ms – 2.7s 12 MPEG buffer STB MPEG buffer ~ 1s to 2s ~ 1.8s – 4.7s 13 Decode STB ~ 50 ms ~ 1.9s – 4.8s Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 86
  • 87. Optimizing Channel change time – Page 1 Device Optimization Factors   GOP length tuning Encoder   Tuning PAT/PMT intervals (if supported)   Tuning of ECM intervals (PMT) Conditional Access   Key rotation timeframe Residential Gateway   Tuning IGMP timers # (RG)   Video-optimized QoS config   Cache PAT/PMT STB   Buffer optimization and play-out techniques # Not a direct contributor to reduce zap time. But, helps reduce response variability and enables better treatment for Video Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 87
  • 88. Optimizing Channel change time – Page 2 Device Optimization Factors #   Video-optimized QoS config (marking, scheduling Headend Router etc) #   Secured control plane (PIM/IGMP limits, Control Core Network Elements plane policing, Hardware rate-limiters etc) #   Video-optimized QoS config   IGMP static joins for popular channels Distribution/Aggregation #   Video-optimized QoS config Network Elements   Secured control plane #   IGMP Fast/Immediate leave Access Network Elements   Tuning IGMP timers (Query time etc) (DSLAM/MetroE switch/   Explicit IGMP Host tracking (IGMPv3) # PON)   Video-optimized QoS config #   Secured control plane # Not a direct contributor to reduce zap time. But, helps reduce Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential response variability and enables better treatment for Video 88
  • 89. Visual Cisco IPTV Fast Channel Change Quality Experience (VQE) Combined VQE Unicast stream & Client Early Channel Change! Set-Top Box •  Caches all Video channels Access Node •  Bursts Video streams to STB VQE Server starting with I-frame + Early Channel Aggregation Start & VQE Router + I-frame burst Combined Cisco Fast Channel Change: Average: ~0.7 sec Un-optimized channel Variance: ~0.4 sec change time stats: Average: ~2.2 sec Variance: ~1.2 sec Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 89
  • 90. Admission Control Video-to-Network layer Linkages Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 90
  • 91. Video Media-aware IP NGN Admission Control Video Call Admission Control (CAC) End-2-End Video CAC (RSVP-based) Video Streams 7600 ASR9000 VoD TV Video Quality Fantastic Video Quality Suffers (for ALL users) Gracefully Rejects 3rd VoD Stream 2 VoD Streams—4Mbps Each 3 VoD Streams—4Mbps Each 3 VoD Streams—4Mbps Each with Video CAC 10 Mbps 10 Mbps 10 Mbps ps ps ps 4 Mb 4 Mb 4 Mb 4 Mbps 4 Mbps 4 Mb 4 Mb ps ps 4 Mb ps Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 91
  • 92. Network Call Admission Control Avoiding Congestion Packet Loss Broadcast TV Policy Multicast CAC Server 2 Channel request Cisco Broadcast Source 7600 Multicast CAC IPTV 1 Channel 4 Request Denied/ Available Available Change Accepted Bandwidth 3 Bandwidth Check Check Video on Demand Policy Unicast CAC Server 2 Channel request Cisco VoD Servers 7600 RSVP-CAC VoD 1 Request 4 Request Denied/ Available Available Accepted Bandwidth 3 Bandwidth Check Check Against a DiffServ prioritized percentage of link bandwidths Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 92
  • 93. Pure On-Path CAC for VoD Synchronisation between RSVP and VoD streaming Middleware VoD Entitlement Sys Controller 1 Session Mgt, EPG 3 2 eg RTSP Business Access" Carrier Ethernet Aggregation" Edge" Multiservice Core" Corporat e Content Network BNG Residential VoD 4 VoD TV SIP Ethernet Access Node Aggregation Distribution RSVP Path VoD Stream STB Node Node MSE Business Corporate Ethernet 6 Access Node Aggregation Aggregation Network Residential Node IP Core Network IP / MPLS STB Aggregation DSL Node Distribution MSE Business Access Node Node Corporate RSVP Resv Residential Aggregation BNG 5 Node VoD PON Access Node STB CAC CAC CAC Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 93
  • 94. Pure On-Path CAC for VoD Synchronisation between RSVP and VoD streaming See draft-ietf-tsvwg-rsvp-proxy-proto Middleware VoD Entitlement Sys Controller 1 Session Mgt, EPG 3 2 7 eg RTSP Business Carrier Ethernet Aggregation" eg RTSP Edge" Corporat Access" Multiservice Core" e Content Network BNG Residential VoD 4 VoD TV SIP Ethernet Access Node Aggregation Distribution RSVP Path STB Node Node MSE Business Corporate Ethernet RSVP PathErr Access Node Aggregation Aggregation Network Residential Node IP Core Network 5 IP / MPLS Aggregation RSVP Resv STB DSL Node Distribution MSE Business Access Node Node 6 Corporate Residential Aggregation Node VoD BNG PON Access Node STB CAC CAC Reject Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 94
  • 95. Video Quality Monitoring/ Assurance Video-to-Network layer Linkages Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 95
  • 96. Video/IPTV Quality Measurements (What Can Go Wrong) Error Problem Type Area Visual Control Measures Control IGMP Latency, RTSP Latency, Plane Channel Zap Time QoE Problem Errors Content Impacts Content Measures Customer Control Picture Quality, Blocking, Blurring, MPEG-TS Visual Noise, Audio Drop-outs Video Problem RTP Media Transport Measures PCR Jitter, Pixelization, Sync Loss, Continuity Errors QoS UDP Errors Impacts Operator IP IP Network Measures IP Packet Loss, Jitter, Delay Problem Physical Ethernet Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 96
  • 97. VidMon is a Family of Metrics   VidMon does not represent a single metric but rather a family of Metrics.   Not all Routers have the same capabilities and therefore Metrics will vary across platforms.   The applicability of a VidMon Metric will differ based on the type of Video being Monitored   VidMon Metrics can be used independently or used to compliment each other. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 97
  • 98. The VidMon Metrics Metric Applicability Media Delivery Index (MDI) Measures MPEG2/4 Headers for Loss and Delay Media Discontinuity Counter (MDC) Measures MPEG2/4 Headers for the number of times Loss was detected. Media Rate Variation (MRV) Measures IP/UDP Headers for Delivery Variations. RTP Loss and Jitter Measures RTP Loss and Delay by examining the RTP header Media Stop Event (MSE) Notification if a monitored flow stops receiving traffic MPEG MPEG Header Payload Example Video Packet in over an IP Transport Transport IP UDP RTP FCS UDP Video Payload Content (MPEG is not the only payload option) Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 98
  • 99. What is Media Delivery Index (MDI)   MDI is a metric developed in cooperation between IneoQuest and Cisco   Presented in RFC-4445   MDI is a combination of two metrics that are used to measure the networks contribution to video impairements.   The two MDI metrics are: MDI:MLR – Media Loss Rate : Were any MPEG packets dropped MDI:DF – What is the buffering requirements for these packets Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 99
  • 100. Understanding MDI:DF (Delay)   Difference between the arrival and drain rates of a media stream. This is largely based on the arrival of the IP flow. As such the MDI:DF and MRV:DF will appear the same   Delay Factor is based more on RFC 3393 than on RFC-4445.   The DF over an interval period represents the buffering required to handle variations in transmission at a point in the transmission path.   To calculate delay factor the virtual buffer (VB) maximum measured delay rate has the VB minimum measured delay rate subtracted. This value is divided by the media rate over that measurement interval DF = [VB(max) – VB(min)]/MR Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 100
  • 101. Understanding MDI:MLR (Loss)   MDI measurement of MLR inherently refers to the ability to detect loss in the media stream itself representing the magnitude of a loss event.   In VidMon, MLR is calculated by monitoring discontinuities in the MPEG TS headers of a packet.   The Continuity Counter (CC) exists in each MPEG header and is a rolling 4 bit counter unique to each program (PID). Could represent the same or Different Program PID Adaptation Adaptation … Control Field Continuity Counter … … Control Field Continuity Counter … I E RTP UDP IP E E Transport MPEG Frame IP Payload Headers Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 101
  • 102. Preserving QoE MDI Monitoring NOTE: MDI is a combined measure of video quality based on packet loss, jitter, latency MDI: MDI: MDI: MDI: CDS TV or Hub"Internet Streamer Regional Network" Regional " Backbone" Headend" Problem Headend" CMTS Detected! Cisco CRS-1 Cisco 7600 DCM 7600 DCM GQAM /XDQA Problem Isolated CDS Service Hub" Router CMTS Cisco 7600 CRS-1 GQAM /XDQA CDS TV or DNCS CDS Vault/ Internet Streamer Content Acquirer 1) Video quality problem detected. 2) Measure Media Delivery Index (MDI) at each router between receiver and source 3) Troubleshoot location where MDI first degrades. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 102
  • 103. Preserving QoE MDI Monitoring NOTE: MDI is a combined measure of video quality based on packet loss, jitter, latency MDI: MDI: MDI: MDI: MDI: MDI: CDS TV or Hub"Internet Streamer Regional Network" Backbone" Headend" Problem Regional " Solved! Detected! CMTS Headend" Cisco CRS-1 Cisco 7600 DCM 7600 DCM QAM Problem Isolated CDS Service Hub" Router CMTS Cisco 7600 CRS-1 CDS TV or DNCS QAM CDS Vault/ Internet Streamer Content Acquirer 1) Video quality problem detected. 2) Measure Media Delivery Index (MDI) at each router between receiver and source 3) Troubleshoot location where MDI first degrades. 4) Correct problem and restore video quality. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 103
  • 104. Media Rate Variation: MRV   Some platforms can not measure into the media payload of an IP packet to calculate medial loss.   Some payload types, such as SDI, HD-SDI are not candidates for a metric such as MDI.   An alternative approach is to measure loss as a function of the L3/ L4 header.   For Constant Bitrate Flows (CBR) a normalized bit arrival rate can be created based on the known media arrival rate.   The Video flow is monitored for variations in the arrival rates which represent perturbations caused by excessive delay or loss in the media flow. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 104
  • 105. Measure CBR Flow Arrival Patterns Normal Case Error Case (Keohane, 2009) Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 105
  • 106. RTP Loss & Delay   RTP headers can be use in the delivery of video media in an IP network.   RTP headers include a sequence number which can be used to track loss and a timestamp that can be used to calculate delay.   RTP would likely not be reported as an MDI metric since it represents discrete measurements. I E RTP UDP IP E E (Keohane, 2009) Transport MPEG MPEG Headers Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Payload Headers 106
  • 107. Market for RTP Measurements   RTP is an ideal candidate for measuring loss in IP transport.   RTP is independent of the Video Media type in the payload Beneficial in uncompressed video transports and non-MPEG video transports   RTP is not currently widely deployed in the MSO market while more prevalent in the Wireline market. Newer Video over DOCSIS IPTV applications will likely be RTP based however we are early in the adoption of that technology. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 107
  • 108. Key Takeaways   A systems view is increasingly important to architect networks for SP Video   Advanced network resiliency mechanisms are available to design lossless Video transport   Video-layer-to-Network linkages offer significant benefits and differentiation   Video monitoring (esp. In-line) monitoring is very beneficial to Service providers Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 108
  • 109. Q&A Questions ? Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 109
  • 110. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 110