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Object-oriented analysis and design(OOAD) UML Slides. for more slides refer www.scmGalaxy.com.

Object-oriented analysis and design(OOAD) UML Slides. for more slides refer www.scmGalaxy.com.

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    Ooa 1 Post Ooa 1 Post Presentation Transcript

    • Analysis Phase - 1 Look DEEP in Mans eye to analyze him
    • Analysis phase - Topics:
      • Building a conceptual Model
          • Conceptual model - Adding Attributes
          • Conceptual model - Adding Associations
      • Recording terms in the glossary
      • System Behavior - System Sequence Diagrams
      • System Behavior - Contracts
    • BUILDING A CONCEPTUAL MODEL
      • Identify concepts related to the current development cycle requirements.
      • Infer association on Need - to - know basis and name them.
      • Create an initial conceptual model.
      • Infer & add multiplicity and role between concepts
      • Distinguish between correct and incorrect attributes.
      • Add specification concepts, when appropriate.
      • Compare and contrast the terms concept, interface and class .
      Objectives
    • Introduction
      • Identifying a rich set of objects or concepts is at the heart of object – oriented analysis
      • The following two session expand on conceptual modeling skills – looking at attributes and associations
    • Activities and Dependencies
      • One of the early major activities within a development cycle is the creation a conceptual model for the use cases of the current cycle.
      • Its creation is dependent on having use cases from which concepts (objects) can be identified.
      • The creation may not be linear; for example, the conceptual model may be made in parallel to the development of the use cases.
    • Conceptual Models
      • In the UML, a conceptual model is illustrated with a set of static structure diagrams in which no operations are defined.
      • The term conceptual model has the advantage of strongly emphasizing a focus on domain concepts , not software entities .
      • It may show:
        • concepts
        • associations between concepts
        • attributes of concepts
    • Understanding Domain Vocabulary
      • Our goal here is to create a conceptual model of interesting or meaningful concepts in the domain under consideration.
      • Conceptual model aids in clarifying the terminology or vocabulary of the domain.
      • It can be viewed as a model that communicates (to interested parties such as developers) what the important terms are, and how they are related.
    • Conceptual Models are not Models of Software Designs
      • No responsibilities or methods are assigned in conceptual model
      • Conceptual model shows the real world concepts ,no software artifacts or classes are part of it.
      • Most of the thing in the conceptual model should come from domain only .
    • Conceptual Models and Decomposition
      • Software problems can be complex :
      • “ Decomposition – divide and conquer” – is a common strategy to deal with this complexity by division of the problem space into comprehensible units.
      • Object-oriented analysis the dimension of decomposition is fundamentally by concepts
    • Strategies to Identify Concepts
      • The central task is therefore to identify concepts :
          • Two strategies are presented
          • 1. Finding Concepts with the
          • “ Concept Category List”
          • 2. Finding concepts with Noun
          • “ Phrase Identification”
    • Useful guideline in identifying concepts :
      • The conceptual model should be detailed
      • Do not exclude a concept simply because the requirements do not indicate any obvious need to remember information about it, or because the concepts, have a purely behavioral role in the domain instead of an information role.
      • It is better to overspecify a conceptual model with lots of fine-grained concepts, than to underspecify it
      • It is common to miss concepts during the initial identification phase, and to discover them later during the consideration of attributes or associations, or during the design phase.
    • Drawbacks of Noun Phrase Identification.
      • A weakness of this approach is the imprecision of natural language; different noun phrases may represent the same concept or attribute, among other ambiguities.
      • Nevertheless, it is recommended in combination with the Concept Category List technique.
    • Concept Category List
    • Finding concepts with noun Phrase identification Some of these are candidate concepts and some are attributes of these concepts
    • Candidate Concepts for the POST Domain
      • From the Concept Category List and noun-phrase analysis, we generate a list of candidate concept for the POST application
      Customer Cashier Manager Store POST ProductSpecification ProductCatalog Item Sale SaleLineItem UML notation
    • CONCEPTUAL MODEL ADDING ATTRIBUTES Objectives
      • Identify attributes in a conceptual model.
      • Distinguish between correct and incorrect attributes.
      Attributes
      • An attribute is a logical data value of an object
      • Attributes are shown in the second section of the concept box
      UML Figure: Concept and attributes
    • Attributes…..
      • Other attributes that are not obvious and apparent may be identified later.
      • This is acceptable during the design and construction phases the remaining attributes will be discovered and added.
    • CONCEPTUAL MODEL ADDING ASSOCIATIONS Objectives :
      • Inferring associations between concepts
      • Distinguish between need – to – know and comprehension – only associations
    • Associations : An association is a relationship between concepts that indicates some meaningful and interesting connection In the UML they are described as “structural relationships between objects of different types
    • Naming Associations :
      • Name an association based on a
      • TypeName – VerbPhrase-TypeName
      • format where the verb phrase creates a sequence that is readable and meaningful in the model context.
      • Association names should start
      • with a capital letter.
      • Follow left to right
      • Top to bottom convention
      • A verb phrase should be constructed with hyphens.
    • Roles:
      • Each end of an association is called a role.
      • Roles may have:
          • name
          • multiplicity expression
          • navigability
      • Multiplicity is investigated now, but the other two features are discussed during design.
    • Multiplicity
      • Multiplicity defines how many instances of a type A can be associated with one instance of a type B, at a particular moment in time
      • Multiplicity value is context
      • dependent.
      Multiplicity at end of association * 1…* 1...40 5 3,5,8 zero or more; “ many” one or more one to forty exactly five exactly three, five or eight
    • Conceptual model: POST