Facilities design, décor and cleaning [compatibility mode]
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Facilities design, décor and cleaning [compatibility mode]

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Facilities design, décor and cleaning [compatibility mode] Facilities design, décor and cleaning [compatibility mode] Presentation Transcript

  • Facilities Design, Décor and Cleaning Design and Environment Chapter 7 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 1
  • Recap of the earlier session • Enlist methods to maintain gas powered equipment and metering? • What are requirements for steam generation equipment? • What is hard water and what methods are used to soften it? • How does one manage drainage problems? • List consideration while choosing plumbing fixtures 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 2
  • Scope • • • • • • Design: Planning an effective dining area Selecting a designer. Trends in design and space requirements. Décor: Creating the right environment. Cleaning: Exterior, Interior, Dining area cleaning program, Cleaning Schedule and procedures. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 3
  • Requisites for Design….1 • Taking the Guests perspective into consideration. • Noise levels reduction, Lighting, Color coordination, use of space. • Follow all safety norms as regulated by the government like emergency lighting, exits, maximum number of occupants in Public areas. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 4
  • Requisites for Design….2 • Eliminating guest doubts regarding number of diners. • To begin with is the CONCEPT. • Followed by the vision. • Space required should be reserved on plan in advance. • Most restaurant designers short change kitchen space in favor of dining space. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 5
  • Requisites for Design….3 • Assessment of the competition. • Genuine and not a phony experience. • Knowing the menu, colors in the food and the flavors rhyming with the theme. • Schematic design should be worked out in money and time frame well in advance before and changes in design may vary the concept. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 6
  • Considerations in Planning an Effective Dining area…1 1. Guest Needs and Expectations. 2. Flexibility in floor and space management. 3. Dining areas have the proper appeal and ambience. 4. A max return on investment in space is realized. 5. Space layout should be efficient for guests and staff 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 7
  • Considerations in Planning an Effective Dining area…2 6. Simplified procedures for performing required tasks are possible. 7. Dining areas adhere to food safety, cleaning and maintenance standards. 8. Dining areas lend themselves to low maintenance costs. 9. Dining areas are energy efficient. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 8
  • Planning a dining Area..1 • The Planning team and the intent. • Headed by an architect supported by Interior decorator or a food and beverage facility consultant. • Market analysis and fitting the restaurants profile into Low Check average, Medium check average or High Check Average. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 9
  • Planning a dining Area..2 • Market Analysis: • A detailed study of potential guests, wants, needs and expectations. • Take the final pictures of layouts, table chairs furniture to some up market potential guests for their selection and approval as a part of a survey. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 10
  • Planning a dining Area..3 • Feasibility study is a detailed estimate of the operations design being cost effective. • Using online resources of equipment design for upholstery, furniture fixtures, wall paper and carpets. • www.virtualseating.com • Feed back is one method which suggests change in design. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 11
  • Planning a dining Area..4 • The Planning team lists down the activities and calculates the space involved in the smooth flow of staff and guests. • The team presents a cost of furniture's, fixtures using space requirement estimates. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 12
  • Planning a dining Area..5 • Study and modify plans and layout designs. • Present schematic blueprints and prepare specifications to select suppliers and contractors 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 13
  • Selecting a designer • Assess credentials of several individuals representing design firms. • Membership in the American society of Interior designers. • Education. Contacts. • Design fees. Portfolio • Budgets First Impressions. • Experience. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 14
  • Trends in Design • Trends are changes in shape, design, Color and effect in our eyes. • Trends should be in line with contemporary. • Trends should be eye appealing and complimenting. • Trends personify the theme and are sometimes used as a marketing tool. • Trends have a lasting effect on the food and beverage establishments. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 15
  • Trends in Design • • • • • Feeling of Home. Entertainment. Coupled areas. Small operations. Accommodating solo guests. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 16
  • Determining Space requirements…1 • Begins with Seating required, Meals to prepare and serve plus estimating Income with Profitability. • Estimates are based on historical data and information available from similar setups. • Space management starts with meal hours and accommodating number of diners within the specifics of time. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 17
  • Range of Space in Sq.Ft as dining space Per Person Facility Space in Square Feet Space in Square Meters Table Service 12-18 1.1-1.7 Counter Service 16-20 1.5-1.9 Booth Service 12-16 1.1-1.5 Cafeteria Service 12-16 1.1-1.5 Banquet Service 10-12 0.9-1.1 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 18
  • Determining Space requirements…2 • Lodging properties determine space requirements in F&B area using estimated occupancy. • The local community average diners in a meal hour is also taken into consideration using industry averages and segregating types of guests. • On an average 15-16 Sq.feet for 1.4-1.5 Sq Meters are required per for casual dining. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 19
  • Determining Space requirements…3 • Fine dining is designed at 20 Square feet or 1.9 Square Meters. Per seat. • Extra space allotted for extended service tableside works out to 22-24 Square feet. • Bars are recommended to have 20 square feet per person as area allotted. • Government regulations dictate space rules for categories of restaurants, and plans need approval sanctions prior. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 20
  • Traffic Flow • Traffic flow refers to the movement of Staff, Guests, Product, Supplies and refuse thru an operation. • The raw sketches are usually made a the stage of planning and are never to scale. • The highlight areas like entrance, Hostess desk, Side stations, Public foyer, Lounge, restrooms, Salad Bar, Main dining area, Banquet room, Service, Bar, Corridor, Food production area, Receiving and storage area. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 21
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  • Features of a Preliminary Drawing of the Service area 1. Entrance or Entrances. 2. Fire Exits or Emergency exit. 3. Lounge 4. Public Foyer. 5. Dining Room. 6. Side Stations. 7. Salad Bar 26/11/2013 1. Food Production area. 2. Banquet Rooms. 3. Receiving Prod area 4. Hosts reservations. 5. Coat Hangars. 6. Service Bar. BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 27
  • Features of the Production Area 1. Receiving Area. 2. Soiled Dish Collection area. 3. Dish washing area. 4. Stores. 5. Pantry and dispense area. 6. MEP and Assembly section. 7. Garbage disposal 26/11/2013 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Main Line. Placement of Range. Placement of Chillers. Placement of Oven. Placement of other cooking equipment. 6. Built In sinks. 7. Staff Changing and Rest rooms. BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 28
  • Designing space for Refuse Collection….1 • Planning the Containers to be insect proof and rodent proof. • Leak proof and lined by plastic bags. • Separate garbage containers should be provided for types of garbage which needs segregation. • Should be stored on a rack at least 46 cms above the ground. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 29
  • Designing space for Refuse Collection….2 • Containers should be cleaned regularly. • Use degradable plastic bags. • The bins must have solid lids and preferable be foot operated. • Many establishments use garbage compactors to reduce solid waste. • Nowadays waste reduction system reduces the volume of refuse 8 to 1. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 30
  • Designing space for Refuse Collection….3 • Composting is another form of waste reduction and reuse. • Composting systems use 60-80% bio degradable waste for processing. • QSR’s are known to produce high volumes of waste especially paper, Plastic and Poly styrene’s. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 31
  • Other Design Considerations • Food Safety and Design: 1. Locating the hand wash sinks using logic. 2. The Planning of the dish washing and Pot washing areas should be located in an area where the work flow should end. 3. Reducing contact of Raw and finished food, the contact of raw with raw food and Garbage with Raw, finished or surfaces. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 32
  • Other Design Considerations..1 • Sustainable Design: 1. Using earth’s resources(Energy, material and water) in such a way that it will not diminish the resources permanently and conversely resources are replenished and preserved for the time to come. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 33
  • Other Design Considerations..2 • Examples of Sustainability: 1. Using recycled water for construction and irrigation. 2. Using recycled plastic. 3. Using solar energy for centralized heating. 4. Using recycled metal and Paper. 5. Getting a LEED certification. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 34
  • Other Design Considerations..3 1. Some states and localities give a tax break to operations that use ENERGY STAR equipment. 2. Changing from traditional fluorescent light bulbs. 3. Using stabilizers to control and regulate the supply of power thus increasing the life span of electrical equipment. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 35
  • Décor: Creating the right environment • The décor should correspond the theme and compliment the menu. • Use of stainless steel and glass will contradict the Early American theme. • Use of heavy wooden furniture would be appropriate with its design. • Using appropriate uniforms. • Mexican themes are most colorful of all. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 36
  • Décor: Creating the right environment other concerns • • • • • • Color Carpet Wall Coverings Decorations Lighting Ventilation 26/11/2013 • • • • Furniture Exterior Sound. Music BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 37
  • Use of Color • Colors have a profound effect on the atmosphere of dining spaces. • Colors directly have a direct effect on the mood of the diners. • Colors depend on their light source because, as you know, the same color can look completely different when seen under different types or intensities of light. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 38
  • Use of Color • Color can be used to convey a theme, a style, a geographic region, a way of life, or even a climate. • Color psychology is the study of color’s impact on people’s moods and buying habits, based on the principle that certain colors evoke certain feelings. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 39
  • Use of Color • Warm colors—orange and yellow tones, such as peach and terra cotta are considered inviting; white denotes cleanliness and purity; black is sophisticated and dramatic. • Use light tones and cool colors to make small spaces look larger. • Use darker tones and warm colors to “shrink” rooms, creating a greater sense of intimacy in a large space. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 40
  • Use of Color • Dark colors also can be used to mask structural features, such as ductwork, that may otherwise interfere with the design of a room. • Bright, primary colors can be combined in contrasting combinations for a super modern feel. • Think bright blue or lime green and white, or black and red. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 41
  • Use of Color • Muted colors have a soothing effect on a room. If more than one color is used for walls, one must be dominant and the other subordinate. • Tabletops, chairs, and any other surfaces can be the sources of important accents to the color palette. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 42
  • Use of Artwork(Murals) • What you choose to put there will add personality and flair to your public areas. • A mural is a wall-size painting, often created directly on the wall itself. • A mural can add sophistication. It can be wild, vibrant, and ultramodern, or soft and subdued. • 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 43
  • Use of Artwork(Murals) • A mural can be an impressive conversation piece, but if not properly planned and professionally painted, it can be distracting and downright annoying instead of mood enhancing. • A less permanent and less expensive way to add color to your dining area is to display the work of local artists, galleries, or art dealers. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 44
  • Use of Artwork(Murals) • As with purchasing a mural, when selling the works of others, it’s a good idea to have a short, basic contract signed by both you and the artist or gallery representative. • Finally, when thinking about artwork, don’t forget the restrooms. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 45
  • Kitchen Lighting and Color • The idea here is to reduce employees’ eyestrain by minimizing glare while making sure light levels are bright enough to allow a safe working environment Planners must consider: 1. Square footage of the area/ Ceiling height. 2. Contrast and colors of the products being processed at the workstation. 3. Colors of the surrounding walls 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 46
  • Back of the house lighting • A back-of-the-house lighting system is usually fluorescent, with shields on the fixtures to protect food and workers from falling glass in case a bulb should break. • Fluorescent fixtures may be placed parallel to workers’ lines of sight, as this results in less glare. In storage areas light fixtures should be located over the centers of the aisles for maximum safety. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 47
  • Back of the house lighting • The Illuminating Engineering Society recommends a light intensity of at least 30 foot candles throughout the restaurant, and 70 foot-candles at so-called points of inspection, such as pass windows and garnishing areas, where the food gets a close look before being served. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 48
  • Uses of the Carpet • Floor coverings have a major impact on noise. If yours is carpeted, choose a carpet with high pile. It will be more expensive to purchase and maintain, but it won’t wear as readily as cheaper carpets. • The source including carpets as an item of popularity is cyclic trend against hard floor. • The basic need for a carpet was to give it a feeling of eastern grandeur. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 49
  • Uses of the Carpet • Carpets served many purposes from deadening of noise, to change in floor feel effect of bourgeoisie and color variation and pattern. • It was considered safe particularly from accidents like slips, trips and falls. • A lower risk of tableware being broken. • The preference of a carpet depends on its wear ability. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 50
  • Uses of the Carpet • Woven cut pile construction is greatly preferred its better than the loop pile construction. • Besides it is available in many color combinations. • Easy to clean and Vacuum and has greater durability. • Designs less expensive are simply printed upon. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 51
  • Uses of the Carpet • Inexpensive designs wear out in a threading fashion and although the carpet may appear new becomes inacceptable to displayed and needs immediate replacement. • Although most carpets have bio degradable material. The Health Safety and Environment systems have discouraged its use because of dust accumulation and infrequent cleaning schedules. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 52
  • Use of Wall Coverings • Choosing a wall covering should be synonymous with the theme portrayed. • Painted walls are the least expensive. • The trend is to use VOC volatile organic compound paint. • It should be washable. • Some times paints are applied with faux finish to mimic a countertop of tile finish. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 53
  • Use of Wall Coverings • Vinyl wallpaper is easy to clean. Its also durable than fabric wall paper which is more attractive. • A modern method is to use wood and Bamboo along with sustainable movement. Laminates of metal or plastic, Tiles another option which is durable and easy to maintain. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 54
  • Use of decorations • The following decorations may be used as required by the establishment. • Pictures and wall hangings. • Props and Flower pots. • Copper cooking utensils. • Artifacts and antiquities. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 55
  • Use of decorations Assignment • • • • • • Nautical theme seafood restaurant. Mughal theme. Wild west theme. Coronation theme. The Howard Carters restaurant. Oriental theme. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 56
  • Lighting • There are 3 basic types of artificial lighting: • Light-emitting diodes (commonly known as LEDs). • Incandescent lamps, and electric discharge lamps. • The fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) common in foodservice use are types of electric discharge lamps 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 57
  • Incandescent lighting…1 • Traditional light bulb is actually an incandescent lamp • It is a filament, encased in a sealed glass bulb. Electricity flows into the filament through the base of the bulb, and the glass is usually coated to diffuse the light. • Most light bulbs have a relatively short life (up to 2000 hours). 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 58
  • Incandescent lighting…2 • If they are used at a higher voltage than originally intended, their lives are even shorter. (The suggested voltage is usually stamped right on top of the bulb.) • They also have rather poor efficiency (only 15 to 20 lumens per watt), which means they give off heat. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 59
  • Incandescent lighting…3 • Spotlights • Floodlights • Elliptical reflector (ER) lamps 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 60
  • Electric Discharge Lamp • The electric discharge lamp is one that generates light by passing an electric arc through a space filled with a special mixture of gases. That’s why you’ll sometimes hear them called gaseous discharge lamps. • Fluorescent /Mercury vapor Halide or halogen/ High- and low-pressure sodium 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 61
  • Electric Discharge Lamp Features • Unlike the incandescent lamp, the electric discharge lamp cannot operate directly by threading or screwing it into a fixture. • An additional piece of equipment, called a ballast, is required. • The ballast is a current-limiting device that acts as a starting mechanism. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 62
  • Electric Discharge Lamp Features and Types…1 • There are two types of ballasts: the magnetic ballast and the electronic ballast. • Electronic ballasts cost 60 to 70 percent more than magnetic ones, but the additional expense buys you a ballast that is more energy efficient. • Electronic ballasts can be fitted with dimmers magnetic ballasts do not have that feature. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 63
  • Electric Discharge Lamp Features and Types…2 • Both magnetic and electronic ballasts may generate harmonics, a distortion of power frequency that can create electromagnetic interference on power circuit with sensitive electronic equipment, such as computerized cash registers or order-taking systems. • Ballasts even have total harmonic distortion (THD) ratings—the lower the percentage 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 64
  • Electric Discharge Lamp Features and Types…3 • Fluorescent lamps are the most common form of electric discharge lamp used in the hospitality industry. • Unlike an incandescent bulb’s 2000 hours of life and 15 to 20 lumens per watt, the fluorescent tube will last from 7000 to 20,000 hours, with an efficiency of 40 to 80 lumens per watt. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 65
  • Electric Discharge Lamp Features and Types…4 • Most fluorescent tube-shaped bulbs come in three standard sizes: 24-inch,48-inch, and 64-inch. • However, there are many different sizes of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), which feature smaller-diameter tubes bent into twin tubes, quad tubes, or even circular shapes. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 66
  • Light output of incandescent and fluorescent bulbs. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 67
  • Disadvantages of CFL’s • Cannot be fixed with Dimmers. • Contain small amounts of Mercury and disposal is hazardous. • Most people consider CFL’s to be high intensity and too bright. • Cold weather sensitive and lose on life. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 68
  • Students Assignments • The E Lamp. • Rare Earth Coating Bulbs. • Compact Halogen Lamp. • Mercury Vapor Lamps(High Intensity discharge) 26/11/2013 • High-output (HO) fluorescents. • Very-high-output (VHO) fluorescents. • Black lights. • Teflon-coated incandescent. • Controlling Light levels using natural light. BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 69
  • LED features • Features of LED 1. Simple Semi Conductor. 2. Microchip called diode. 3. Light bulb made of plastic. 4. They are made to provide illumination within a periphery. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 70
  • Lighting….1 1. Which is never seen directly and what is seen is as a reflection. 2. Correct lighting enhances the mood. 3. When lighting works not much attention is paid to it but when it doesn't everyone notices. 4. QSR’s are brightly lit for quick movement of customers. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 71
  • Lighting…2 5. An intimate eatery requires low level lighting as guests are in a laid back mood and romantic. 6. Multi-Purpose restaurants install dimmers. 7. Light Levels may vary in a dining room known as transition lighting in the same establishment. 8. Incandescent light has its best effect on food. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 72
  • Lighting…3 • Intrusive lighting is best suited for parking lots and darker areas. • Direct and Indirect light are most suited in their use in the Food Service enterprise. • Indirect lighting washes space rather than concentrating the focus on a particular object or specific spot. • Direct lighting aims specifically at the object. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 73
  • Lighting…4 • Down lighting is another technique used especially in larger space e.g.. Chandeliers. • It should also be considered that a 60 year old individual receives only 1/3rd the amount of light in his/her eyes in comparison with a 16 year old. • Equip your serving staff with a torch light. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 74
  • Lighting…5 • LEDs are revolutionizing the industry. • First used in the 1990s to illuminate appliances, remote control devices, and digital alarm clocks, they were soon adapted for traffic lights and signage and then for home and office lighting. • They’re now used in the brake-light systems of most automobiles 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 75
  • Measuring light…1 1. 1 Lumen = 1 foot of candle light from a uniform source also known as Luminous Flux. 2. 1 Lux is 1/10th of a foot candle. 3. Lux is a measure of luminous intensity. 4. A lumen = 0.0015 Watts 5. Its estimated that 50-70 foot candles of light is adequate for dining areas. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 76
  • Measuring light…2 1. Efficiency of light is how well it is reflected from any surface it falls on rather than being absorbed. 2. Efficacy of light is “How well” which is a Ratio of Light output/Power output measured in terms of Lumens/Watt. 3. Color rendering index (CRI) is defined as effect of light source on the color appearance of objects. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 77
  • Measuring light…3 1. The index measures the “naturalness” of artificial light compared to actual sunlight. A higher CRI (from 75 to 100) means a better color rendering. 2. So a CRI of 75 to 100 is considered excellent, while 60 to 75 is good, and below 50 is poor. Incandescent and halogen lamps have the highest CRI ratings; clear mercury lights usually have the lowest CRI ratings. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 78
  • Measuring light…4 Power Factor • Lighting devices are referred to as high power factor (HPF) or low power factor (LPF). • Finally, the power factor (PF) is a measurement of how efficiently a device uses power. • A new generation of fluorescents, known as T-5’s , can be paired with reflectors for better use of fewer lumens per watt than the popular T-8 fluorescents. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 79
  • Measuring light…5 Power Factor • A lamp that converts all the power supplied to it into watts without wasting any in the process has a power factor of 1. light. • Often lamps that require ballasts have a PF less than 1 (e.g., 0.60 or 0.90), because some of the electric current is used to create a magnetic field within the ballast, not to produce light. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 80
  • Incandescent Lighting 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 81
  • Low Power Lighting 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 82
  • High Power factor 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 83
  • Advantages of LED’s 1. Brighter than Incandescent. 2. Consume 80% less energy and produce very little heat. 3. Safe indoors and outdoors and do not require high loads of energy. 4. Last 10 times more than normal bulbs. 5. Disadvantage being a little expensive in comparison with traditional lighting methods 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 84
  • HVAC • Heat Ventilation and air conditioning. • Priorities are energy saving and environment friendly and environment effectiveness plus efficiency. • Key Environment factors being: • Indoor temperature/ Humidity Air movement/ Room surface temperature Air quality 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 85
  • Equipment in HVAC …2 • Furnaces (to produce hot air) Boilers (to produce hot air) Air conditioners (to produce cold air) Chillers (to produce cold air) Fans (to circulate and remove air) Ductwork (to move air) Filters (to clean air) 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 86
  • HVAC…3 • The HVAC system must also be flexible enough to change if environmental demands change, whether that means a change in season, a change in crowd size, or a change in building size. • Priorities in the system should be quick response and adaptability to changing environment and size of the establishment. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 87
  • HVAC…4 Air Types • Desiccant Air. Desiccants are drying agents, which may be included in the HVAC system to reduce humidity. Exhaust air. Air that must be removed from cooking sources or enclosed space. Once exhaust air has been removed from the building, it should not be reused. • The volume of air removal is measured in cubic feet per minute (cfm). 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 88
  • HVAC….5 Air Types • Make up air. Air that must be supplied to an area to replace the exhaust air that has been removed. Outdoor air. Air that is taken from outdoors. Return air. Air that is removed from an interior space, then returned to the HVAC system for recirculation or exhaust. Sometimes called re circulated air. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 89
  • HVAC….6 Air Types • Supply air. Air that is delivered to an area by the HVAC system. It may be used for ventilation. • Conditioned air. Air that has been cooled or heated mechanically (by HVAC) and released into the building’s interior. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 90
  • How do HVAC systems work..1 • The heating plant will use one of several heat sources: electricity, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), fuel oil, or steam. • The most commonly used is electricity but due to its shortage in India alternate fuel like High Speed diesel is used. • The best environmentally friendly option is CNG(Compressed Natural Gas). 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 91
  • How do HVAC systems work..2 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 92
  • The Working in HVAC Centralized Heating • Cold air from outside is drawn inside by fans and passes thru dust filters. • The Pre-heater takes cold air and begins the heating process. • This Pre-heater contains an element and a motor. It also acts as a dehumidifier. • The air is later blown by the fans which have their own motors. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 93
  • The Working in HVAC Centralized Heating • Parts and Essentials in the Heating System. • Ducts and vents or diffusers. • Dampers. • The filter. • The thermostat. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 94
  • Vapor Compression to refrigerate air • Metering device. • Evaporator • Compressor • Condenser 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 95
  • 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 96
  • How vapor compression works to refrigerate air…1 • The refrigerant (which is, at this point, about 75 percent liquid and 25 percent vapor) leaves the metering device and enters the evaporator. • The liquid evaporates as it moves along. • By the time it leaves the evaporator, it should be 100 percent vapor. (This is known as the saturation point of the refrigerant.) 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 97
  • How vapor compression works to refrigerate air….2 • The vapor is drawn into the compressor by the pumping action of pistons and valves. • It is superheated by the time it leaves the compressor, or the “high side” (meaning high pressure) of the system. • The hot vapor travels through more tubes to the condenser, where it begins to turn back into liquid. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 98
  • How vapor compression works to refrigerate air…..3 • Another fan is used here to help the condensing process, cooling the hot gas to help it return to its liquid state. • By the time the refrigerant reaches the end of the condenser coil, it should be 100 percent liquid again. • From here, an expansion valve controls the flow of the liquid refrigerant. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 99
  • How vapor compression works to refrigerate air…..4 • Its pressure drops as it is forced through the valve, which causes its temperature to drop. • The cold, low-pressure liquid refrigerant then cycles back into the evaporator and the process begins again. • For measurement purposes, one ton of refrigeration is equivalent to the energy required to melt one ton of ice. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 100
  • How vapor compression works to refrigerate air…..5 • Btu as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit. • The melting of one pound of ice absorbs 144 Btus, so the melting of one ton of ice (2000 pounds) would take: 144 (Btus) x 2000 (pounds per ton) / 24 (hours) = 12,000 Btus per hour 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 101
  • Advances in HVAC technology Students Assignment • Pipe Exchangers. • Ground source heat Pump geo-exchange technology. • Desiccant HVAC systems. • The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 102
  • Ventilation and Air Quality • The most important reason for ongoing maintenance of your HVAC system is its impact on air quality. • Assignment of Building related Illnesses(BRI). • Sick Building Syndrome(SBS). • Managing second hand smoke. • Clean Indoor air(CIA) Law California 1998 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 103
  • Air Quality Standards 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 104
  • Air Quality Standards • Indoor air quality (IAQ) has become a huge concern, prompting lawsuits and legislation on the state. • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency cites poor indoor air quality as a top public health risk. Americans spend 80 percent of their time indoors. • Many of today’s buildings are more tightly sealed than ever. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 105
  • Blowing Smoke…1 • According to the center for disease control only about 21 % of woman and 26 % of Men in the USA are smokers against an average of 45 % in the 1960’s. • The accommodation program from the tobacco industry to the Restaurant companies. • HVAC systems are capable of warding off smoke odors but not the harmful effects. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 106
  • Blowing Smoke…2 • It is estimated that workers in restaurants that allow smoking are exposed to three to five times more tobacco smoke than in other types of jobs; in bars, four to six times more tobacco smoke. • All airflow has a direction, and all HVAC systems have areas of positive pressure (to force air out) and negative pressure (to invite air in) 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 107
  • Blowing Smoke…2 • Any system’s positive and negative pressure and airflow can be drawn as a simple diagram called a pressure footprint. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 108
  • A more complex pressure footprint 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 109
  • HVAC System Maintenance…1 • Design Consideration, Evaluate durability • Preventive maintenance is an essential part of keeping your system working at its best, saving you the most money in the long run and prolonging the life of the system by as much as 10 years. • After a good cleaning and tune-up, your system will also automatically be up to 7 percent more energy efficient 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 110
  • HVAC System Maintenance…2 • Experts say the most common problems with HVAC systems are: • Loose belts. • Dirty air filters. • Poorly lubricated bearings. • Check thermostats for accuracy. • Motors lacquered and lubricated. • Act as per the season. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 111
  • HVAC System Maintenance…3 • Track your utility efficiency by automation. • Case study of Applebee’s company wide computerized system. • How electronic air cleaners work 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 112
  • HVAC System Maintenance…4 • There are many bargain filters rated as low as 25 percent, but the suggested minimum rating is from 65 to 85 percent and you can even get 95 percent ones. • These higher-rated filters are known as High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. For serious odour removal situations, an activated carbon filter adds an extra amount of effectiveness. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 113
  • HVAC System Maintenance…5 • Three basic responsibilities in setting your air quality standards: 1. To provide sufficient ventilation for basic indoor air quality, including control of odours, grease, and smoke. 2. To provide a comfortable environment, for both smokers and non-smokers 3. To minimize energy use and operating costs 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 114
  • Measures taken to achieve objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Before Construction. During Design. During Construction. During Start Up. Daily Maintenance. Monthly Maintenance. Quarterly Maintenance. Annual Maintenance. 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 115
  • Questions & Comments 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 116
  • Direct Reference • Design and Equipment for Restaurants and Food Service. A Management View • 3rd Edition. • Costas Katsigris • Chris Thomas. • Copyright 2009 John Wiley and Sons Hobken New Jersey. • ISBN: 978-0-471-76248-5 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 117
  • Web Links to the topic • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Restaurant Design and Environment(Lighting) http://hotelmule.com/html/20/n-2720.html Buying and Installing Food service Equipment http://hotelmule.com/html/32/n-2732.html Furniture, Furnishings and Equipment http://hotelmule.com/html/84/n-3184.html Restaurant Planning http://hotelmule.com/html/74/n-3174.html Restaurant Preparation Equipment - Broilers, Griddles, And Tilting Braising Pans http://hotelmule.com/html/36/n-2736.html Dishwashing and waste disposal http://hotelmule.com/html/39/n-2739.html Restaurant Preparation Equipment - Fryers And Fry Stations http://hotelmule.com/html/35/n-2735.html 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 118
  • Direct Reference • Design and Equipment for restaurants and food service: a management overview. • Costas/Katsigris/Chris Thomas.-3rd ed. • ISBN: 978-0-471-76248-5 • John Wiley and Sons 2009 • http://hotelmule.com/html/2/category-catid2-page-3.html 26/11/2013 BAC 5132 Food and Beverage Management-11 Menu Engg: Facilities Design 119