Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Es module
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Es module

679
views

Published on

Published in: Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
679
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. teacher’s Teacher’s Guide A Mississippi 4-H School Enrichment Module Mississippi Endangered Species and Wildlife Success Stories Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Partial Funding Provided by a Grant from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status.
  • 2. “Mississippi Endangered Species and Wildlife Success Stories: A 4-H School Enrichment Module” was developed by: Katherine M. Jacobs, Extension Associate I Dr. Martin W. Brunson, Extension Professor Dr. Ben C. West, Assistant Extension Professor Dr. Stephen J. Dinsmore, Assistant Professor Dr. James E. Miller, Outreach/Research Scientist of the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Mississippi State University Special thanks to: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Texas A&M Extension Service Project WILD Photo Contributors
  • 3. Mississippi Endangered Species and Success Stories Introduction and Welcome to Teachers Educational Competencies Day 1 – Pre-Test and Overview Day 3 – Introduction to Endangered Species Day 4 – Mississippi Threatened Species Day 5 – Mississippi Endangered Species Day 6 – Importance and Conservation of Endangered Species Day 7 – Mississippi Wildlife Success Stories Day 8 – Wrap Up and Post Test Appendices Additional Resources Endangered Species of Mississippi List of Endangered Species by Mississippi County TABLE OF CONTENTS Day 2 – Habitat
  • 4. Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Dear Third or Fourth Grade Teacher: Thank you for using the School Enrichment Module, “Mississippi Endangered Species and Wildlife Success Stories,” to supplement your curriculum! All lesson plans, activities, and testing materials are provided in this module. Although the curriculum and activities were developed to be used over an 8-day period, please feel free to use the curriculum and activities as you deem appropriate for your class and situation. Depending on your other plans for instruction, you may choose to not cover some aspects of the module, or you may elect to add sections. This module exists to help you! To help us understand the impact and success of the module, we ask that you conduct a pre-test (enclosed) before you discuss any part of the module with your students. Once you have completed your instruction, please administer to your students the post-test (enclosed). Using the Internet site http://msucares.com/wildfish/4hfieldstream/msem/teach.html, you can easily and quickly report your results to us. That is all we need! By taking part in this project, you are not only fulfilling multiple Key Mississippi Educational Competencies (see enclosed list), you are also helping to educate Mississippi’s youth about the importance of wildlife and fisheries conservation. If you discover ways that this module can be improved, or have any questions, please contact us at your convenience. Good luck, and thank you again for your interest in wildlife and fisheries! Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Mississippi State University-Extension Service Cooperative Extension Service • Mississippi State University Box 9690 • Mississippi State, MS 39762-9690 • Office (662) 325-3174 • Fax (662) 325-8750 Mississippi State University, United States Department of Agriculture, Counties Cooperating Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, age, disability, or veteran status
  • 5. Key Mississippi Educational Competencies Grade Framework Competencies Description 1.a Identify major causes of endangerment and extinction. 1.b Distinguish between harmful and helpful human actions on the environment. 1.a Describe relationships among people, places, and environments. 1.b Describe how human activities alter the environment. 2.a Define the necessity and purposes of government in a community. 2.c Explain the purpose of rules and laws and why they are important to a community. 2.g Explain why certain civic responsibilities, civic protocol, and historic figures are important to individuals and to the community. 3.d Demonstrate and apply spatial and ecological perspective in life situations. 1.a Compare food chains and food webs. 1.b Compare and contrast adaptations necessary for animals and plants to survive in different habitats. 7.b Recognize the need for conservation of water resources. 7.c Discuss the ways man can protect and manage organisms in the environment. 2.d Explain the student’s role in responsible citizenship. Science 3 Social Studies Science 4 Social Studies
  • 6. Day 1: Pre-Test & Overview Theme Activities Introduce students to the module and administer the pre-test to all students. Pre-test. Purpose Enclosed Reference Materials Introduce students to the module and administer the pre-test. Key to Pre-test. Key Talking Points Inform your students that, over the next two weeks, you will be discussing the topic of Endangered Species and will be using material developed by Mississippi State University. Explain that we first want to find out how much they know about Endangered Species with a short test. Supporting Posters None. Specials Instructions Please administer the pre-test (enclosed) before covering any parts of the Module. Once you have administered the test, please score the test using the attached key and report your scores at: http://msucares.com/wildfish/4hfieldstream/ msem/teach.html.
  • 7. Name: ____________________________ Date: ____________________________ Mississippi Endangered Species and Wildlife Success Stories Pre-Test 1. The greatest threat to wildlife populations is the loss of habitat. a. True b. False 2. An endangered species is a plant or animal that may become extinct because there are so few of them. a. True b. False 3. The Endangered Species Act is: a. A movie that shows animals in trouble b. A law that protects endangered species c. None of the above 4. Mississippi Sandhill Cranes are found: a. All across the southeast b. Throughout Mississippi c. Only on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane Refuge in Jackson County, Mississippi 5. Since the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in 1620, about how many species of our Nation’s plants and animals have become extinct? a. 5 b. 25 c. 500 6. The American Alligator is now extinct throughout the United States. a. True b. False 7. An example of an endangered plant species in Mississippi is: a. Louisiana quillwort b. willow oak c. sugar maple
  • 8. 8. A species that is extinct a. Can be recovered by wildlife biologists b. No longer exists and can never recover c. None of the above 9. Threatened species are wildlife species that are: a. Already extinct b. In danger of becoming endangered c. In danger of becoming extinct 10. There is nothing we can do to help threatened and endangered species. a. True b. False
  • 9. Mississippi Endangered Species and Wildlife Success Stories Assessment Test KEY (correct answers are in bold) 1. The greatest threat to wildlife populations is the loss of habitat. a. True b. False 2. An endangered species is a plant or animal that may become extinct because there are so few of them. a. True b. False 3. The Endangered Species Act is: a. A movie that shows animals in trouble b. A law that protects endangered species c. None of the above 4. Mississippi Sandhill Cranes are found: a. All across the southeast b. Throughout Mississippi c. Only on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane Refuge in Jackson County, Mississippi 5. Since the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in 1620, about how many species of our Nation’s plants and animals have become extinct? a. 5 b. 25 c. 500 6. The American Alligator is now extinct throughout the United States. a. True b. False 7. An example of an endangered plant species in Mississippi is: a. Louisiana quillwort b. willow oak c. sugar maple
  • 10. 8. A species that is extinct a. Can be recovered by wildlife biologists b. No longer exists and can never recover c. None of the above 9. Threatened species are wildlife species that are: a. Already extinct b. In danger of becoming endangered c. In danger of becoming extinct 10. There is nothing we can do to help threatened and endangered species. a. True b. False
  • 11. Day 2: Wildlife Habitat Theme Basic needs of wildlife; wildlife habitat. Purpose Water All animals need water, but some require more than others. Some animals must drink water from a spring, creek, or other water source nearly every day, but others get all they need from the food they eat. To introduce students to the concept that all animals have basic habitat requirements. Together, the components of food, water, shelter, and space comprise an animal’s habitat. Cover or Shelter Most wildlife species require several kinds of cover where they can hide, den, nest, rest, and sleep. They depend on trees, shrubs, weeds, and grasses to provide them protection. Others have dens in the ground or hollow trees. Key Talking Points Space All animals need space where they can live. Different animals have different space requirements. Some animals, like bears, need a lot of space and may roam over several miles of habitat daily looking for food. Other animals, like field mice, may never travel more than a hundred feet from their home area. All animals, including humans, must have certain things to survive. Wildlife need food to eat, water to drink, cover or shelter to protect them from bad weather and predators, and space to live. Food Food is very important because it supplies the energy and other nutrients that all animals must have to survive. Every species has its own food requirements. Some species of wildlife eat only plants, some eat only animals, and some eat both plants and animals. Habitat The living space that provides all the basic needs of wildlife and fish is called habitat. It should provide the right amounts of food, cover, water, and space. The distribution and amount of these needed items are
  • 12. what determine if a habitat is good or poor for a specific animal or plant. habitat, more animals may decrease in numbers or become endangered. Carrying Capacity Each particular habitat has a limited amount of resources like food and water. At any given time, there are only so many resources to “go around,” and only so many animals may live in an area. The number of animals that can be supported by the habitat is called “carrying capacity.” Changes in the habitat, whether natural – like the maturing of a forest – or human caused – like a timber harvest in the woods – lead to changes in carrying capacity. Wildlife managers use habitat management techniques to provide adequate food, cover, water, and space for fish and wildlife. These practices help increase or maintain the carrying capacity and allow more animals to live in the area. Success Stories Although there are many endangered and threatened species, other species have increased in number and have become wildlife success stories. This means their population numbers once were small but wildlife managers worked hard to remove the threat to their survival; as a result, these animals have recovered and now are in little danger of extinction. Habitat and Endangered Species The greatest danger facing all our wildlife, including threatened and endangered species, is loss of habitat. Today in the United States, we lose over one million acres of wildlife habitat every year. Nearly every endangered species is in trouble primarily because of habitat loss. Without our help to stop the loss of Supporting Posters Poster #1, Habitat. Activities Habitat Lap Sit − Project Wild Activity Habitat Rummy – Project Wild Activity Endangered Species CD Enclosed Reference Materials Habitat Lap Sit Instructions Habitat Rummy Instructions Additional Internet Resources National Wildlife Federation Mississippi Wildlife Federation U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Habitat Page Wildlife Habitat Council The Wildlife Society Wildlife Habitat Management Institute http://www.nwf.org http://www.mswildlife.org http://habitat.fws.gov http://www.wildlifehc.org http://www.wildlife.org http://www.whmi.nrcs.usda.gov
  • 13. habitat habitat.qxd 7/6/04 11:14 AM Page 1 Where they live ENDANGERED S P E C I E S To u n d e r s t a n d w h a t H A B I TAT i s , l e t ’ s l o o k a t t h e c a v e s a l a m a n d e r. cave salamander (Eurycea lucifuga) Mary Brunson habitat Every animal needs space to live in, shelter from weather and predators, food, and water to survive. Together, these things make up an animal’s habitat – or the area where an animal lives, rests, and reproduces. Different animals require different types of food, places to live, or shelter – different habitats. When a habitat changes or disappears, so will some of the animals that depend on that habitat for survival. Habitat: Around the mouth of caves, in crevices, and beneath rocks and leaf litter in limestone areas. ROBERT ROLD It is in these areas that the cave salamander finds shelter, water, and insects to eat, and lays its eggs in small pools of water – this is its HABITAT. LISA POWERS JANELLE MIDTBO This animal is endangered in Mississippi because of its specific habitat requirements and the limited habitat available for it. Land development (people building houses or businesses), lime mining, and over-collection of this animal have reduced its numbers. USFWS Poster 01 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status.
  • 14. Day 3: Intro to Endangered Species Theme An Introduction to Endangered Species Purpose To introduce students to the definition of endangered species and the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Key Talking Points When animal populations become extremely low, they may be in danger of extinction. When a wildlife species becomes extinct, no more exist on earth; that particular species cannot be recovered and will never exist again. When animal populations become low, we often refer to that species as endangered or threatened, implying they are in danger of extinction. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) was passed in 1973. Its purpose is to protect our threatened and endangered wildlife and the ecosystems on which they depend. Under the ESA, a species in need of special protection is placed on one of two lists: endangered or threatened. An endangered species is an animal, fish, or plant that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a large portion of its range. In the United States, 955 species are listed as endangered. A threatened species is an animal, fish, or plant that is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future. There are currently 267 species listed as threatened in the United States. The ESA forbids the “taking” of a listed species. This means that no one can kill, shoot, wound, hunt, capture, harm, or harass an endangered or threatened species. Courts have ruled that habitat destruction that harms or kills a species is also forbidden. People who break this law may have to pay large fines or spend time in jail. Private landowners who develop and implement an approved “habitat conservation plan” providing for conservation of the species may be allowed to conduct some activities that would result in incidental “taking.” Humans are exterminating species on a global scale at an ever-increasing
  • 15. rate. The previous mass extinction event in North, Central, and South America 11,000 years ago resulted from stress due to climate and habitat change. This combination of factors resulted in the extinction of 100 bird and large animal species. By contrast, biologists now estimate that since the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in 1620, about 500 species of our Nation’s plants and animals have become extinct. By helping endangered species recover, we help boost biodiversity. Biodiversity is the vast variety of all life on earth or in ecosystems; when we lose species to extinction, biodiversity is reduced. Supporting Posters Poster #2, The Endangered Species Act. Activities Endangered Species CD Enclosed Reference Materials U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service “Where can I find it?” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service “ESA basics” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service “Myths and realities of the ESA” Additional Internet Resources U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Endangered Species Page http://endangered.fws.gov Text of the 1973 Endangered Species Act http://endangered.fws.gov/esa.html
  • 16. endangered endspeciesact.qxd 7/6/04 11:37 AM Page 1 Endangered Species Act ENDANGERED S P E C I E S The Endangered Species Act (ESA) was passed in 1973. A species in need of special protection is placed on one of two lists: endangered or threatened. USFWS description The Endangered Species Act (ESA) was passed in 1973. Its purpose is to protect our threatened and endangered wildlife and the ecosystems on which they depend. This law is enforced by two federal agencies, the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). These two agencies are also in charge of placing species on the list or removing them and preparing plans to help each species recover. The goal of the ESA is to help species recover to high enough numbers so that they no longer require special protection. An endangered species is an animal, fish, or plant that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a large portion of its range. In the United States, 955 species are listed as endangered. A threatened species is an animal, fish, or plant that is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future. There are currently 267 species listed as threatened in the United States. USFWS The ESA forbids the “taking” of a listed species. This means that no one can kill, shoot, wound, hunt, capture, harm, or harass an endangered or threatened species. Courts have ruled that habitat destruction that harms or kills a species is also forbidden. People who break this law may have to pay large fines or spend time in jail. USFWS Species may be placed on one of these two lists for any one of the following reasons: • The loss of habitat or severe restrictions on range or habitat • Overuse of the species by humans • Disease or predation which threatens the species • Ineffective regulatory mechanisms • Other natural or man-made factors affecting the survival of a species ©Robert Rold USFWS Poster 02 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status.
  • 17. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Where Can I Find It? Beginner’s Guide to the Endangered Species Home Page http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html Welcome to our Home Page! http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html Information Items in Our Web Site Include: Can I Find Information About Individual Species? nthe U.S. List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants, updated monthly; Yes. For each species on the U.S. List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (a.k.a. the List), a separate species profile is available that gives information about range, date of listing, critical habitat, special rules, Federal Register citations, and availability of approved recovery plans. In addition, you’ll find linked files for many species, containing other biological and management information, images, and links to other Web sites where additional information can be found. Our goal is to have a reference page for each endangered and threatened species! Future plans include species accounts (fact sheets) for all listed species, completion of an endangered species image library, and a complete index of recovery plan titles by species. n Species accounts and images; n Proposed and candidate species information; nthe Boxscore, which is a count of endangered species listings and recovery plans by species group; nMaps; nThe Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended through the 100th Congress; n Policies; n State counts and lists; How Should I Begin? nFrequently asked questions; n Contact information; n Recovery activities; n the Endangered Species Bulletin; The best way to learn more about this new electronic library of endangered species information is to check it out yourself. The FWS World Wide Web address is: http:// www.fws.gov. From the comfort of your own computer or at an Internet seat at a public library, simply use your own Internet browser and type n A gallery of ecosystem photos; http://www.fws.gov n Links to other sources of information; n “Endangered Means There’s Still Time” slide show; and n A Kids’ Corner, featuring resource lists, activities and a teacher’s guide. at the Document Location prompt. This will bring you to the Fish and Wildlife Service’s general information and welcome page. Click on Endangered Species in the table. You will automatically be taken to the Endangered Species Home Page. endangered Tooth Cave spider (Neoleptoneta myopica) by Karen Day Boylan Can I See the List of Threatened and Endangered Species? Yes. From the Endangered Species Home Page, select Listed Species Indexes & Counts under the Species Information section. Then choose from the categories: vertebrate animals (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes); invertebrate animals (clams, snails, insects, arachnids, and crustaceans); non-flowering plants; flowering plants; or by FWS Region (Pacific, Southwest, Great-Lakes, etc). For example, say that you are looking for information on the bald eagle, our national bird. Select Listed Species Indexes & Counts, then choose Index - Vertebrate Animals, then click on Birds. Y will be given an alphabetical ou listing of birds on the U.S. list. This list indicates the lead FWS region, what the species’ federal status is (“E” is for endangered, “T” is for threatened, “XN” for nonessential experimental population, “E [or T] (S/A)” for similarity of appearance to a listed species, “XE” for an essential experimental population”), the common name of the species, and the scientific name. You will January 1998
  • 18. find information on the bald eagle under Eagle, bald. If you click on the scientific name, in this example: Haliaeetus leucocephalus, a profile of the bald eagle’s listing will be displayed, which includes when it was listed, whether there is a recovery plan for this species or not, where the species is likely to be found (State and other countries), and other information. Some species, such as the bald eagle, also have an asterisk (*) before the scientific name. If you click on the *, you will be taken to what we call the “hub file” for the species. This file links to other sites with materials on this particular species such as fact pages, recovery plans, press releases, State web sites, etc. Can I Print the List? Yes. You can print out the List as it appears on your screen (type will be very small), or you can view and print the entire List in exactly the same format (PDF) as it appears in the official edition published by the Government Printing Office. To print the List or get the file in PDF format, get to the Endangered Species Home Page. Scroll down and click on The List & Database Files for Download under the Species Information section. Because the List is large, it is divided into Animals, Plants and Delisted species. The first grouping is to download, view and print the file in PDF format. The second group is for printing or downloading the List in ASCII text format. Looking at the List in PDF Format To view and print these files as they appear on the official Government Printing Office publication, you will need to download Acrobat Reader software, which is available for free via this web page. To get Acrobat Reader, click on Adobe, Inc. and follow the instructions. Please remember, when downloading the file to your computer, make sure when naming your document that you give it the PDF extension. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 Can I Search for a Species? If you want to go quickly to a specific species, there is a search capability for this web page. From the Endangered Species Home Page, select Species Links, Accounts & Images Search from the left column. Enter either the common or scientific name. Click Search. A list of matching records will be provided. Click in the htmlLink column on the one which most closely resembles your request. You will be taken to the file about that particular species. A picture will be shown if one is available. Links to other Internet sources which describe the species will also be provided, if available. How Many Species Are in My State and Which Ones? From our home page, you can also find out how many federally-listed threatened and endangered species are in your State. To see a map with a total by state, select State Counts, under the Species Information section. A map will display with the current distribution of federally-listed species by State /territory. To see which species are in a particular State, from the Species Information section on the Endangered Species Home Page, select State List. The list is organized by FWS Region (Pacific, Southwest, Great Lakes, etc). A list of which States are found in that region is provided to make it easier for you to select the region you want. Once you select it, then the list for each State in that region will be displayed. Can I Find Other Links and Information Sources? A hotlist of sites relevant to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s mission, along with other search engines, is also available via our Help page, or at “http://www.fws.gov/ hotlist.html”. You may find that clicking on our endangered species Guide to Other Related Information is useful, too. It is located at “http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/ sites.html”. Reports & Plans You can also use the Fish and Wildlife Reference Service (FWRS) to request, for a nominal fee, copies of reports produced by State fish and wildlife agencies. These reports are the results of research studies supported by Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act and Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act funding. FWRS also provides access to reports produced by the Anadromous Fish Conservation Program, the Endangered Species Grant Program, and the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units. Please note that endangered species recovery plans are available through this service. To order a copy, follow the instructions located at “http://www.fws.gov/fwrefser.html”. Information for Kids and Teachers The newest feature to our home page is a Kids Corner. From this page, junior fish and wildlife biologists, the public, and you can do a endangered species crossword puzzle, learn of ways to help save the environment, make your own Risky Creatures game, look at or print FWS fact pages on a particular species (called biologues), check out the “Endangered Means There’s Still Time” slide show, view the Mauna Kea silversword family album through the Creature Features! section, and link to other educational resource materials on the Web through the Hey Teachers! and Where Can I Find It? sections. Still Confused? Still looking for specific information which you can’t find? Send us an e-mail message. Our Internet E-mail address is “R9FWE_DES.BIM@mail.fws.gov”. Also, please send us a message if you have suggestions or comments regarding our home page. We are always looking for ways to make it more useful to you. endangered Mauna Kea silversword (Argyroxiphium sandwicense spp. sandwicense) by KarenJanuary 1998 Day Boylan
  • 19. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service ESA Basics Over 25 years of protecting endangered species Introduction When the Endangered Species Act (ESA) was passed in 1973, it represented America’s concern about the decline of many wildlife species around the world. It is regarded as one of the most comprehensive wildlife conservation laws in the world. The purpose of the ESA is to conserve “the ecosystems upon which endangered and threatened species depend” and to conserve and recover listed species. Under the law, species may be listed as either “endangered” or “threatened”. Endangered means a species is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Threatened means a species is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. All species of plants and animals, except pest insects, are eligible for listing as endangered or threatened. As of December 31, 1997, 1,125 U.S. species are listed, of which 457 are animals and 668 are plants. The list includes both U.S. and foreign species and covers mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, snails, clams/ mussels, crustaceans, insects, arachnids, and plants. Groups with the most listed species are (in order) plants, birds, fishes, mammals, and clams/mussels. The law is administered by the Interior Department’s U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the Commerce Department’s National Marine Fisheries Service. The FWS has primary responsibility for terrestrial and freshwater organisms, while the National Marine Fisheries Service’s responsibilities are mainly for marine species such as salmon and whales. to receive appropriations while Congress considers reauthorization, allowing conservation actions for threatened and endangered species to continue. The ESA The Endangered Species Act is a complex law with a great deal of built-in flexibility. Some basics of the law include: Purpose Legislative History The 1973 Endangered Species Act replaced earlier laws enacted in 1966 and 1969, which provided for a list of endangered species but gave them little meaningful protection. The 1973 law has been reauthorized seven times and amended on several occasions, most recently in 1988. The Endangered Species Act was due for reauthorization again in 1993, but legislation to reauthorize it has not yet been enacted. The Endangered Species program has continued When Congress passed the Endangered Species Act in 1973, it recognized that many of our nation’s native plants and animals were in danger of becoming extinct. They further expressed that our rich natural heritage was of “esthetic, ecological, educational, recreational, and scientific value to our Nation and its people.” The purposes of the Act are to protect these endangered and threatened species and to provide a means to conserve their ecosystems. Federal Agencies All federal agencies are to protect species and preserve their habitats. Federal agencies must utilize their authorities to conserve listed species and make sure that their actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of listed species. The FWS and the National Marine Fisheries Service work with other agencies to plan or modify federal projects so that they will have minimal impact on listed species and their habitat. Working with States threatened bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) by Karen Day Boylan The protection of species is also achieved through partnerships with the States. Section 6 of the law encourages each State to develop and maintain conservation programs for resident federally-listed threatened and endangered species. Federal financial assistance and a system of incentives are available to attract State participation. Some State laws and regulations are even more restrictive in granting exceptions or permits than the current ESA. January 1998
  • 20. Local Involvement Consultation Habitat Conservation Plans The protection of federally listed species on Federal lands is the first priority of the FWS, yet, many species occur partially, extensively or, in some cases, exclusively on private lands. Policies and incentives have been developed to protect private landowners’ interests in their lands while encouraging them to manage their lands in ways that benefit endangered species. Much of the progress in recovery of endangered species can be attributed to public support and involvement. The law requires federal agencies to consult with the Fish and Wildlife Service to ensure that the actions they authorize, fund, or carry out will not jeopardize listed species. In the relatively few cases where the FWS determines the proposed action will jeopardize the species, they must issue a “biological opinion” offering “reasonable and prudent alternatives” about how the proposed action could be modified to avoid jeopardy to listed species. It is a very rare exception where projects are withdrawn or terminated because of jeopardy to a listed species. This provision of the ESA is designed to relieve restrictions on private landowners who want to develop land inhabited by endangered species. Private landowners who develop and implement an approved “habitat conservation plan” providing for conservation of the species can receive an “incidental take permit” that allows their development project to go forward. Listing Species are listed on the basis of “the best scientific and commercial data available.” Listings are made solely on the basis of the species’ biological status and threats to its existence. The FWS decides all listings using sound science and peer review to ensure the accuracy of the best available data. Candidate Species The FWS also maintains a list of “candidate” species. These are species for which the Service has enough information to warrant proposing them for listing as endangered or threatened, but these species have not yet been proposed for listing. The FWS works with States and private partners to carry out conservation actions for candidate species to prevent their further decline and possibly eliminate the need to list them as endangered or threatened. Recovery The law’s ultimate goal is to “recover” species so they no longer need protection under the Endangered Species Act. The law provides for recovery plans to be developed describing the steps needed to restore a species to health. Appropriate public and private agencies and institutions and other qualified persons assist in the development and implementation of recovery plans. The Clinton Administration has issued new guidelines requiring the involvement of the public and interested “stakeholders” in recovery plans. Recovery teams may be appointed to develop and implement recovery plans. Critical Habitat The law provides for designation of “critical habitat” for listed species when judged to be “prudent and determinable”. Critical habitat includes geographic areas “on which are found those physical or biological features essential to the conservation of the species and which may require special management considerations or protection.” Critical habitat may include areas not occupied by the species at the time of listing but that are essential to the conservation of the species. Critical habitat designations affect only federal agency actions or federally funded or permitted activities. International Species The Endangered Species Act is the law that implements U.S. participation in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), a 130-nation agreement designed to prevent species from becoming endangered or extinct because of international trade. The law prohibits trade in listed species except under CITES permits. Exemptions The law provides a process for exempting development projects from the restrictions of the Endangered Species Act. This process permits completion of projects that have been determined to jeopardize the survival of a listed species, if a Cabinet-level “Endangered Species Committee” decides the benefits of the project clearly outweigh the benefits of conserving a species. Since its creation in 1978, the Committee has only been called upon four times to make this decision. Definition of “Take” Section 9 of the Endangered Species Act makes it unlawful for a person to “take” a listed species. The Act says “The term take means to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect or attempt to engage in any such conduct.” The Secretary of the Interior, through regulations, defined the term “harm” in this passage as “an act which actually kills or injures wildlife. Such act may include significant habitat modification or degradation where it actually kills or injures wildlife by significantly impairing essential behavioral patterns, including breeding, feeding, or sheltering.” Compliance with Other Laws The Endangered Species Act is not the only law to protect species of wild mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes, clams, snails, insects, spiders, crustaceans, and plants. There are many other laws with enforcement provisions to protect declining populations of rare species and their habitat, such as the Marine Mammal Protection Act, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and the Anadromous Fish Conservation Act. The Lacey Act makes it a federal crime for any person to import, export, transport, sell, receive, acquire, possess, or purchase any fish, wildlife, or plant taken, possessed transported or sold in violation of any Federal, State, foreign or Indian tribal law, treaty, or regulation. For More Information For additional information about threatened and endangered species and current recovery efforts, contact the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at 703/358 2171 or 800/344 WILD. Additional materials and the current U.S. List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants is also available over the Internet at <http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/ endspp.html>. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 January 1998
  • 21. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Myths and Realities of the Endangered Species Act Myth: Extinction is a “natural” process and we should not worry about it. Reality: Extinction is a normal process, but the current extinction rate is not. The environment is changing so rapidly that species have no time to adapt. Since the pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock 365 years ago, more than 500 North American species have become extinct. That is more than one species becoming extinct each year. Scientists estimate that natural extinction rates are one species lost every 100 years! Myth: The Endangered Species Act is causing loss of jobs and economic devastation in many areas of the country. Reality: Economists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology analyzed the economic impact of endangered species. They found that states with many listed species have economies that were at least as healthy as those with very few endangered species. Even in the Pacific Northwest, where logging restrictions were imposed, in part, because of the northern spotted owl, the regional economy is booming. Three years after the curtailment of logging in Federal forests, Oregon posted its lowest unemployment rate in a generation. Myth: Many irresolvable conflicts with endangered species occur every year, stopping many valuable projects and hindering progress. Reality: Of the 225,403 projects that were reviewed from 1979 to 1996, only 37 development projects were halted. That is one project stopped per 6,092 projects reviewed. In most cases, projects that were halted did proceed once the project design was modified to avoid endangering a species. Myth: Billions of tax dollars are being spent on endangered species. Reality: In FY 1996, the annual budget for the nationwide endangered species program was approximately $.06 billion. This amounts to an average of 23 cents per person in the United States. By comparison, Americans spent over $8.2 billion in 1992 on pets, pet food and pet supplies and the amount has grown since then (U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S. 1997). Reality: Size and emotional appeal have no bearing on a species’ importance. Aldo Leopold, the father of wildlife management, said it well in his book The Sand County Almanac: “The last word in ignorance is the man who says of an animal or plant: ‘What good is it?’ If the land mechanisms as a whole is good, then every part is good, whether we understand it or not. If the biota, in the course of aeons, has built something we like but do not understand, then who but a fool would discard seemingly useless parts? To keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent tinkering.” Remember that pencillin was discovered from a mold! 50 Myth: Thousands of private citizens have been prosecuted for harming or killing endangered species, even when killing occurred accidentally. 40 30 $ Billions Reality: Most of the people prosecuted under the Endangered Species Act are illegal wildlife traffickers who illegally and knowingly collect rare wildlife and plants to sell for personal profit. Myth: Most endangered species are worthless, insignificant, lower forms of life that have no value to humanity. 20 10 0 U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 Jewelry* Cosmetics* Movie tickets* T&E species** Annual American Expenditures (for 1996) *The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998, K-III Reference Corp., 1997. January 1998 **U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • 22. Day 4: Mississippi Threatened Species Theme Supporting Posters An Introduction to Threatened Species in Mississippi. Poster #3 Gulf sturgeon Poster #4 Gopher tortoise Poster #5 Louisiana black bear Purpose To introduce and familiarize students with threatened species in Mississippi. Students will learn basic facts about each species, its habitat, diet, reproductive process, range, and conservation and recovery. Activities Endangered Species Crossword Puzzle Endangered Species Crossword Puzzle 2 Endangered Species CD Key Talking Points Please refer to posters for information about each threatened species. Enclosed Reference Materials Poster Reference Sheets Additional Internet Resources U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Page http://endangered.fws.gov Endangered Species in the Southeast http://southeast.fws.gov/es/
  • 23. sturgeon sturgeon.qxd 7/9/04 1:44 PM Page 1 THREATENED Gulf Sturgeon S P E C I E S Scientific name: Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi | Listed as Threatened in 1991 breeding KEVIN McIVER, USFWS description This large fish can grow to be 9 feet long and weigh over 300 pounds! It has rows of large, bony scale-like plates along its body and a long pointed snout. Its mouth is sucker-like. Gulf sturgeon are black with a white belly. Although a Gulf sturgeon may lay eggs every year, some scientists think that these fish need a long rest after spawning (laying eggs) and may not reproduce the next year. Gulf sturgeon migrate to freshwater during spring to lay their eggs and then return to the saltwater in fall and winter. These fish seem to return to the same river to spawn each time. Eggs are laid in running water over gravel, rubble, clay, or shells. diet When in rivers, Gulf sturgeon eat aquatic insects and other aquatic invertebrates. In the Gulf Coast waters, they eat mollusks, shrimp, small fish, and other invertebrates such as marine worms and amphipods. The number of Gulf sturgeon have declined due to over fishing and the loss of spawning habitat. Thousands of pounds of Gulf sturgeon were removed from the Pascagoula River in the 1900’s by commercial fishing boats. Dams and other changes made to rivers may keep sturgeon numbers low because these fish are no longer able to reach some of their spawning grounds. Additionally, pollution has limited the amount of habitat the sturgeon can use. conservation and recovery habitat Gulf sturgeon can be found in rivers and along the Gulf Coast from Florida to Louisiana. threats to survival NRCS range In Mississippi, the Gulf sturgeon has been found in the Pearl River upstream to Madison County and the Bogue Chitto River upstream to Pike County. KEVIN McIVER, USFWS There were an estimated 3,000 Gulf sturgeon in 1986. Commercial fishing of Gulf sturgeon is not allowed in Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and Florida. Scientists have raised Gulf sturgeon in captivity to study and to release into the wild. The plan to protect the Gulf sturgeon includes protecting their remaining habitat, reestablishing a large enough population to withstand fishing pressures in each river system, as well as other steps to help protect this fish. Example of an amphipod. Gulf sturgeon can live to be 70 years old and weigh more than 300 pounds. funfacts LINDA KUHNZ/MBARI © 2003 JERRY ZIEWITZ, USFWS Poster 03 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status.
  • 24. tortoise tortoise.qxd 7/6/04 1:43 PM Page 1 Gopher Tortoise THREATENED S P E C I E S Scientific name: Gopherus polyphemus L i s t e d a s T h r e at e n e d i n 1 9 8 7 diet This species eats many different types of plants. However, grasses make up the bulk of its diet. USFWS description Gopher tortoises are large turtles, with a shell that is 9 to 15 inches long. The top of a gopher tortoise shell, or the carapace, is brown or gray. The bottom of the shell, its legs, head, and neck are yellow. The top of the shell of a young tortoise is also yellow. Gopher tortoises have big toenails on their front legs that are used for digging. Their back feet are small and stumpy. range These tortoises can be found in Florida, southern South Carolina, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. breeding threats to Gopher tortoises mate in April or May. survival The female will lays up to 15 eggs in a mound in front of or near her burrow. These eggs will hatch approximately 100 days later. Female gopher tortoises do not lay eggs every year. conservation and recovery habitat Gopher tortoises create long underground burrows in dry, upland, sandy soils; a burrow may grow to be 30 feet long. Gopher tortoises live in forests with enough open areas to permit growth of grasses and small plants. In Mississippi, gopher tortoises are often found in longleaf pine and scrub oak forests. USFWS USFWS The greatest threat to the survival of the gopher tortoise is habitat loss due to mining, city growth, and the misuse of herbicides and pesticides. Fire suppression has also reduced the amount of suitable habitat. Fires helped to keep the forests open and create the type of habitat that gopher tortoises use. Each year, many tortoises are killed by cars when crossing roads. Gopher tortoise burrows can serve as homes for many other animals, such as snakes, frogs, mice, foxes, skunks, opossums, rabbits, quail, armadillos, lizards, toads, and some invertebrates. The gopher tortoise was once common throughout its range. Over the last 100 years, gopher tortoises have become rare. The remaining gopher tortoises on federal lands are being protected, and their habitat in the DeSoto National Forest is being protected. In some states, scientists are reintroducing captured tortoises into areas to study them. In some places, scientists are attempting to create suitable habitat by reintroducing fire or other management methods. funfacts USFWS Poster 04 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status.
  • 25. black bear bear.qxd 7/6/04 2:27 PM Page 1 Louisiana Black Bear THREATENED S P E C I E S Scientific name: Ursus americanus luteolus | Listed as Threatened in 1992 diet Black bears eat a variety of foods. Their diet includes grass, fruit, seeds, nuts, roots, insects, fish, amphibians, small rodents, bird eggs, and carrion. description The Louisiana black bear can weigh up to 400 pounds and can be up to 6 feet long. Its fur is dark brown or black. It is a large, stocky mammal with a short tail. The Louisiana black bear can be found in many different habitats. It prefers habitat that has plentiful food (often fruits, seeds, and nuts) and bushes and trees it can hide in; it generally prefers habitat that has not been disturbed by humans. In Louisiana and Mississippi, the black bear is often found in bottomland hardwood forests in river basins. This bear will den in hollow logs, brush piles, road culverts, or hollow trees. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the survival of the Louisiana black bear. conservation and recovery GARY M. STOLZ, USFWS habitat threats to survival KATHY JACOBS breeding Only several hundred Louisiana black bears are alive today. The Atchafalaya and Tensas River National Wildlife Refuges protect and manage this bear. Some private landowners in Louisiana and Mississippi are also attempting to protect and manage this species. Females have one to three cubs (baby bears) at a time, usually giving birth only every other year. The cubs may stay with the mother for up to a year. range The black bear used to be found in many places in North America. Today, Louisiana black bears live in the Atchafalaya and Tensas River Basins in Louisiana, and are occasionally found in Mississippi. GARY M. STOLZ, USFWS USFWS Black bears are good swimmers. They can swim at least a mile and a half in fresh water. One bear even swam nine miles. funfacts USFWS 2001 KIM CABRERA Poster 05 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status. 2001 ALLISON M. SHEEHEY
  • 26. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Endangered Species Crossword Puzzle OK, Junior Fish and Wildlife Biologists, it’s time to test your knowledge. 1 2 3 4 6 5 7 8 9 10 ACROSS DOWN 1. our national symbol, an endangered species success story 7. the abbreviation for the Endangered Species Act 1. a new word meaning the vast variety of life in all its forms 3. ultimate goal, for every species, of the Endangered Species Act 8. troubled shellfish in America’s streams 2. word meaning “in immediate danger of extinction” 4. . . . is a word that means gone forever. Kaput. Finito. 5. word meaning a species could become endangered in forseeable future 9. loss of a species’ home, or its ________, is the biggest threat 6. these species invade, and crowd the native species 10. an acronym for the fish/wildlife federal agency that protects endangered species & habitats and manages the National Wildlife Refuge System U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 January 1998
  • 27. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Endangered Species Crossword Puzzle Puzzle Answer Key OK, you gave it your best try. Here are the answers. 1 3 R 4 T B A L I 0 V E D I N C R V E A E C E X 5 T H D M U S 9 H A B S E I T E N L S 10 U S ACROSS 1. our national symbol, an endangered species success story L 2 E N D I 0 N T I T A T Y A G R Y R 8 E 6 E D X 0 T I A N G 7 E S A R E D C F W S 7. the abbreviation for the Endangered Species Act DOWN 1. a new word meaning the vast variety of life in all its forms 8. troubled shellfish in America’s streams 3. ultimate goal, for every species, of the Endangered Species Act 4. . . . is a word that means gone forever. Kaput. Finito. 5. word meaning a species could become endangered in foreseeable future 9. loss of a species’ home, or its ________, is the biggest threat 10. an acronym for the fish/wildlife federal agency that protects endangered species & habitats and manages the National Wildlife Refuge System 2. word meaning “in immediate danger of extinction” 6. these species invade, and crowd the native species U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 January 1998
  • 28. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Endangered Species Crossword Puzzle 2 OK, Junior Fish and Wildlife Biologists, it’s time to test your knowledge again! 2 1 3 5 4 6 7 8 9 10 ACROSS 1. “_______ Means There’s Still Time” 8. plants and animals which are not yet proposed for listing as threatened or endangered 3. a species which is vulnerable but not yet in immediate danger of extinction 10. the Act’s abbreviation 6. elected body that passes legislation such as the Endangered Species Act DOWN 7. areas of habitat believed essential to the conservation of an endangered or threatened species 2. choices in your course of action 5. the ultimate goal of the Endangered Species Act 8. acronym for the 130-nation agreement which regulates the exporting and importing in endangered species of wild fauna or flora 9. the legal term for any harassing, harming, or otherwise hurting of a threatened or endangered species 4. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists determine that a species is in __________ when a federal action would reduce the likelihood of a endangered or threatened species to survival and recover in the wild. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 January 1998
  • 29. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Endangered Species Crossword Puzzle 2 Puzzle Answer Key OK, you gave it your best try. Here are the answers. 1 3 T H E N D R E A 2 A N L T G E N E R E D E D 4 E 5 R E 7 C O V E R Y E O N G R E S S N R I T I C A L H A B T 8 C A N D I D A 9T E I V A 6 O C T 10 E S A E S J I P T A T R D Y K E S ACROSS 8. plants and animals which are not yet proposed for listing as threatened or endangered 5. the ultimate goal of the Endangered Species Act 3. a species which is vulnerable but not yet in immediate danger of extinction 10. the Act’s abbreviation 8. acronym for the 130-nation agreement which regulates the exporting and importing in endangered species of wild fauna or flora 6. elected body that passes legislation such as the Endangered Species Act DOWN 7. areas of habitat believed essential to the conservation of an endangered or threatened species 4. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists determine that a species is in __________ when a federal action would reduce the likelihood of a endangered or threatened species to survival and recover in the wild. 1. “_______ Means There’s Still Time” 2. choices in your course of action 9. the legal term for any harassing, harming, or otherwise hurting of a threatened or endangered species U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 January 1998
  • 30. Day 5: Mississippi Endangered Species Theme Supporting Posters An Introduction to Endangered Species in Mississippi. Poster #6 Gray bat Poster #7 Louisiana quillwort Poster #8 Mississippi Sandhill Crane Poster #9 Red-cockaded Woodpecker Poster #10 American burying beetle Purpose To introduce and familiarize students with endangered species in Mississippi. Students will learn basic facts about each species, its habitat, diet, reproductive process, range, and conservation and recovery activities. Activities Risky Critters Endangered Species CD Key Talking Points Enclosed Reference Materials Please refer to posters for information about each endangered species. Poster Reference Sheets Additional Internet Resources U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Page http://endangered.fws.gov Endangered Species in the Southeast http://southeast.fws.gov/es/ Bat Conservation International http://www.batcon.org
  • 31. gray bat bat.qxd 7/6/04 1:42 PM Page 1 ENDANGERED Gray Bat S P E C I E S Scientific name: Myotis grisescens breeding © Merlin D. Tuttle, Bat Conservation International description | Listed as Endangered in 1976 Female gray bats have only one baby bat at a time. When the female bats are ready to have their babies, they will group together in a cave. A group of adult female bats is called a maternity colony. The males and young bats will live in another cave during this time. Young bats will begin flying 20 to 35 days after they are born. The gray bat is a mammal with wings that measure 10 or 11 inches from one tip to the other. It has gray fur, and its wings are attached to its ankles. diet Gray bats are very picky when choosing caves. These caves must be a certain temperature and be near a water source, like a reservoir or river. The greatest threat to these bats is human disturbance. When humans enter a gray bat cave, startled females may drop their babies. Bats may move out of caves that are disturbed frequently. conservation and recovery habitat Gray bats live in caves. In the winter they hibernate, which is like being in a deep sleep, in these caves. In warmer weather, gray bats will migrate to caves that they will use in the summer. threats to survival © Merlin D. Tuttle, Bat Conservation International range Gray bats can be found in several states in the United States. They are not often seen in Mississippi, and have been observed only in Tishomingo County. Gray bats feed on insects that they find while flying over rivers or reservoirs. The most important summer cave for the gray bat is in Alabama. This cave is now owned by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and is being managed to protect the bat. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service also purchased another cave that these bats use to hibernate in during winter. Bats send out sound waves that bounce off objects and return to the bat. Through this “echolation,” bats can determine the size, shape, and texture of many objects, including tiny insects. funfacts © Merlin D. Tuttle, Bat Conservation International © Merlin D. Tuttle, Bat Conservation International Poster 06 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status. © Merlin D. Tuttle, Bat Conservation International
  • 32. quillwort quilwort.qxd 7/7/04 10:22 AM Page 1 Louisiana Quillwort ENDANGERED S P E C I E S Scientific name: Isoetes louisianensis | Listed as Endangered in 1992 range STEVE LEONARD description The Louisiana quillwort is a small plant that resembles grass. It grows in water, often on sandbars in streams. This plant does not produce seeds, but reproduces from spores, like a fern. The name of this plant comes from the leaves that resemble a quill – the hollow stem of a feather. The leaves of the quillwort can grow up to 16 inches long. The range of the Louisiana quillwort is extremely limited. Currently, it has been found in only two parishes in Louisiana: Washington and St. Tammany parishes. It has also been found in ten counties in Misssissippi and two counties in Alabama. LISA YAGER LISA YAGER conservation and recovery There is much to be learned about this aquatic plant, and research is being done to learn more about its life cycle and habitat needs so it can be protected. Mississippi does not provide protection for any plants in the state, but plants on federally owned lands are protected. STEVE LEONARD threats to habitat survival The Louisiana quillwort grows on sand and gravel bars in small to mediumsized streams. At times, it may be completely submerged (below the water). Water pollution is the greatest threat to the survival of this plant. Sand and gravel mining and clearcutting streambanks can affect water quality and thus, the survival of these plants. LISA YAGER LISA YAGER LISA YAGER Poster 07 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status.
  • 33. sandhill crane crane.qxd 7/7/04 11:41 AM Page 1 ENDANGERED Mississippi Sandhill Crane S P E C I E S Scientific name: Grus canadensis pulla Listed as Endanger ed in 1973 diet The diet of this bird changes depending on the time of year. It eats many different types of plants, some grains, and fruits throughout the year. In spring and summer, it may eat insects, small fish, and sometimes amphibians such as frogs. UTE BRADTER description Mississippi Sandhill Cranes are 35 to 40 inches tall with long legs, a long neck, and a wingspan of about 6 feet. Adult birds have gray feathers, a red crown, a white throat, and occasionally rust-colored markings on the wings and back. Young birds have browner feathers and lack the red and white on their heads. Mississippi Sandhill Cranes fly with their necks outstretched and have a loud, rattling call. Their calls can sometimes be heard from more than a mile away. threats to survival The greatest threat to the survival of the Mississippi Sandhill Crane is habitat loss. In the 1950’s, much of their original habitat was used to grow trees for timber and paper, forcing the birds to move somewhere else. Fire suppression has also reduced the amount of suitable habitat for this bird. Humans have built houses and farms on some of the land the cranes used as well. conservation and recovery SCOTT HEREFORD, USFWS breeding Mississippi Sandhill Cranes lay one to two eggs. These eggs will hatch in 28 to 32 days, and the young birds will leave the nest in another 60 to 65 days. Cranes will stay with their selected mate for life. There are approximately 100 Mississippi Sandhill Cranes living on the refuge. Scientists have been releasing captiveraised birds into the wild to increase the number of birds. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other groups have been working hard to protect the lands that these birds live on and increase their numbers in the wild. habitat range These birds live in wet pine savannas, wetlands, swamps, and bayheads on the coast of Mississippi. TOM CARLISLE The Mississippi Sandhill Crane is found only in Jackson County, Mississippi on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge. Previously, they could be found in coastal Alabama and Louisiana as well. They do not travel to Cranes can dance! They will other places lower their heads, spring when the seasons into the air, and toss change (migrate). around sticks and grass. funfacts UTE BRADTER Poster 08 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status.
  • 34. woodpecker woodpecker.qxd 7/7/04 12:19 PM Page 1 ENDANGERED Red-cockaded Woodpecker S P E C I E S Scientific name: Picoides borealis Listed as Endangered in 1970 diet Red-cockaded Woodpeckers mainly eat insects, such as caterpillars and beetles. breeding Each male and female pair will have three to five eggs. These eggs will hatch in 10 to 14 days and the young birds will leave the nest in another 23 to 30 days. Young birds may help the adults raise young chicks. TEXAS A&M EXTENSION description There are around 13,000 Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in the world. Special rules have been created to protect the mature pine forests that this woodpecker needs to live in and to help grow more trees that these birds can use in the future. Biologists have created cavities in mature trees and put up special houses for these birds in many older-aged forests. range These birds can be found throughout the southeast in mature pine forests. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers are small birds, about 7 inches long, with a wingspan of 15 inches. The top of their head and back of the neck is black. Their cheeks and belly are white. Their backs and wing feathers have black and white bars on them. Males have a small red spot on the back of their heads near their eyes. These birds, like other woodpeckers, can be seen climbing up the trunk of a tree. USFWS Woodpeckers tap on tree trunks an estimated 8,000 to 12,000 times per day. habitat These birds live in forests of widelyspaced, large, old pines – usually longleaf pine forests. They peck holes (cavities) in older pines with their beaks. It is in these cavities that Redcockaded Woodpeckers will nest. A “family” of woodpeckers, called a group, will live near each other – a male and female pair, their young chicks, and a few young birds which help the adults raise their chicks. conservation and recovery USFWS threats to survival funfacts The greatest threat to the survival of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker is habitat loss. Much of the pine forests suitable for this woodpecker are managed by companies to produce wood or paper. The trees may be cut down when they are too young for woodpeckers to make cavities in. Large areas of older trees may be cut down for wood as well, leaving no trees for the birds to use. Poster 09 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status. JOHN CASSADY
  • 35. beetle beetle.qxd 7/6/04 10:49 AM Page 1 American Burying Beetle ENDANGERED S P E C I E S Scientific name: Nicrophorus americanus • Listed as Endanger ed in 1989 diet This beetle eats dead, decaying animals, also known as carrion. American burying beetles are an important part of the food web, returning decaying material back into the ecosystem. MARK PEYTON description The American burying beetle can grow to one and a half inches long. Its body is shiny and black with two bright orange bands on each wing cover. There is a large orange spot on its upper back near its head, a small orange dot on its face, and several orange marks on its legs and antennae. This beetle has strong pincers that it uses for both fighting and cutting up its food. Adult beetles are nocturnal (active at night). habitat The American burying beetle can live in many different habitats, but it is limited to areas not recently disturbed by humans. It may prefer to live in open grasslands or in open areas in hardwood forest. Because it buries its food, the burying beetle lives in places where the soil is not rocky, too wet, or sandy. MARK PEYTON JOEL SARTORE/WWW.JOELSARTORE.COM breeding Adult beetles will seek out a recently dead, mouse-sized animal to serve as food for their offspring. Often, many beetles will gather around the same carrion, and they will fight over it. The winning male and female beetle will transport the carrion to a suitable spot with soft soil. They will dig a hole and bury the carcass several inches deep. Once the carcass is buried, the beetles will remove any fur or feathers from it and secrete juices that will slow down the decaying process. The female will lay eggs in a tunnel near the carcass. The number of eggs laid depends largely on the size of the carrion because it must feed the larvae (baby beetles) for about a week. Both the male and female adult beetles will care for the growing larvae until they pupate (the “teenage beetle” stage before becoming an adult). Adult beetles live for one year. range The American burying beetle was once found in many of the eastern and central states, but is now only found in the Midwest and on one island in the state of Rhode Island. The only reported sighting of this beetle in Mississippi was in 1949 in Lafayette County. threats to survival Although it is unclear what caused American burying beetles to decline, increased competition for food and a decrease in habitat where the right sized carrion is common may be factors. Habitat fragmentation, or the break up of habitat with things like roads or fire lanes, may also contribute to the decrease in the number of beetles. conservation and recovery Several conservation groups, zoos, and scientists raise American burying beetles for release into the wild. Some groups even catch wild beetles, pair them together and provide them with carrion for their eggs. A few states have reintroduced the American burying beetle back into its native range. American burying beetles have a great sense of smell! They can smell dead animals as far as 2 miles away. funfacts Poster 10 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status. MARK PEYTON
  • 36. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Risky Critters! Build & Play Your Own Game Are you a sagacious scientist or a laser-witted layperson? Barrage your brain with a battery of beastly biology questions bound to bolster your blossoming knowledge! Play this game by setting up a game board, see following page, then choose a category and a point value (the more points, the more difficult the question). 20 I am a big predatory cat that lives in the Florida Everglades. There are only about 50 of us left. What am I? 30 I travel in packs and have recently returned to Y ellowstone National Park. I’m usually gray but can be brown, black, white, or a , combination of these colors. What am I? Challenge a partner to play! Points and Questions Category: Birds 10 I am our national symbol. My recovery has been so successful that I have been downlisted from ‘endangered’ to ‘threatened.’ What am I? 20 I am the fastest bird in the world. I can dive at 200 miles per hour! What am I? 30 I’m a large white, long-necked bird that was down to 20 left in 1941. Today there are about 300 of us because of the help we get from people who care. I like to dance and migrate long distances. What am I? 40 I’m the largest North American bird. I weigh 25 lbs and look like a vulture with my 9.5 foot wing span. There are fewer than two dozen of me in the wild, but biologists are raising more of us in captivity. What am I? 50 I have a huge beak that holds lots of fish, and I love to dive out of the sky for them. I’ve been removed from the endangered species list because I’ve recovered. What am I? 40 Poachers kill this huge striped cat for its body parts. The bones are ground up and dried and used for medicines in Asia. Claws are used in jewelry. Fewer than 5,000 remain worldwide. What is it? 50 Black, white, Indian or greater one-horned, Javan and Sumatran. Poachers kill me for my horn, which is carved into dagger handles. Less than 12,000 of us huge, nearsighted herbivores are left. What am I? live underground where it’s cooler. What am I? 30 These amphibians have declined globally to the point where biologists are concerned about ozone depletion in the atmosphere. What are they? 40 Inflated heelsplitter, Arkansas fatmucket, speckled pocketbook, fine-rayed pigtoe. What are they? 50 What do more than 457 animals and 668 plants have in common? Category: Endangered! Recovered! 10 If this happens, a species will be gone forever. What is this word? 20 What is the law that protects plants and animals that are in danger of disappearing forever? Category: Crawl, Hop, Swim, and Grow 10 This large reptile was nearly wiped out by trade in its valuable skin, but has recovered and was taken off the endangered species list. What is it? 20 I am slow-moving and I live in the desert. I can live to be more than 100 years old. I carry my shell with me, and like to 30 What word means “any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant part of its range”? 40 What is the ultimate goal of the Endangered Species Act? 50 What do habitat loss, introduced species, pollution, population growth, and overconsumption of resources do to fish, wildlife and plants? Category: Mammals 10 I weigh about 1200 lbs and swim in Florida’s warm waters. Early sailors mistook me for a mermaid, but close-up I look like a walrus without tusks. What am I? U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 endangered gray wolf (Canis lupus) By Karen Day Boylan January 1998
  • 37. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Risky Critters! Answers and Directions How to build your own “Risky Critters!” gameboard 1. Write out the question on top half of a sheet of paper. Write answers on bottom half of the sheet. Fold in half. Side view of game board: question foldline Tape folded question/answer sheet to foam core board. 4. Tape all 3 sheets from one joint. Foamcore 3. Tape plastic protector sheet on top. answer (fold under) 2. Write point value of question on top half of another piece of paper. Fold in half. sideview Tape folded point value sheet above question/ answer sheet. (Y could make some “double ou point” questions by writing “double points” on bottom half of point value sheet.) 2. Then tape folded sheet with points on front. (Y could ou make some “double point” questions by writing “double points” on back.) 1 Tape folded sheet with . question on front, answer on bottom half, to foam core board. 3. If using in bad weather, tape plastic protector sheet above that (transparencies work well). 4. Arrange in same pattern as the game board layout (next page). 7. Have fun! Materials List Points and Answers 40 sheets of paper (8.5” x 11”) Category: Birds Category: Mammals 1 poster size foam core board (20” x 40”) 10 20 30 40 50 10 20 30 40 50 Tape Category: Crawl, Hop, Swim & Grow Category: Endangered! Recovered! 10 20 30 40 50 10 20 30 40 50 10 transparencies/protector sheets (8.5” x 11”, cut in half) Questions/Answers bald eagle. peregrine falcon. whooping crane. California condor. brown pelican. alligator. desert tortoise. frogs. endangered and threatened mussels. This is the number of species are on the U.S. List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (as of 12/31/97). Florida manatee. Florida panther. gray wolf. tiger. rhinoceros. extinction. The Endangered Species Act. endangered. recovery. They cause species to become endangered. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 January 1998
  • 38. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Risky Critters! 50 40 50 50 50 40 40 40 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 20 10 10 10 10 Crawl, Hop, Swim & Grow Mammals Birds Endangered! Recovered! Game Board U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 January 1998
  • 39. Day 6: Why Are Endangered Species Important? How Can I Help? Theme The Importance and Conservation of Endangered Species. Purpose To communicate the importance of endangered species and discuss how we can conserve and recover threatened and endangered species. Key Talking Points The preamble to the 1973 ESA states that endangered species of fish, wildlife, and plants “are of esthetic, ecological, educational, historical, recreational, and scientific value to the Nation and its people.” In short, nearly all wildlife species, including threatened and endangered species, are valuable in many ways to society. Wildlife species have the potential to directly benefit humans in a number of ways…one good example is through the development of medicine. Nearly 40% of all medical prescriptions in the U.S. have been derived from nature or synthesized to mimic naturally occurring chemical compounds, most of which come from plants. Although scientists have examined over 250,000 known plant species for possible medicinal value, this represents only 2% of all plants! Every time a plant extinction occurs, we lose forever a potential cure to cancer, heart disease, or any other human disease. Discuss how students can help conserve threatened and endangered species using the US Fish and Wildlife publication “You and Your School.” Supporting Posters None. Activities Endangered Species Word Find Endangered Species CD Enclosed Reference Materials U.S. Fish and Wildlife “You and Your School” U.S. Fish and Wildlife “Why Save Species”
  • 40. Additional Internet Resources U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Page http://endangered.fws.gov Endangered Species in the Southeast http://southeast.fws.gov/es/
  • 41. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service You and Your School What you can do to help conserve rare, threatened, and endangered species and their habitats Awareness and Understanding— You and Your Community area, find out how you can help conserve it, and inform the citizens in your community about your adopted plant of animal with speeches, newspaper articles, brochures, buttons, signs, videos, etc. Sustainable Use of Earth’s Resources n Hold a school Arbor Day tree planting. n“Adopt” an endangered species native to your Habitat Restoration n Conduct a school energy audit. Invite local officials. Brainstorm ways the school could lower energy use. n Replant riverbanks, under supervision, with native plants to anchor the soil and provide wildlife habitat. n Challenge other schools in your community to an energy conservation contest. n Adopt a stream, wetland or watershed. nStart a school newspaper to tell others about Monitor water quality and the health of local plants and animals. Distribute your findings. n Establish a school energy committee. n Participate in river cleanups. n Conduct a waste audit at school and n Plant a garden on your school grounds to endangered species. identify materials that can be recycled or re-used. Read energy conservation tips during morning announcements. n Produce Public Service announcements about environmental issues you care about and distribute them to the media. nConduct a community awareness survey . Write a newspaper column for a local paper to educate members of the community about their environment. nSponsor an environmental seminar or debate for both students and the community . Topics could include endangered species, water quality, recycling, composting, and environmental alternatives to harmful practices. attract wildlife, birds, and butterflies. n Establish a school organic garden, and n Build homes for bats and birds, and have teach others the techniques you’ve learned. the project certified by National Wildlife Federation’s Backyard Wildlife Habitat program. nParticipate in an annual bird count. n Adopt an area of your school’s playground, and then develop a plan to improve it. endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) by Robert J. Savannah n Conduct a public awareness campaign on nIdentify causes of erosion. Develop and distribute a stream or watershed protection guide. the threats of non-native, invasive or exotic species. Under proper supervision, participate in native plant habitat restoration projects. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 January 1998
  • 42. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Why Save Species? Because protecting endangered species protects us. Protecting Endangered Species Helps Protect a Healthy Environment. Protecting Endangered Species Helps Sustain the Local Economy and Provides a Good Quality of Life. n A healthy environment for wildlife contributes to a healthy environment for people, today and tomorrow. nProtecting endangered species and biodiversity saves species that may become important sources of new drugs, medicines, or foods. nEndangered species are Nature’s “911”, an early warning system for pollution and environmental degradation that may someday affect human health. nEndangered species are linked to environmental quality (for example, endangered mussels are indicators of poor water quality). Protecting Endangered Species is a Fundamental American Value. n Stewardship for the land and wildlife is a part n States and localities with healthy environments attract residents and businesses interested in a good quality of life for their employees. of the American tradition, from President Theodore Roosevelt to the writings of Thoreau and Aldo Leopold. nProtecting endangered species saves a part of nHealthy environments sustain a variety of jobs (for example, commercial fishing, tourism, outdoor equipment and clothing. Loss of forests and degradation of rivers and streams causes job losses for fishers.) nUnhealthy environments cost money (for example, loss of wetlands can increase flooding and cost millions in flood losses). nAmericans spent $87.8 billion on fish and wildlife-related recreation in 1996. nEnvironmental regulations can help protect private property rights, because what your neighbor does on his or her property can affect your property . America’s natural legacy which we will leave for future generations to enjoy. n Major religious organizations have endorsed protecting endangered species because they believe in protecting divine creation. nAmericans never turn away from something that is worth doing, like saving endangered species, just because it might be tough. They are proud of saving the bald eagle and look forward to other successes. They do not like failures and many Americans regret losses of important parts of our natural heritage, like the extinction of the passenger pigeon. This attitude was summed up best by a child who wrote: “Why save endangered species? Because we can.” n Some localities celebrate their endangered species to attract tourist revenue (for example, the Texas Tropics Nature Festival in McAllen, TX, is estimated to bring in nearly half a million dollars to the local economy). n Look for local examples in your areas that illustrate how protective measures for endangered species have contributed to a healthy economy based on a healthy environment. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 endangered Knowlton’s cactus (Pediocactus knowltonii) by Robert J. Savannah January 1998
  • 43. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Endangered Species Word Find OK, Junior Fish and Wildlife Biologists, try and find all the words listed below. Warning: Words may be backwards, upside-down and diagonal in this word search! endangered green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) By Robert J. Savannah WORDS TO FIND: amphibians arachnids biodiversity birds clams mussels conifers conservation cycads endangered ferns fishes flowering plant habitat insects jeopardy lichens mammals recovery reptiles snails species threatened U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 January 1998
  • 44. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Endangered Species Word Find Puzzle Answer Key OK, Junior Fish and Wildlife Biologists, how did you do? Now, try to find a picture of each of the words listed below. Remember, you can always get on the Internet and check out our endangered species web page at <http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html>. We have lots of pictures on our web site for you to choose from! endangered green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) By Robert J. Savannah WORDS TO FIND: amphibians arachnids biodiversity birds clams mussels conifers conservation cycads endangered ferns fishes flowering plant habitat insects jeopardy lichens mammals recovery reptiles snails species threatened U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 January 1998
  • 45. Day 7: Mississippi Wildlife Success Stories Theme Wildlife success stories in Mississippi. Purpose To help students understand that species can be conserved with management. In this section, students will learn about wildlife species in Mississippi that were once threatened or endangered, but have been restored through wildlife management. Key Talking Points Threatened or endangered species aren’t necessarily doomed to extinction. Through careful and planned wildlife management, and public interest and support, threatened and endangered species may recover to a larger population size. To restore threatened and endangered species, wildlife managers must determine the reason for the species’ decline or potential risks for the species. For example, the use of the pesticide DDT, habitat loss, and illegal shooting once threatened Bald Eagles and many other birds. Thus, to restore Bald Eagle populations, biologists focused on these 3 factors. As a result, Bald Eagles were taken off of the “endangered” list in 1995 and downgraded to “threatened.” Although still on the threatened list, Bald Eagles continue their recovery across the U.S. See posters for specific details on Mississippi species that are considered success stories. Play the Project Wild Turtle Hurdles game to discuss factors that contribute to extinction and ways we can minimize those factors to conserve species. Supporting Posters Poster #11 American alligator Poster #12 Bald Eagle Poster #13 Peregrine Falcon Activities Project Wild Turtle Hurdles Endangered Species CD Enclosed Reference Materials U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service “Success Stories Made Possible by the ESA”
  • 46. Additional Internet Resources U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Page http://endangered.fws.gov Endangered Species in the Southeast http://southeast.fws.gov/es/
  • 47. alligator alligator.qxd 7/2/04 2:15 PM Page 1 American alligator SUCCESS S T O R Y Scientific name: Alligator mississippiensis | Listed as Endangered in 1967, delisted in 1987 diet USFWS description American alligators are carnivores (meat-eaters) and eat a variety of food items. Small alligators eat crayfish, frogs, insects, and mollusks. Larger alligators will eat birds, snakes, turtles, fish, and small mammals. Some very large alligators have been known to eat deer, pigs, or cattle. Kathy Jacobs The American alligator is an aquatic reptile that can grow to be 13 feet long and weigh more than 300 pounds. It is covered in gray to black scales on its back, legs, and head. Its stomach is lighter in color. habitat breeding Alligators are most commonly found in marshes and swamps, but can also be found in slow-moving rivers and streams, lakes, oxbows, and ponds. Some have even been found in coastal salt marshes. Adult alligators will construct dens with underwater entrances along the water’s edge. These dens will protect the alligators from bad weather. conservation and recovery From the 1800’s to the 1960’s, alligators were illegally killed for their hides. This nearly caused them to become extinct. Protection provided through the Endangered Species Act has helped their population to recover. There are now over one million American alligators in the United States. In some states alligators are so abundant that they are commercially harvested and farm-raised for their meat and hides. Currently, you can not hunt alligators in Mississippi, but future management may allow for a limited harvest of these animals. A female will lay between 30 and 70 eggs in a nest made of mud, leaves, and twigs. She will cover the eggs after she has laid them and protect the nest until they hatch 9 weeks later. The young hatchlings (baby alligators) will remain in the area of the nest for several months. range The temperature of the nest determines whether a baby alligator will be a male or female. funfacts American alligators can be found in many of the southeastern states, such as Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South and North Carolina, Texas, Arkansas, and Florida. In Mississippi, American alligators can be found in 55 counties. The highest number of alligators can be found along the Gulf Coast. Kathy Jacobs Poster 11 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status. USFWS
  • 48. bald eagle eagle.qxd 7/9/04 12:56 PM Page 1 Bald Eagle SUCCESS S T O R Y Scientific name: Haliaeetus leucocephalus | Listed as Endangered in 1967, reclassified as Threatened in 1995 breeding threats to survival normally lay two eggs. Bald Eagles Eggs will hatch in 34 to 36 days. Young Bald Eagles will be able to fly in another 80 to 90 days. USFWS description A huge, distinctive bird with a body length of 30 inches and a wingspan of more than 6 feet. The adult is black with a white head and tail. The feet and large bill are yellow. Young birds are dark colored with white spots and streaks on the underside. Young birds do not breed until they are 4 years old. habitat Bald Eagles live in many different habitats, but generally prefer to live near water. They are often found around reservoirs, lakes, along major rivers, and in coastal areas. They make nests in areas with mature trees near large bodies of water. diet This bird mainly eats fish. It will also eat small mammals, birds, and carrion. Primary threats include habitat loss and disturbance by humans. In the past, a chemical called DDT that was used to control mosquito populations caused the Bald Eagle population to decline. DDT caused eagles to produce thin, fragile eggs that were often crushed. conservation and recovery With the ban of DDT in 1972, this species has recovered dramatically, although it is not as abundant as it once was throughout its range. USFWS range Bald Eagles are found throughout North America, but generally occur in low numbers. Most Bald Eagles nest in the northern United States, Alaska, and Canada and spend the winter throughout the U.S. and in coastal Alaska. In Mississippi, Bald Eagles can be found along the Mississippi River and on or near other large bodies of water. USFWS USFWS Ken Hammond, USDA The bald eagle was officially adopted as the U.S. national symbol on June 20, 1782. funfacts Poster 12 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status. John Cassady
  • 49. peregrine falcon.qxd 7/7/04 12:02 PM Page 1 Peregrine Falcon SUCCESS S T O R Y Scientific name: Falco peregrinus Listed as Endangered in 1970, delisted in 1999 breeding conservation and recovery Peregrine Falcons normally lay 3 or 4 eggs. Eggs will hatch in 29 to 32 days. Young falcons will be able to fly in another 35 to 40 days. range DON GETTY description Peregrine Falcons can be 14 to 18 inches long. Females are larger than males. This bird has a 40-inch wingspan. Adults are easily identified by the dark “hood” on the head, undersides that are gray with dark bars, and long, pointed wings. Young birds look a lot like adults, but don’t have a dark hood on their heads and show streaked rather than barred underparts. habitat Peregrine Falcons live along mountain ranges, in river valleys, and along coastlines. They typically nest on cliffs or other tall structures, sometimes even on tall buildings. Most birds migrate through coastal areas, and they will travel across large expanses of ocean during migration. These birds are found throughout the world. In this part of the world, they can be found nesting in Mexico and throughout North America. Most of the birds that can be found in the United States will fly south of the U.S. to spend winter in warmer weather. In Mississippi, this bird can be found along the Gulf Coast as it migrates north or south. It may occasionally spend the winter on some of the offshore barrier islands along the coast. threats to survival Loss of habitat is the strongest threat to this species. In the past, a chemical called DDT that was used to control mosquito populations caused the number of Peregrine Falcons in the United States to decline. DDT caused birds to produce thin, fragile eggs that were often crushed. With the ban of DDT in 1972, the number of Peregrine Falcons has greatly increased. Scientists helped this species recover by breeding, raising, and releasing Peregrines into the wild, through a process known as “hacking.” Gerald and Buff Corsi, California Academy of Sciences When performing dives in the air, Peregrine Falcons can reach speeds of more than 200 miles per hour. funfacts diet Peregrine Falcons mainly eat other birds, most of which are killed in flight. They will occasionally eat small mammals, like mice or voles. USFWS USFWS Poster 13 | Endangered Species | 4H School Enrichment Module Series | MSU-ES | Mississippi State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation or group affiliation, age, disability, or veteran status.
  • 50. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Success Stories Made Possible by the ESA All of the plants and animals on the endangered species list got there because they were in serious trouble. The most common threat to all endangered species is loss of habitat. But since the enactment of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, nearly 40 percent of all the listed species have seen a measure of improvement, either through captive breeding, habitat rehabilitation, successful reintroduction or population increase. Here are a few species you may recognize which have been helped by the special protection of the Endangered Species Act: Aleutian Canada Goose Numbered between 200 and 300 when listed in 1967, the population today exceeds 7,900. Found in Alaska, California, Oregon and Washington, the species was reclassified from endangered to threatened in 1990. Brown Pelican The brown pelican is considered the first avian species to recover from the effects of DDT and other pesticides on its nesting success. In 1985, brown pelican populations on the Atlantic Coast of the U.S. (including Florida and Alabama) had recovered so that the species could be removed from the ESA protection in that part of its range. Gray Whale The eastern population of the Pacific gray whale has doubled since it was listed; the whale now supports a thriving whale tour business in Southern California and was declared fully recovered and removed from the endangered species list in 1994 by the National Marine Fisheries Service. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/r9endspp/endspp.html June 1998 Virginia Big-Eared Bat Bald Eagle Known population levels of the Virginia bigeared bat have increased tenfold since the bat’s listing in 1979, from 1,300 to more than 13,000 and population increases have remained steady. America’s national symbol was decimated by the ingestion of DDT, habitat loss, and illegal shooting. By 1967, only 417 nesting pairs remained. Today, there are more than 4,000 nesting pairs in the lower 48 states. In 1995, the Fish and Wildlife Service moved to reclassify the bald eagle from endangered to threatened throughout the lower 48 states. Protection from disturbance during migration, such as the gating of some caves, has improved the status of the bat, known to consume their own weight in insects in a single day. Gray Wolf The gray wolf population has increased since the species’ listing as endangered in 1967 for the lower 48 states, except of Minnesota. In 1995, 31 Canadian wolves were released into Yellowstone National Park, and in 1996 another 35 wolves were released into central Idaho. In 1997, the Fish and wildlife Service announced that since the introduced wolves were doing so well, no further introductions should be necessary. Greenback Cutthroat Trout Listed as endangered in 1967, the greenback cutthroat trout was reclassified as threatened in 1978. It has since been restored to more than 40 lakes and streams in Colorado. This species could be removed from the list by the year 2000. Black-Footed Ferret Once thought to be extinct, the black-footed ferret was rediscovered in 1981 near Wyoming. A successful captive breeding program has increased the population from 18 to more than 300. In 1991, a reintroduction program was launched in Wyoming, with later releases in Arizona, Montana, and South Dakota. Now, there are young born in the wild too! Small-whorled Pogonia Residential and commercial development have been the primary threats to this rare pogonia. However, since the plant’s listing, State and municipal conservation efforts and private landowner contributions have afforded permanent protection for the largest-known population of this plant, allowing it to be reclassified as threatened. endangered brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) by Robert Savannah January 1998
  • 51. Day 8: Wrap Up and Post-Test Theme Supporting Poster(s) Conclude the module and administer the post-test to all students. None. Purpose Activities Post-test. To answer final questions and measure learning via administration of the post-test. Special Instructions Please administer the post-test (enclosed). Once you have administered the test, please score the test using the attached key and report your scores at: http://msucares.com/wildfish/4hfieldstr eam/msem/teach.html. Enclosed Reference Materials Key for Post-test.
  • 52. Name: ____________________________ Date: ____________________________ Mississippi Endangered Species and Wildlife Success Stories Post-Test 1. The greatest threat to wildlife populations is the loss of habitat. a. True b. False 2. An endangered species is a plant or animal that may become extinct because there are so few of them. a. True b. False 3. The Endangered Species Act is: a. A movie that shows animals in trouble b. A law that protects endangered species c. None of the above 4. Mississippi Sandhill Cranes are found: a. All across the southeast b. Throughout Mississippi c. Only on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane Refuge in Jackson County, Mississippi 5. Since the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in 1620, about how many species of our Nation’s plants and animals have become extinct? a. 5 b. 25 c. 500 6. The American Alligator is now extinct throughout the United States. a. True b. False 7. An example of an endangered plant species in Mississippi is: a. Louisiana quillwort b. willow oak c. sugar maple
  • 53. 8. A species that is extinct a. Can be recovered by wildlife biologists b. No longer exists and can never recover c. None of the above 9. Threatened species are wildlife species that are: a. Already extinct b. In danger of becoming endangered c. In danger of becoming extinct 10. There is nothing we can do to help threatened and endangered species. a. True b. False
  • 54. Mississippi Endangered Species and Wildlife Success Stories Assessment Test KEY (correct answers are in bold) 1. The greatest threat to wildlife populations is the loss of habitat. a. True b. False 2. An endangered species is a plant or animal that may become extinct because there are so few of them. a. True b. False 3. The Endangered Species Act is: a. A movie that shows animals in trouble b. A law that protects endangered species c. None of the above 4. Mississippi Sandhill Cranes are found: a. All across the southeast b. Throughout Mississippi c. Only on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane Refuge in Jackson County, Mississippi 5. Since the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in 1620, about how many species of our Nation’s plants and animals have become extinct? a. 5 b. 25 c. 500 6. The American Alligator is now extinct throughout the United States. a. True b. False 7. An example of an endangered plant species in Mississippi is: a. Louisiana quillwort b. willow oak c. sugar maple
  • 55. 8. A species that is extinct a. Can be recovered by wildlife biologists b. No longer exists and can never recover c. None of the above 9. Threatened species are wildlife species that are: a. Already extinct b. In danger of becoming endangered c. In danger of becoming extinct 10. There is nothing we can do to help threatened and endangered species. a. True b. False
  • 56. Appendix Additional Resources Web Resources Endangered Species Coloring Book -- http://www.epa.gov/espp/coloring/ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------BATS How to build a bat house -- http://www.batcon.org/bhra/economyhouse.html http://www.batconservation.org/content/bathouse/buildyourown.htm Crossword puzzle -- http://www.batcon.org/puzzleb.html Printable bat flip book -- http://www.cccoe.k12.ca.us/bats/flip.html Word search -- http://members.aol.com/bats4kids2/wordsearch1.htm Bat echolation game -- http://members.aol.com/bats4kids/echolocation.htm Story of Echo the Bat -- http://imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/intro/story.html In Search of Stellaluna’s Family (a special interactive story to teach kids about bats) http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/chavez/batquest/batquest.html ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------BALD EAGLE Coloring book page -- http://dep.state.ct.us/burnatr/wildlife/kids/eaglcol.htm http://www.pgc.state.pa.us/education/kids/color_book/coloreagle.htm Baby eaglets at the San Francisco zoo (photos and videos) -http://www.cnn.com/EARTH/9703/22/baby.eagle/index.html Coloring book, color online -http://www.panther.state.fl.us/games/coloring/eagle.html Eaglekids (games, crafts, information, newsletters, etc.) -http://www.eaglekids.com/ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------GOPHER TORTOISE More in-depth information with pictures -- http://www.nbbd.com/godo/ef/gtortoise/
  • 57. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------BLACK BEAR Kids page (black bear slide shows, sounds) -http://www.bear.org/Kids/KA_Home.html ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------AMERICAN ALLIGATOR PBS Difference between alligators and crocodiles (interactive) -http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/fun/gators_flash.html ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------PEREGRINE FALCON New Hampshire Audubon Society’s peregrine cam (web cam with archived videos of good footage) -- http://www.nhaudubon.org/research/pcam.htm Meet the peregrine falcon (colorful page with photos and facts on the falcon) -http://dep.state.ct.us/burnatr/wildlife/kids/kppfalc.htm Page with live camera on a falcon nest, photos, more information and screensavers http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/falcon/ Regina Peregrine Falcon Project (a live web cam on a captive falcon) -http://falcon.unibase.com/ Peregrine Falcon Cam (a live web cam on a nest in Ohio) -http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/wildlife/resources/falcon/columbus/falcons.html Other Resources Project Wild Georgia Spencer Museum of Natural Science Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks 2148 Riverside Drive Jackson, MS 39202 601-354-7303
  • 58. List of Endangered Species by Mississippi County KEY TO CODES E = Endangered Species T = Threatened Species C = Candidate Species CH = Critical Habitat Designated (P) = Historical Record and/or Possible Occurrence in County PE = Proposed Endangered PT = Proposed Threatened Note: Bald eagle is proposed to be delisted & Critical Habitat is proposed for Piping Plover on barrier islands and in certain areas of coastal counties. STATEWIDE E - Fat pocketbook, Potamilus capax has been found in the lower Mississippi River and may occur in side channels. Adams T - Louisiana black bear Ursus americanus luteolus T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (P) Amite E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus Attala T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus Bolivar E - Pondberry Lindera melissifolia E - Least tern, Sterna antillarum T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (P) Chickasaw T - Price's potato bean Apios priceana (P) Claiborne T - Bayou darter Etheostoma rubrum T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (P) Clarke T - Yellowblotched map turtle - Graptemys flavimaculata T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) Clay T - Price's potato bean Apios priceana
  • 59. Coahoma E - Least tern, Sterna antillarum E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (P) Copiah T - Bayou darter Etheostoma rubrum T - Ringed map turtle Graptemys oculifera T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi Covington T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) DeSoto E - Least tern, Sterna antillarum E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (P) Forrest E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Yellowblotched map turtle - Graptemys flavimaculata T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi (P) E - Louisiana quillwort Isoetes louisianensis C - Black pine snake Pituophis melanoleucus ssp. lodingi C- Pearl darter Percina aurora (Pascagoula River System) Franklin E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus George E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Yellow-blotched map turtle Graptemys flavimaculata T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi (P) T - Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi E - Louisiana quillwort Isoetes louisianensis (P) C - Black pine snake Pituophis melanoleucus ssp. lodingi C- Pearl darter Percina aurora (Pascagoula River System) Greene E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Yellow-blotched map turtle Graptemys flavimaculata T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi (P)
  • 60. T - Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi E - Louisiana quillwort Isoetes louisianensis Grenada T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Hancock E - Brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Piping Plover Charadrius melodus T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus E - Kemp's ridley Lepidochelys kempii T - Green turtle Chelonia mydas (P) T - Loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta T - Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi E - Louisiana quillwort Isoetes louisianensis (P) T - Inflatted heelsplitter Potamilus inflatus Harrison E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus T - Eastern indigo snake Drymarchon corais couperi (P) E - Brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Piping Plover Charadrius melodus E - Kemp's ridley Lepidochelys kempii T - Green turtle Chelonia mydas (P) T - Loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta T - Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi E - Louisiana quillwort Isoetes louisianensis PE - Mississippi gopher frog (proposal under review) C - Black pine snake Pituophis melanoleucus ssp. lodingi Hinds T - Bayou darter Etheostoma rubrum T - Ringed map turtle Graptemys oculifera T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) T - Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi Holmes T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) Humphreys T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) Issaquena T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus
  • 61. E - Least tern, Sterna antillarum E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (P) Itawamba E -Black clubshell (Curtus' mussel) Pleurobema curtum E - Southern combshell (Penitent shell mussel) Epioblasma penita E - Heavy Pigtoe (Judge Tait's mussel) Pleurobema taitianum E - Southern clubshell Pleurobema decisum T - Orange-nacre mucket Lampsilis perovalis E - Ovate clubshell Pleurobema perovatum T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Jackson E - Brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis E - Mississippi sandhill crane Grus canadensis pulla (CH) T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Yellow-blotched map turtle Graptemys flavimaculata T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi (P) T - Piping Plover Charadrius melodus T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus E - Kemp's ridley Lepidochelys kempii T - Loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta T - Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi E - Louisiana quillwort Isoetes louisianensis C- Pearl darter Percina aurora (Pascagoula River System) Jasper E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) Jefferson T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus E - Fat pocketbook mussel Potamilus capax E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (P) Jefferson Davis T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) Jones E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Yellow-blotched map turtle Graptemys flavimaculata T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) T - Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi (P) E - Louisiana quillwort Isoetes louisianensis C - Black pine snake Pituophis melanoleucus ssp. lodingi C- Pearl darter Percina aurora (Pascagoula River System)
  • 62. Kemper T- Price's potato bean Apios priceana Lafayette T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Lamar T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) Lauderdale T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Lawrence T - Ringed map turtle Graptemys oculifera T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi Leake T - Ringed map turtle Graptemys oculifera T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) Lee T - Price's potato bean Apios priceana Lowndes E - Heavy Pigtoe (Judge Tait's mussel) Pleurobema taitianum E - Southern combshell (Penitent shell mussel) Pleurobema penita T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Alabama moccasinshell Medionidus acutissimus E - Southern clubshell Pleurobema decisum T - Orange-nacre mucket Lampsilis perovalis T - Ovate clubshell Pleurobema perovatum Madison T - Ringed map turtle Graptemys oculifera T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalu Marion T - Ringed map turtle Graptemys oculifera T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi T - Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi C - Black pine snake Pituophis melanoleucus ssp. lodingi Monroe E - Black combshell (Curtus' mussel) Pleurobema curtum E - Southern combshell (Penitent shell mussel) Epioblasma penita
  • 63. E - Heavy Pigtoe (Judge Tait's mussel) Pleurobema taitianum E - Southern clubshell Pleurobema decisum T - Orange-nacre mucket Lampsilis perovalis T - Alabama moccasinshell Medionidus acutissimus E - Ovate clubshell Pleurobema perovatum T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Neshoba T - Ringed map turtle Graptemys oculifera T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) Newton T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) Noxubee E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Oktibbeha E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Price's potato bean Apios priceana T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Panola T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Pearl River T - Ringed map turtle Graptemys oculifera T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Inflated heelsplitter Potamilus inflatus T - Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi E - Louisiana quillwort Isoetes louisianensis (P) C - Black pine snake Pituophis melanoleucus ssp. lodingi Perry E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Yellow-blotched map turtle - Graptemys favimaculata T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi (P) E - Louisiana quillwort Isoetes louisianensis E - Gray bat Myotis grisescens (P) C - Black pine snake Pituophis melanoleucus ssp. lodingi C - Camp Shelby burrowing crayfish Fallicambarus gordoni C- Pearl darter Percina aurora (Pascagoula River System) Pike T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P)
  • 64. Rankin T - Ringed sawback turtle Graptemys oculifera T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus T - Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi Scott E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Ringed map turtle Graptemys oculifera T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) Sharkey T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) E - Pondberry Lindera melissifolia E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus Simpson T - Ringed map turtle Graptemys oculiferi T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) T - Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrhynchus desotoi Smith E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) Stone E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Eastern indigo snake Drymarchon corais couperi (P) T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Yellow-blotched map turtle, Graptemys flavimaculata E - Louisiana quillwort Isoetes louisianensis C - Black pine snake Pituophis melanoleucus ssp. lodingi Sunflower E - Pondberry Lindera melissifolia T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Tallahatchie E - Pondberry Lindera melissifolia T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Tate T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Tishomingo T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus E - Gray bat Myotis grisescens E - Indiana bat Myotis sodalis
  • 65. Tunica E - Least tern, Sterna antillarum T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (P) Walthall T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) Warren T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus E - Least tern, Sterna antillarum E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (P) Washington T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus E - Least tern, Sterna antillarum T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (P) Wayne E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus T - Yellowblotched map turtle - Graptemys flavimaculata T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus (P) T - Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi (P) E - Gray bat Myotis grisescens E - Louisiana quillwort Isoetes louisianensis C - Black pine snake Pituophis melanoleucus ssp. lodingi Wilkinson E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (P) Winston E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus Yalobusha T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus E - Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis Yazoo T - Louisiana black bear Ursus a. luteolus T - Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus E - Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus (P)
  • 66. Wild Endangered Mississippi “Gators, Taters and Turtles ?” The Mississippi Museum of Natural Science is now offering FREE educational outreach programs to the northeast region of our state. Learn how you and your students can become more informed and involved with the threatened & endangered species in your area. If you are interested, please contact the Museum to schedule a program at your school. Wild Mississippi is closer than you think……….don’t let this opportunity slip away. Program Offers • • • • Objectives Live wild animals. Interactive curriculum based programming. Pre-site and post-site information. Current, thought provoking materials. Scheduling Information • • • For 4th, 6th, 8th and high school students. Up to 4 classroom programs a day, per school. Programs last 45 minutes to 1 hour. Students will be able to: • Identify, compare, and contrast levels of organization in living systems. • Examine factors of populations as they relate to the formation of ecosystems. • Explore the diversity and adaptations of organisms. • Locate regional threatened and endangered species on a geographic map and explore the probabilities of their future. • Become more conscious stewards of our world by discussing the positive and negative effects humans have on the environment. Contact: John DeFillipo Mississippi Museum of Natural Science 2148 Riverside Dr. Jackson, MS 39202 Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks Phone 601-354-7303 Fax 601-354-7227 or e-mail John at lizardking700@yahoo.com